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IV 



DEP ; 5 1993 
FEB 12001 



The Catholic Encyclopedia 



VOLUME THIRTEEN 
Revelation— Simon Stock 



THE CATHOLIC 
ENCYCLOPEDIA 



AN INTERNATIONAL WORK OF REFERENCE 

ON THE CONSTITUTION, DOCTRINE, 

DISCIPLINE, AND HISTORY OF THE 

CATHOLIC CHURCH 



EDITED BY 

CHARLES G. HERBERMANN, Ph.D., LL.D. 

EDWARD A. PACE, Ph.D., D.D. CONDE B. PALLEN, Ph.D., LL.D. 

THOMAS J. SHAHAN, D.D. JOHN J. WYNNE, S.J. 

ASSISTED BY NUMEROUS COLLABORATORS 



FIFTEEN VOLUMES AND INDEX 
VOLUME XIII 



SPECIAL EDITION 

UNDER THE AUSPICES OP 

THE KNIGHTS OF COLUMBUS CATHOLIC TRUTH COMMITTEE 




THE ENCYCLOPEDIA PRESS, INC. 



Nihil Obstat, February 1, 1912 
REMY LAFORT, S.T.D. 



Imprimatur 

+JOHN CARDINAL FARLEY 

AKCHBISHOP OF NEW YORK 



Copyright, 1912 
By Robert Applkton Company 

Copyright, 1913 
By the encyclopedia PRESS, INC. 

The articles in this work have been wTitten specially for The CathoU< 
Encyclopedia and are protected by copyright. All rights, includ- 
ing the right of translation and reproduction, arc reserved. 




Contributors to the Thirteenth Volume 



ALBERS, P., S.J., Maastricht, Holland: Schaep- 
man, Herman J.A.M. 

AlDASY, ANTAL, Ph.D., Archivist of the Li- 
brary OF the National Museum, Budapest: 
Rosenau, Diocese of; Roskovd,nyi, August. 

ALLARIA, ANTHONY, C.R.L., S.T.D., Abbot of 
S. Theodoro, Lector of Philosophy and The- 
ology, Genoa: Saint Andrews, Priory of; Sainte- 
Genevieve, Abbey of; Saint- Victor, Abbey of. 

ALSTON, G. CYPRIAN, O.S.B., London: Rood; 
Saint Augustine, Abbey of ; Saint-Denis, Abbey of; 
Sanctuary; Schola Cantorum; Sedilia; Sherborne 
Abbey. 

ALVAREZ, JOSE MARIA, O.P., Prefect Apos- 
tolic of Shikoku, Japan: Shikoku. 

ALVES MARTINS, JOSE, S.T.D., Bishop of the 
Cape Verde Islands: Sao Thiago de Cabo 
Verde, Diocese of. 

AMADO, RAM6n RUIZ, S.J., LL.D., Ph.L., Col- 
lege OF St. Ignatius, Sarria, Barcelona : Sala- 
manca, Diocese and University of; Santander, 
Diocese of; Saragossa, Diocese of; Segorbe, Dio- 
cese of; Segovia, Diocese of; Seville, Archdio- 
cese of; Sigiienza, Diocese of. 

AYME, EDWARD L., M.D., New York: Rose of 

Lima, Saint. 

BACCHUS, FRANCIS JOSEPH, B.A., The Ora- 
tory, Birmingham, England: Rhodo; Rufinus 
Tyrannius; Ryder, Henry Ignatius Dudley. 

BARNES, MGR. ARTHUR STAPYLTON, M.A. 
(OxoN. and Cantab.), Cambridge, England: 
Saint Peter, Tomb of; Sexburga, Saint. 

BAUMGARTEN, MGR. PAUL MARIA, J.U.D., 
S.T.D., Rome: Saint Peter, Basihca of. 

BAUR, CHRYSOSTOM, O.S.B., Ph.D. (Louvain), 
Collegio di San Anselmo, Rome: Severian. 

BECHTEL, FLORENTINE, S.J., Professor op 
Hebrew and Sacied Scripture, St. Louis 
University, St. Louis, Missouri: Sabbath; 
Sabbatical Year. 

BEISSEL, JAMES *" C.SS.CC, Honolulu, Ha- 
waiian IsL/- Sandwich Islands, Vicariate 
Apostolic of tiiu. 

BENIGNI, MGR. UMBERTO, Prothonotary 
Apostolic Partecipante, Professor of Ec- 
clesiastical History, Pontificia Accademia 
DEI NoBiLi Ecclesiastici, Rome: Rienzi, Cola 
di; Rieti, Diocese of; Rimini, Council and Dio- 
cese of; Ripatransone, Diocese of; Roman Col- 
leges; Rome; Rome, University of; Rossano, 
Archdiocese of; Rossi, Pellegrino; Rota, Sacra 
Romana; Ruvo and Bitonto, Diocese of; Sabina, 
Diocese of; Saint Paul-without-the- walls; Sa- 
lerno, Diocese and University of; Saluzzo, Dio- 
cese of; San Marco and Bisignano, Diocese of; 
San Marino; San Martino al Cimino; San Mi- 
niato; Sardinia; San Severino; Sanseverino, Gae- 
tano ; San Severe, Diocese of ; Santa Agata dei Goti, 
Diocese of; Santa Lucia del Mela, Prefecture 



NuUius of; Sant' Angelo de' Lombardi, Diocese 
of; Sant' Angelo in Vado and Urbania, Diocese 
of; Santa Severina, Archdiocese of; Sardinia; 
Sarsina, Diocese of; Sassari, Archdiocese of; 
Savona and Noli, Diocese of; Segni, Diocese of; 
Sessa-Aurunca, Diocese of; Sicily; Siena, Arch- 
diocese and University of. 

BERGH, FREDERICK THOMAS, O.S.B., Abbot 

OF St. Augustine's, Carshalton, Surrey, 
England: Sarum Rite. 

BERTRIN, GEORGES, Litt.D., Fellow of the 
University, Professor of French Litera- 
ture, Institut Catholique, Paris: RoUin, 
Charles; Sevigne, Marie de Rabutin-Chantal, 
Madame de. 

BLAKELY, PAUL LENDRUN, S.J., St. Louis 
University, St. Louis, Missouri: Saint Louis, 
University of. 

BLUME, CLEMENS, S.J., Munich: Rhythmical 
Office. 

BOUDINHON, AUGUST-MARIE, S.T.D., D.C.L., 
Director, "Canoniste Contemporain", Pro- 
fessor OF Canon Law, Institut Catholique, 
Paris: Sanction; Secular Clergy; Secularization. 

BOYLE, PATRICK, CM., Superior of the Irish 
College, Paris: Schools, Apostolic. 

BRAUN, JOSEPH, S.J., St. Ignatius College, 
V/lkenburg, Holland: Rochet; Sandals, Epis- 
copal. 

BRENNAN, ANDREW J., S.T.D., Chancellor op 
THE Diocese of Scranton, Pennsylvania: 
Scranton, Diocese of. 

BROCK, HENRY M., S.J., Ore Place, Hastings, 
England: Riccioli, Giovanni Battista; Ruysch, 
John; Scheiner, Christopher; Schott, Caspar; 
Schwarz, Berthold. 

BROWN, CHARLES FRANCIS WEMYSS, Loch- 
ton Castle, Perthshire, Scotland: Samar and 
Leyte. 

BRUCKER, JOSEPH, S.J., Editor of "Etudes", 
Paris: Ricci, Matteo; Schall von Bell, Johann 
Adam. 

BUCHI, albert, Ph.D., Professor of History, 
University of Fribourg: Schinner, Matthajus. 

BURNS, JAMES A., C.S.C, Ph.D., President op 
Holy Cross College, Washington: Schools: 
In the United States. 

BURTON, EDWIN, S.T.D., F. R. Hist. Soc, Vice- 
President of St. Edmund's College, Ware, 
Engl.\nd: Revolution, English, of 16S8; Rey- 
nolds, William; Ricardus Anglicus; Richard of 
Cirencester; Richard of Cornwall; Richard of 
Middletown; Ripon, George Frederick Samuel 
Robinson, Marquess of; Rishnager, William; 
Rishton, Edward; Rivington, Luke; Robert of 
Jumieges; Robertson, James Burton; Rochester, 
Ancient See of; Rock, Daniel; Roger, Bishop of 
Worcester; Rokewode, John Gage; Rolle Rich- 
ard; Rolph, Thomas; Russell, Charles William: 



CONTRIBUTORS TO THE THIRTEENTH VOLUME 



Russell, Richard; Sadler, Thomas Vincent 
Faustus; Saint Asaph, Ancient See of ; Saint-John, 
Ambrose; Sala, George Augustus Henry; Salis- 
bury, Ancient See of; Sampson, Richard; Sande- 
manians; Seekers; Sergeant, John; Sheldon, Ed- 
ward; Sherwood, William; Shirwood, William; 
Simeon of Durham. 

BYRNE, JOSEPH, C.S.SP., Darien. Connecticut: 
Sierra Leone, Vicariate Apostolic of. 

CABROL, FERNAND, O.S.B., Abbot of St. Mi- 
ch.4.el's, F.utNBORorGH, England: Rubrics; 
Sext. 

CAHILL, JAMES A., S.J., Woodstock College, 
Maryland: Schoenberg, Matthias von; Schra- 
dcr, Clement. 

CALLAN, CHARLES J., O.P., S.T. L., Professor 
OF Philiosophy, Domi.vican House of Studies, 
Washington: Sacchoni, Rainerio; Silvester, 
Francis. 

CAMPBELL, WILLIAM, Editor of "The South- 
ern Messenger", San Antonio, Texas: San 
Antonio, Diocese of. 

C.\THREIN, VICTOR, S.J., Professor of Moral 
Philosophy, St. Ignatius College, Valken- 
burg, Holland: Right. 

CHABOT, JEAN-BAPTISTE, S.T.D., Director 
OF THE "Corpus Scriptorum Christianorum 
Orientalium", Paris: Semitic Epigraphy. 

CHANDLERY, PETER JOSEPH, S.J., Manresa 
House, Roehampton, London: Shrines of Our 
Lady and the Saints in Great Britain and Ireland. 

CHAPMAN, JOHN, O.S.B., B.A. (Oxon.), Prior of 
St. Thomas's Abbey, Erdington, Birmingham, 
England: Semi-Arians and Semi-Arianism. 

CHARLES, BROTHER, Principal, Cathedral 
School, Natchez, Mississippi: Sacred Heart, 
Brothers of the. 

CHOCjUETTE, MGR. CHARLES PHILIPPE 
CANON, M.A., L.Sc., President of the Sem- 
inary, St. Hyacinthe, Province of Quebec, 
Canada: Saint Hyacinthe, Diocese of. 

CLAYTON, JOSEPH, Hampstead, London: Sam- 
son. Abbot of St. Edmunds; Savaric; Simon of 
Suabury. 

CLEARY, GREGORY, O.F.M., J.C.D., J.Civ.D. 
S.T.L., Sometime Professor of Canon Law 
AND Moral THEOixKiY, St. Isidore's College, 
Rome: Koch, Saint; Rose of Viterbo, Saint; 
Scarampi, I^ierfrancosco. 

CLUGNET, JOSEPH-LfiON-TIBURCE, Lirr.L., 
Paris: I{x>cama<lour. 

CORMACK, GE0IU;E, i.e., hector, St. Joseph's 
Monahteky, Clonmel, Ireland: HoKmini and 
RoHminianiHm (AnU^nio RoHmini-Scrbati). 

CRIVELLI, CAMILLUS, S.J., Professor of Phi- 

LCiHOPHY A.ND HlHTORY, I.NHTITUTO CiENtIfICO 

DE San Josfe, Guadalajara, Mexico: Saltillo, 
Dioww of. 

CUTHBEHT, FATHER, O.S.F.C^ St. Anbelm'h 
HouKK, Oxford: }i\Uw. Friar Minor Capuchin. 

D'ALTON, E. A., Canon, LL.D M.H.I. A., Bai^ 
link^jbe, Ireland: Kinuccini, Giovanni Battista; 
lioman Catholic liclicf Bill: In Ireland; Saru- 
ficld, Patrick. 



DE BROECK, WILLIAM, C.SS.CC, Braine-le- 
Coaite, Belgium: Sacred Hearts of Jesus and 
Mary, Congregation of the. 

DEDIEU, JOSEPH, Litt.D., Institut Catholique, 
Toulouse: Rusticus of Narboime, Saint. 

DEGERT, ANTOINE, Lirr.D., Editor of "La 
Revue de la Gascoigne", Profe.ssor of Latin 
Literature, Institut Catholique, Toulouse: 
Sainctes, Claude de; Saturninus, Saint; S6gur, 
Louis-Gaston de. 

DELAI\L\RRE, LOUIS N., Ph.D., Instructor in 
French, Colle(;e of the City of New York: 
Rocliette, Desirc-Raoul; Ronsard, Pierre de; 
Rousseau, Jean-Baptiste; Scarron, Paul. 

DELANY, FRANCIS X., S. J., Woodstock Col- 
lege, Maryland: Scheffmacher. John James; 
Schneemann, Gerard. 

DELANY, JOSEPH, S.T.D., New York: Sacrilege; 
Scruple; Secret; Seduction. 

DERACHES, JULES, Santa Fe, New Mexico: 
Santa Fe, Archdiocese of. 

DEVITT, E. J., S.J., Professor of Psychology, 
Georgetown, Washington: Sestini, Benedict. 

DE WULF, MAURICE, Ph.D., LL.D., J.U.D., 
Profe.ssor of the University of Louvain, 
Member of Royal Belgian Academy, Editor 
OF the "Revue Neo-Schola.stique de Philoso- 
phie", Brussels: Rocelin; Siger de Brabant. 

DONOVAN, STEPHEN M., O.F.M., St. Bonaven- 
ture's Seminary, St. Bon.wenture, New 
York : Saint Bonaventure, CoUege of. 

DOYLE, JAMES, Editor of "The Catholic Reg- 
ister", San Thome, Madras, India: Saint 
Thomas of Mylapur, Diocese of. 

DRISCOLL, JAMES F., S.T.D., New Rochelle, 
New York: Sabaoth; Sadducces; Salome; Sam- 
son; Sara; Saul; Scribes: Simeon; Simeon, Holy; 
Simon of Cremona. 

DRISCOLL, JOHN THOMAS, M.A., S.T.L., 
Fonda, New York: Shamanism. 

DRUM, WALTER, S.J., Professor op Hebrew 
AND Sacred Scripture, Woodstock College, 
Maryland: Rhymed Bibles; Salmeron, Al- 
phonsus; Seven-Branch Candlestick; Shammai 
the Elder. 

DUBRAY, C.A., S.M., S.T.B., Ph.D., Professor of 
Philosophy, Marist College, Washington: 
Scalimoli; Secularism. 

DUBRUEL, MARC, S.J., Bordeaux, France: 
Sacred Ileart of Jesus, Society of the. 

DUHEM, PIERRE, Professor of Theoretical 
Physics, University of Bordeaux: Saxc, Jean 
de; Saxony, Albert of. 

DUIIIG, JAMES, S.T.D., Bishop of Rockhampton, 
Australia: Rockhampton, Diocese of . 

ELDER, SUSAN B., New Orleans, Louisiana: 
Rou(ju('tte, Adrian. 

ELLIS, JOHN HENRY, Sacramento, California: 

Sacramcntf), Diocesf? of. 

ENGELHARDT, ZEPIIYHIN, O.F.M., Santa 
Barbara, California: Sdnchez, Joh6 Bernardo; 
Sefian, Job6 Francisco de Paula; Serra, Junipcro. 



CONTRIBUTORS TO THE THIRTEENTH VOLUME 



FANNING, WILLIAM H. W., S.J., Professor of 
Church History and Canon Law, St. Louis 
University, St. Louis, Missouri: Scrutiny; 
Sexton, 

FERN^CnDEZ, ISIDOR, Canon, Vicar-General 
OF THE Diocese of San Juan, Argentina: San 
Juan, Diocese of. 

FINEGAN, PHILIP M., S.J., College of the 
Ateneo, Manila, Philippine Islands: Rizal, 
Jose Mercado; Salazar, Domingo de; Sdnchez, 
Alonso. 

FLAHERTY, MATTHEW J., M.A. (Harvard), 
Concord, Massachusetts: Sheil, Richard La- 
lor. 



FLANAGAN, JOHN J., Ph.D. 
NOis: Rockford, Diocese of. 



Rockford, Illi- 



FORD, JEREMIAH, D.M., M.A., Ph.D., Pro- 
fessor OF the French and Spanish Lan- 
guages, Harvard University, Cambridge, 
Massachu.setts: Rodrigues Ferreira, Alexandre; 
Selgas y Carrasco, Jos6. 

FORGET, JACQUES, Professor of Dogmatic 
Theology and the Syriac and Arabic Lan- 
guages, University of Louvain: Schism. 

FORTESCUE, ADRIAN, Ph.D., S.T.D., Letch- 
worth, Hertfordshire, England: Rites; Rit- 
ual; Roman Rite, The; Sanctus; Schism,Eastern; 
Secret. 

FOURNET, PIERRE AUGUSTE, S.S., M.A., Mon- 
treal: Robert, Saint; Saint-Sulpice, Society of. 

FOX, JAMES J., S.T.D., Professor of Philosophy, 
St. Thomas's College, Washington: Self- 
Defence. 

FOX, WILLIAM, B.Sc, M.E., Associate Pro- 
fessor OF Physics, College of the City of 
New York: Senef elder, Aloys. 

ERASER, MGR. ROBERT, S.T.D., LL.D., Pro- 
thonotary Apostolic, Scots College, Rome: 
Scots College, The. 

FRAN^ON, A., New Orleans, Louisiana: Sieni, 
Cyril. 

FUENTES, VENTURA, B.A., M.D., Instructor, 
Colle(;e of the City of New York: Kojays 
Zorrilla, Francisco de; Ruiz do Alarc6n y Men- 
dozix, Juan do; Saavedra Remirez de Baque- 
dano. Angel de; San Salvador. 

GANCEVIC, ANTHONY LAWRENCE, O.F.M., 
Ph.D., S.T.D., Franciscan College, Sinj, 
Dalmatia, Austria: Sappa, Diocese of; Scopia, 
Archdiocese of; Scutari, Archdiocese of. 

GERARD, JOHN, S.J., F.L.S., London: Roman 
Catholic Relief Bill: In England. 

GIETMANN, GERHARD, S.J., Teacher of Clas- 
sical Languages .'\nd Esthetics, St. Ignatius 
College, Valkenburg, Holland: Riemen- 
schneider, Tillman; Robert of Luzarches; Rococo 
Style; Rumohr, Karl Friedrich; Ransovino, An- 
drea Contucoi del; Schadow, Friedrich Wilhclm; 
Schmidt, Friedrich von; Schraudolph, Johann; 
Schwan thaler, Ludwig von; Schwind, Moritz 
von; Seitz, Alexander Maximilian. 



GIGOT, FRANCIS E., S.T.D., Professor of Sa- 
cred Scripture, St. Joseph's Seminary, Dun- 
wooDiE, New York: Ruben; Ruth, Book of; Sa, 
Manoel de; Scholz, John Martin Augustine; Sera- 
phim; Seripando, Girolamo. 

GILDAS, M., O.C.R., La Trappe, Quebec, Canada: 
Robert of Molesme, Saint. 

GILLET, LOUIS, Paris: Ribera, Jusepe de. 

GOGGIN, J. F., S.T.D., Ph.D., St. Bernard's Sem- 
inary, Rochester, New York: Sacristan. 

GOYAU, GEORGES, Associate Editor, "Revue 
DES Deux Mondes", Paris: Revolution, French; 
Richard de la Vergne, Fran^ois-Marie-Benjamin; 
Richelieu, Armand-Jean du Plessis, Cardinal, 
Duke de; Rodez, Diocese of; Rouen, Archdiocese 
of; Royer-CoUard, Pierre-Paul; Sahara, Vicari- 
ate Apostolic of; Saint Bartholomew's Day; 
Saint-Brieuc, Diocese of; Saint-Claude, Diocese 
of; Saint-Denis, Diocese of; Saint-Di<5, Diocese 
of; Saint-Flour, Diocese of; Saint-Jean-de-Mau- 
rienne. Diocese of; Saint-Simon, Louis de Rou- 
vToy, Due de; Saint-Simon and Saint-Simonism; 
Savary; Seez, Diocese of; Sens, Archdiocese and 
Councils of. 

GRANJON, HENRY R. M., S.T.D., Ph.D., J.C.D., 

Bishop of Tucson, Arizona: San Xavier del 
Bac, Mission of. 

GRATTAN-FLOOD, W. H., M.R.I.A., Mus.D., 
RosEMouNT, Exniscorthy, Ireland: Konan, 
Saint; Ross, Diocese of; Rothe, David; Ruadhan, 
Saint; Schubert, Franz; Sechnall, Saint; Senan, 
Saint; Shepherd, John. 

GRIFFIN, PATRICK JOSEPH, O.S.M., Chicago, 
Illinois: Rites: Servite; Servites, Order of. 

GRUBER, HERMANN, S.J., Stella Matutina 
College, Feldkirch, Austria: Rosicrucians. 

GULDNER, BENEDICT, S.J., St. Joseph's Col- 
lege, Philadelphia: Schmid, Christoph von. 

IIAGEN, JOHN G., S.J., Vatican Observatory, 
Rome: Science and the Church. 

HANDLEY, MARIE LOUISE, New York: Robbia, 
Andrea della; Robbia, Luca di Simone della; 
Rovczzano, Benedetto da; Settignano, Desiderio 
da; Simone da Orsenigo. 

HANRAHAN, JOHN C, O.F.M.. Rector, St. Isi- 
dore's College, Rome : Saint Isidore, College of. 

HARRIS, WILLIAM RICHARD, S.T.D., LL.D., 
Editor of "The Intermountain Catholic", 
Salt Lake City, Utah: Salt Lake, Diocese of. 

HARTIGAN, J. A., S.J., Litt.D., Ore Place, 
Hastings, England: Saba and Sabeans. 

HASSETT, MGR. MAURICE M., S.T.D., Harris- 
burg, Pennsylvania: Rings: II. The Ring of 
the Fisherman; Scillium, Martyrs of. 

HEALY, JOHN, S.T.D., LL.D, M.R.I.A., Arch- 
bishop OF TuAM, Senator of the Royal Uni- 
versity of Ireland: Ross, School of. 



CONTRIBUTORS TO THE THIRTEENTH VOLTTME 



HEALY, PATRICK J., S.T.D., Assistant Pro- 
fessor OF Church History, Catholic Univer- 
sity OF America, Washington: Sardica, Coun- 
cils of; Seleucians; Serapion, Bishop of Antioch; 
Sibylline Oracles; Sicard, Bishop of Cremona. 

HECKMANX, FERDINAND, O.F.M., St. Jo- 
seph's College, Callicoon, New York: Rites: 
Franciscan; Seraphim of Montegranaro: Sera- 
phina Sforza, Blessed. 

HENNESSY, BROTHER PATRICK JEROME, 
St. Mary's, Marino, Dublin: Rice, Edmund 
Ignatius. 

HENRY, H.T., Lrrr.D., LL.D., Rector of Rom.'vn 
Catholic High School, Philadelphia; Pro- 
fessor of English Literature and Gregorian 
Chant. St. Charles's Seminary, Overbrook, 
Pennsylvania: Rex Glorioso MartjTum: Rex 
Sempiterne Ca'Utum; Rorate Ccrli; Rosarj-, Bre- 
viary Hymns of the; Sacra Jam Splendent; Sacris 
Solemniis; Salve Mundi Salutare; Salve Regina; 
Salvete Christi Vulnera; Sanctorum Meritis. 

HERBERT, JOHN ALEXANDER, Assistant in 
the Department of Manuscripts, British 
Museum, London: RufTord Abbey. 

HICKEY, DANIEL, I. C, B.A. (London), New- 
port, England: Rosmini and Rosminianism 
(The Rosminian Sj'stem). 

HILGERS, JOSEPH, S.J., Rome: Sabbatine Privi- 
lege; Scapular; Simon Stock, Saint. 

HOEBER, KARL, Ph.D., Editor, "Volkszei- 
tung" and "Akademische Monatsblatter", 
Cologne: Romulus Augustulus; Rostock, Uni- 
versity of; Septimius Severus. 

HOWLEY, MICHAEL FRANCIS, Archbishop of 
St. John's, Newfoundland: Saint John's, Arch- 
diocf^se of. 

HUDLESTON, GILBERT ROGER, O.S.B., Down- 
side Abbey, Bath, England: Richard de 
Wyche, Saint; Richard Fetherston, Bles.sed; 
Richard Whiting, Bles.sed; Roberts, John, Ven- 
erable; Saint Albans, Abbey of; Saint Ouen, Ab- 
bey of; SanLson, Saint; Scriptorium; Sigebert, 
Saint. 



KAMPERS, FRANZ, Ph.D.. Professor of Me- 
dieval and Modern Church History, Uni- 
versity of Breslau: Richer; Rudolph of Habs- 
burg; Sigismund, King of Germany. 

KEILEY, JARVIS, M.A , Grantwood, New Jer- 
sey: Rochambeau, Jean-Baptiste-Donation de 



Vimeur, Comte 
Shields, James. 



de; Savannah, Diocese of; 



KELLY, BLANCHE M., New York: Sacristan, sub- 
title Altar Societies; Sale, Diocese of; Schools, 
Clerks Regular of the Pious; Senegambia, Vicari- 
ate ApostoUc of; Simon of Cascia, Blessed. 

KELLY, JOSEPH, Oxton, Birkenhead, England: 
Shrewsbury, Diocese of. 

KENDAL, JAMES, S.J., Bulawayo, Rhodesia, 
South Africa- Rhodesia" Silveira, Gon^alo da. 
Venerable. 

KENNEDY, DANIEL J., O.P., S.T.M., Professor 
of Sacramental Theology, Catholic Uni- 
versity of America, Washington : Sacraments. 

KENNY, MICHAEL, S.J., Associate Editor of 
"America", New York: Russell, Charles. 

KENT, W. H., O.S.C, B.^YSWATER, London: Sab- 
batarians; Sabbatarianism. 

KIRSCH, MGR. JOHANN P., S.T.D., Professor 
of Patrology and Christian Archeology, 
University of Fribourg: Romanus, Saints; 
Rosate, Alberico de; Rufina, Saints; Rufinus, 
Saint; Rufus, Saints; Ruinart, Thierry; Savona- 
rola, Girolamo; Seven Deacons; Silverius, Saint, 
Pope; Simonians; Simon Magus. 

KLEINSCHMIDT, BEDA, O.F.M., Bonn, Ger- 
many: Rio, Alexis Francois; Sanctuary; San 
Gallo; Sculpture. 

KRIEHN, GEORGE, B.A., Ph.D., New York: San 
Sepolcro, Piero da; Sculpture: In England. 

LAUCHERT, FRIEDRICH, Ph.D., Aachen: Rol- 
fus, Hermann; Sambuga, Joseph Anton; Schazler, 
Constantine, Baron von; Scherer-Boccard, Theo- 
dore, Count von; Seckau, Diocese of. 



HULL, ERNEST R., S.J., Editor of "The Ex- 
aminee", Bombay, India: Sikhism; Simla, Arch- 
diocese of. 

HUNTER-BLAIR, sir D.O., BART.,O.S.B.,M.A., 
Fort Augustus Abbey, Scotland: Saint 
Andrews and Ii>iinburi:h. Archdiocese of; Scot- 
Land; Scotland, P>fitablishefi Church of; Scoto- 
Hibemian Monasteries. 

HUONDER, ANTHONY, S.J., St Ignatius Col- 
lege, Valkenburg, Holland: Roth, Heinrich; 
Ruiz i\i' Montoya, Antonio. 

ISIDORE, BROTHER, Provincial of the Xaver- 

lAN BRr/FHERH, MoUNT SaINT JoREPH CoLLEGE, 

Baltimore, Maryland: Ryken, Theodore James. 

JONFii, W. A., O.S.A., S.T.D., Bishop of Porto 
l{ico: Sant/< Domingo, Archdiocese of. 

JOYCE, GEORGE H.AYWARD, S.J., MA. (Oxon.), 
St. Beuno'h College, St. Asaph, Wales; Reve- 
lation; Sanctity, Mark of the Church. 



LECLERCQ, 

mentals. 



HENRI, O.S.B., London: Sacra- 



LEDUC, HIPPOLYTE, O.M.I., Vicar-General of 
the Diocese of St. Albert, Alberta, Canada: 
Saint Albert, Diocese of. 

LEHMKUHL, AUGUSTINUS, S.J., St. Ignatius 
College, Valkenburg, Holland: Sdnchez, 
Thomas. 

LEJAY, PAUL, Fellow of the University of 
France; Professor, In.stitut Catholique, 
Paris: Salutati, Coluccio di Pierio di; Salvianus; 
Sannazaro, Jacopo; Scaliger, Julius Caisar; Sc- 
dulius; Severus Sanctus Endelechius; Sidonius 
Apollinaris. 

LENNOX, PATRICK JOSEPH, B.A., Professor 
OK THE English Language and Literature, 
Catholic University of America, Washing- 
ton: I{i<rh;ird fie Bury; Scotland, subtitle Scot- 
tish Literature. 



CONTRIBUTORS TO THE THIRTEENTH VOLUME 



LETELLIER, A., S.S.S., Superior, Fathers of the 
Blessed Sacrament, New York: Servants of 
the Most Blessed Sacrament, Congregation of 
the 

LINDSAY, LIONEL ST. GEORGE, B.Sc, Ph.D., 
Editor-in-Chief, "La Nouvelle France", 
Quebec: Rimouski, Diocese of; Sagard, Theodat- 
Gabriel; Saint-Pierre and Miquelon, Prefecture 
Apostolic of; Saint- Vallier, Jean-Baptiste de. 

LINNENKAMP, MGR. CHRISTOPHER, Vicar- 
General OF THE Diocese of St. Joseph Mis- 
souri: Saint Joseph, Diocese of. 

LINS, JOSEPH, Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany: 
Rhajtia, Prefecture Apostolic of; Roermond, Dio- 
cese of; Rottenburg, Diocese of; Rumania; Saint 
Gall, Diocese of; Saint Petersburg; Savoy; 
Schleswig-Holstein; Servia; Siberia. 

LOFFLER, KLEMENS, Ph.D., Librarian, Uni- 
versity of monster: Rimbcrt, Saint; Sabina, 
Saint; Samogitia, Diocese of; Schiiftlan; Schan- 
nat, Johann Friedrich; Schedel, Hartmann; 
Schonborn Family; Schorlemer-ALst, Burghard, 
Freiherr von; Sebastian, Saint; Sergius and Bac- 
chus; Sigebert of Gembloux; Silesia; Silvia, Saint; 
Simon, Saint and Apostle. 

MAAS, A. J., S.J., Rector, Woodstock College, 
Maryland: Salvation; Scripture. 

MacAULEY, PATRICK J., Belfast, Ireland: 
Serena, La, Diocese of. 

MacERLEAN, ANDREW A., New York: Rio- 
bamba. Diocese of; Rio Negro, Prefecture Apos- 
tolic of; Sacred Heart of Jesus, Missionary Sis- 
ters of the; Saint Thomas, Diocese of; Saint 
Thomas of Guiana, Dioce-se of; San Le6n del 
Amazonas, Prefecture Apostolic of: San Salva- 
dor, Diocese of; Santa Fe, Diocese of; Santa 
Maria, Diocese of; Santa Maria de Monscrrato, 
Abbey Nullius of; Santa Marta, Diocese of; Sao 
Luiz de Caceres, Diocese of; Sao Luiz do Mar- 
anhdo, Diocese of; Sao Salvador de Bahia de 
Todos OS Santos, Archdiocese of. 

McGEE, JOSEPH CHARLES, Ph.D., Albert 
Mines, Province of Quebec, Canada: Sher- 
brooke. Diocese of. 

McHUGH, JOHN AMBROSE, O.P., S.T.L., Lector 
of Philosophy, Dominican House of Studies, 
Washington: Ricoldo da Monte di Croce; Rossi, 
Berbardo de. 

McNeill, CHARLES, Dublin: Roscommon. 

MACPHERSON, EWAN, New York: Santiago del 
Estero, Diocese of. 

MAERE, R., S.T.D., Professor of Christian 
Archaeology, University of Louvain: Schel- 
strate, Emmanuel; Selvaggio, Giulio Lorenzo; 
Seroux d'Agincourt, Jean-Baptiste. 

MAGNIER, JOHN, C.SS.R., St. Mary's, Clapham, 
London: Sarnelli, Januarius Maria. 

MAORI, F. JOSEPH, M.A., S.T.D., Richmond, 
Virginia: Richmond, Diocese of. 

MAHER, MICHAEL, S.J., Litt.D., M.A. (Lond.), 
Director of Studies and Professor of Peda- 
gogics, Stonyhurst College, Blackburn, 
England: Schools: In England: In Scotland. 



MANN, HORACE K., Headmaster, St. Cuth- 
bert's Grammar School, Newcastle-on- 
Tyne, England: Romanus, Pope; Sabinianus, 
Pope; Sergius I, Saint, Pope; Sergius II, III, IV, 
Popes; Severinus, Pope. 

MARIQUE, PIERRE JOSEPH, In.structor in 
French, College of the City of New York: 
Segur, Sophie Rostopchine, Comtesse de. 

ARSH, ERNEST, S.C, New York: Salesian So- 
ciety, The. 

MAYER, JOHANN GEORGE CANON, D.C.L., 
Regent and Professor of the Seminary, 
Chur, Switzerland: Saint Lucius, Monastery 
of. 

MEEHAN, ANDREW B., S.T.D., J.U.D., Pro- 
fessor OF Canon Law and Liturgy, St. Ber- 
nard's Seminary, Rochester, New York: 
Revocation; Romanos Pontifices; Sacristy; 
Schmalzgrueber, Francis Xavier; Sentence; 
Servus servorum Dei. 

MEEHAN, THOMAS F., Member of the Board op 
Directors, Brooklyn Public Library, Brook- 
lyn, New York: Rosecrans, WiUiam Stark; 
Sadher, Mary Anne Madden; Sands, Benjamin 
and James; San Francisco, Archdiocese of; 
Scammon, Ellakim Parker; Semmes, Raphael; 
Sheridan, Philip Henry. 

MELANgON, ARTHUR, S.J., Archivist, St. 
Mary's College, Montreal: Sault Sainte 
Marie, Diocese of. 

MERK, august, S.J., Professor of Apolo- 
getics, St. Ignatius College, Valkenburg, 
Holland: Romans, Epistle to the. 

MERSHMAN, FRANCIS, O.S.B., S.T.D., Pro- 
fessor OF Moral Theology, Canon Law, and 
Liturgy, St. John's College, Collegeville, 
Minnesota: Rita of Cascia, Saint; Rogation 
Days; Rosalia, Saint; Salt; Schlor, Aloysius; 
Septuagesima; Sexagesima. 

METZ, WILLIAM J., LL.B., Uniontown, Wash- 
ington: Seattle, Diocese of. 

MINGES, PARTHENIUS, O.F.M., S.T.L., Ph.D., 
Prefect, College of St. Bonaventure| 
Quaracchi, Florence, Italy: Scotism and 
Scotists. 

MOELLER, CH., Professor of General History, 
University of Louvain: Saint George, Orders 
of; Saint James of Compostela, Order of; Saint 
Sylvester, Order of. 

MONTANAR, VALENTINE HILARY, Mission- 
ary APO.STOLIC, New York: Shan-si, Vicariates 
Apostolic of Northern and Southern ; Shan-tung, 
Vicariates Apostolic of Northern, Eastern, and 
Southern; Shen-si, Vicariates Apostolic of North- 
ern and Southern. 

MONTES DE OCA Y OBREGON, JOSE MARfA 
IGNACIO, S.T.D., LL.D., Bishop of San Luis 
PoTosI, Administrator Apostolic of Tam- 
AULiPAS, Domestic Prelate to His Holiness 
and Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, 
Knight Grand Cross of the Holy Sepul- 
chre, Knight of Isabella the Catholic, K.C. 
ofCharlks the Third, Memberokthe Madrid 
Academy of Languages and History, San 
Luis PoTosi, M exico : San Luis Potosi, Diocese of. 



CONTRIBUTORS TO THE THIRTEENTH VOLUME 



MOONEY, JAMES, United States Ethnologist, 
Bureau of American Ethnology, Washing- 
ton: Ribas, Andres Perez de; Romero, Juan; 
Sahagun, Bernardino de; Sahaptin Indians; 
Saint-Oisme, Jean Francois Buisson de; Saint 
Francis Mission; Saliva Indians; Salvatierra 
Juan Maria; Sainuco Indians; Sanetch Indians; 
Sarayacii Mission; Sechelt Indians; Sena, Bal- 
thasar; Seneca Indians; Setebo Indians; Shus- 
wap Indians; Siletz Indians. 

MORENO-LACALLE, JULIAN, B.A., Editor, 
"Pan-American Union", Washington: Ribei- 
rao Preto. Diocese of; Saint Mark, University of; 
San Jose de Costa Rica, Diocese of; Santa Catha- 
rina, Diocese of; Santarem, Prelature Nullius 
of; Sao Carlos do Pinhal, Diocese of; Sao Paulo, 
Archdiocese of; Sao Sebastiao do Rio de Janeiro, 
Archdiocese of. 

MORICE, A. G., B.A., O.M.I., Lecturer in An- 
thropology, University of Saskatchewan, 
Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada: Saint Boniface, 
Archdiocese of; Saskatchewan and Alberta; Se- 
ghers, Charles John; Sekanais. 

MORIS, JAMES, C.SS.R., Vicar-General of the 
Diocese of Roseau, British West Indies: 
Roseau, Diocese of. 

Mt)LLER, HERMANN, S.T.D., Professor of 
Theology, University of Paderborn: 
Schoningh. 

MULRY, THOMAS M., K.S.G., New York: Saint 
Vincent de Paul, Society of. 

MURPHY, ANDREW, Senator of the National 
University of Ireland, Editor, "Irish Edu- 
cational Review", Limerick, Ireland: 
Schools: In Ireland. 

NOLAN, RICHARD S., B.A. (Trinity College, 
Dublin), London: Seal of Confession. 



OTT, MICHAEL, O.S.B., Ph.D., Professor of the 
History of Philosophy, St. John's College, 
Collegeville, Minnesota: Rites: Benedictine; 
Rouen, Synods of; Sabbas, Saint; Saint Bene- 
dict, Medal of; Sarpi, Paolo; Schenkl, Maurus 
von; Schenute; Scholliner, Hermann; Schotten- 
kloster; Schram, Dominic; Schwane, Joseph; 
Seven Robbers; Sfondrati, Celestino. 

OTTEN, JOSEPH, Pittsburg, Pennsylvania: 
Rheinberger, Joseph Gabriel; Rueckers, Family 
of. 

PACE, EDWARD A., Ph.D., S.T.D., Professor of 
Philosophy, Catholic University of America, 
Washington: Robinson, William Callyhan; Sa- 
tolli, Francesco. 



S.T.D., Rome: 



PALMIERI, AURELIO, O.S.A., 
Russia; Sandomir, Diocese of. 



PELOQUIN, ZEPHYRIN, M.S.C., Watertown, 
New York: Sacred Heart of Jesus, Missionaries 
of the. 

PEREZ, GOYENA ANTONIO, S.J., Editor of 
"Raz6n y Fe", Madrid: Ripalda, Juan Mar- 
tinez de; Ruiz de Montoya, Diego. 

PERRIER, PHILIPPE, S.T.D., J.U.D., Montreal: 
Schools: In Canada. 

*PfiTRIDES, SOPHRONE, A.A., Professor, 
Greek Catholic Seminary of Kadi-Keui, 
Constantinople: Rhaphana?na; Rhesaena, Rhi- 
nocolura; Rhithymna; Rhizus; Rhodiopolis; Rho- 
sus; Rosea; Rusaddir; Rusicade; Ruspe; Sabrata; 
Sagalassus; Salamis; Sasima; Satala; Sauatra; 
Scillium; Sebaste; Sebastopolis; Selge; Sclinus; 
Selymbria; Serrae; Sicca Veneria; Si don; Sidy ma; 
Silandus. 

PHILLIMORE, JOHN SWINNERTON, M.A. 
(OxoN.), Profes.sor of Humanities, Univer- 
sity of Glasgow: Romanos, Saint; Saint An- 
drews, University of. 



OBRECHT, EDMOND M., O.C.R., Abbot of 
Gethsemani, Kentucky: Rievaulx, Abbey of; 
Rit«s: Ci-stercian; Saints Vincent and Anastasius, 
Abbey of; Salem; Savigny, Abbey of; Senanque; 
Sept-Fons, Notre Dame de Saint-Lieu; Silence. 

O'CONNOR, JOHN B., O.P., St. Louis Bertrand's 
Conve.n't, Louisville, Kentucky: Riccardi, 
Nicholas. 

O'DEA, WILLIAM, Manchester, England: Sal- 
ford, Diocese of. 

OJETTI, BENEDF:TT0, S.J., CoNSULTOR, S.C.P.F., 
Constltok, S.C.C, Consultor of the Commis- 
sion ON the Codification of Canon Law, 
Gregorian Umversity, Rome: Roman Congre- 
gations, The; Roman Curia. 

OLIGER, LIVARIUS, O.F.M., Lector of Church 
HrKTORY, CoLLEGio S. Antonio, Rome: Richard; 
iScala Sancta; Sedia GeHtaU)ria. 



PLASSMAN, THOMAS, O.F.M., Ph.D., S.T.D., St. 
Bonaventure's Seminary, St. Bonaventurb, 
New York: Sem. 

POHLE, JOSEPH, S.T.D., Ph.D., J.C.L., Pro- 
fessor of Dogmatic Theology, University of 
Breslau: Ritschlianism; Sacrifice; Secchi, An- 
gelo; Semipelagianism. 

POLLARD, WILLIAM HENRY, B.A. (Univ. op 
Lond.); Vice-Rector, Ratcliffe College, 
Leicester, England: Rosminians. 

POLLEN, JOHN HUNGERFORD, S.J., London: 
Sabran, Louis de; Sander, Nicholas; Sharpe, 
James. 



POULAIN, AUGUSTIN, 
Private. 



S.J., Paris: Revelations, 



QUIRK, JOHN F., S.J., Georgetown University, 
WAKHiNtiTON: Sarbiewski, Mathias Casimir. 



OLT>ION, HENRY, Lirr.D., Professor, Faculty 
Libre dek Lettkek, University of Lyons: 
Scaramelli, Giovanni Battista. 

O'NEILL, ANDREW J., M.A., Silver Falia New 
Brunswick, Canada: Saint John, Diocc«c of. 



RAINER, MGR. JOSEPH, V.G., Prothonotary 
AposTf)Lic, Rector, St. Francis Provincial 
Seminary, Professor, Sacred Scripture and 
Hebrew, St. Francis, Wisconsin: Salzmann, 
Joseph. 

* Deceaecd. 



CONTRIBUTORS TO THE THIRTEENTH VOLUME 



RANDOLPH, BARTHOLOMEW, C.IVI., M.A., 
Teacher OF Philosophy and Church History, 
St. John's College, Brooklyn, New York: 
Seton, Elizabeth Ann; Seton, William. 

REAGAN, NICHOLAS, O.F.M., Collegio S. An- 
tonio, Rome : Siloe. 

REMY, ARTHUR F. J., M.A., Ph.D., Adjunct Pro- 
fessor OF Germanic Philology, Columbia 
University, New York: Rudolf von Ems; Saxo 
Grammaticu.s. 

REVILLE, JOHN CLEMENT, S.J., Professor of 
Rhetoric and Sacred Eloquence, St. Stanis- 
laus College, Macon, Georgia: Scherer, 
Georg; Segneri, Paolo. 

REVILLE, STEPHEN, S.T.D., Bishop of Sand- 
hurst, Australia: Sandhurst, Diocese of. 

RODRfGUEZ Y FERNANDEZ, TEODORO, 
O.S.A., S.T.M., L.Sc, Rector, University of 
THE EscoRiAL, Spain: Santiago, University of; 
Saragossa, University of; Seville, University of; 
Sigiienza, University of. 

RYAN, PATRICK, S.J., London: Rigby, Nicholas; 
Ritter, Henry. 

RYAN, WILFRID, S.J., Milltown Park, Dublin: 
Schools: In Austraha. 

RYBROOK, G., Ord. Pr.em., Professor of Moral 
Theology and Sacred Scripture, St. Nor- 
bert's Priory, West de Pere, Wisconsin: 

Rites: Premonstratensian. 

RYO, JEAN MARIE, Nguludi Mission, Nyassa- 
land, Africa: Shire, Vicariate Apostolic of. 

SACHER, HERMANN, Ph.D., Editor of the 
"Konvers.\tionslexikon", Assistant Editor 
of the "Staatslexikon" of the Gorresge- 
SELLscHAFT, Freiburg-im-Breisgau, Germany: 
Saxe-Altenburg; Saxe-Coburg and Gotha; Saxe- 
Meiningen; Saxe- Weimar -P^iscnach; Saxony; 
Schaumburg-Lippe; Schwarzburg. 

SALEMBIER, LOUIS CANON, S.T.D., Professor 
of Church History, University of Lille: 
Schism, Western. 

SALTET, LOUIS, S.T.D., Litt. Lie, Professor of 
Church History, Institut Catholique, Tou- 
louse : Salamis, Epiphanius of. 

SANDS, WILLIAM FRANKLIN, Chevalier of 
the Legion of Honour; IOx-Envoy Extr.\or- 
dinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of 
the United States to Guatemala; Member of 
the Am. Soc. Int. L.\w; Am. Academy of Polit- 
ical and Social Science; Mexican Soc. of 
Geography and Statistics, Nev/ York: Samoa. 

SCANNELL, THOMAS B., Canon, S.T.D., Wey- 
BRiDGE, England: Sadoleto, Jacopo; Salamon, 
Louis-Siffrcn-Joseph. 

SCHAEFER, FRANCIS J., S.T.D., Ph.D., Pro- 
fessor of Church History, St. Paul Semi- 
nary, St. Paul, Minnesota: Saint Paul, Arch- 
diocese of. 

SCHEID, N., S.J., Stella Matutina College, 
Feldkirch, Austria: Roh, Peter; Roothaan, 
Johann Philipp; Schlegel, Friedrich von; Seidl, 
Johann Gabriel. 

SCHLAGER, HEINRICH PATRICIUS, O.F.M., 
St. Ludwig's College, Dalheim, Germany: 
Rubruck, William; Rudolf of Fulda; Sahmbene 
dogli Adami; Sander, Anton; Schlosser, John 
Frederick Henry. 



SCHMID, ULRICH, Ph.D., Editor, ''Walhalla", 
Munich: Rupert, Saint. 

SCHREINER, CHRYSOSTOM, O.S.B., Nassau, 
Bahama Islands: Shea, Sir Ambrose. 

SCHROEDER, H. J., O.P., St. Dominic's Priory, 
Benicia, C.\lifornia: Richard, Charles- Louis; 
Rocaberti, Juan Tomds de. 

SCHULEIN, FRANZ X., Professor in the Gym- 
nasium OF Freising, Bavaria, Germany: 
Samaritan Language and Literature; Seleucids; 
Semites. 

SCULLY, VINCENT JOSEPH, C.R.L., St. Ives, 
Cornwall, England: Ruysbroeck, John, 
Blessed; Saint Victor, Achard de. 

SEARS, MARTIN G., St. George's, Newfound- 
land: Saint George's, Diocese of. 

SENFELDER, LEOPOLD, M.D., Teacher of the 
History of Medicine, University op Vienna: 
Schwann, Theodor; Semmelweis, Ignaz PhiUpp. 

SHAHAN, MGR. THOMAS J., S.T.D., J.U.D., 
Rector of the Catholic University op 
America, Washington: Severus Alexander. 

SHARPE, ALFRED BOWYER, M.A. (Oxon.), 
London: Richard of St. Victor. 

SHIPMAN, ANDREW J., M.A., LL.M., New 
York: Rites in the United States: Rosary, II.; 
In the Greek Church, Uniat and Schismatic; 
Ruthenian Rite; Ruthenians; Sejny, Diocese of. 

SIBBEL, ARMIN JOSEPH, M.D., Brooklyn, New 
York: Sibbel, Joseph. 

SILVA COTAPOS, CARLOS, Canon of the Cath- 
edral OF Santiago, Chile: San Carlos de An- 
cud, Diocese of; Santiago de Chile, Archdiocese 
and University of. 

SLATER, T., S.J., St. Francis Xavier's College, 
Liverpool, England: Rodriguez, Alonso. 

SLOANE, THOMAS O'CONOR, M.A., E.M., Ph.D., 
New York: Sainte-Claire Deville, Charles; 
Sainte-Claire Deville, Henri-Etienne. 

SMITH, IGNATIUS, O.P., Dominican House of 
Studies, Washington: Rites: Dominican. 

SORTAIS, GASTON, S.J., Associate Editor, 
"Etudes", Paris: Sarto, Andrea del; Sassofer- 
rato, Giovanni Battista Salvi da. 

SOUVAY, CHARLES L., CM., S.T.D., Ph.D., Pro- 
fessor, Sacred Scripture, Hebrew, and 
Liturgy, Kenrick Seminary, St. Louis, Mis- 
souri: Sanhedrin; Sichem. 

SPILLANE, EDWARD P., S.J., Associate Editor, 
"America", New York: Shea, John Dawson 
Gilmary. 

SPITZ, MATERNUS, O.S.B., St. Thomas's Abbey, 
Erdington, Birmingham, England: Siam, Vi- 
cariate Apostolic of. 

STEIN, JOHN, S.J., Doctor in Mathematics and 
Astronomy (Leiden), Amsterdam: Ruffin, 
Paolo; Santini, Giovanni Sante Gaspero; Schols, 
Charles Mathieu; Schrank, Franz de Paula von; 
Serpieri, Alessandro. 

STENMANS, THEOPHILE, Gretna, Louisiana: 
Rolduc. 

STOLZLE, REMIGIUS, Ph.D., Editor of "Stu- 
dien zur Ph. u. Rel. ", Professor of the Uni- 
versity OP Wurzburg: Sailer, Johann Michael. 



CONTRIBUTORS TO THE THIRTEENTH VOLUME 



TANNRATH, JOHN J., Chancellor of the Arch- 
diocese OF St. Louis, Missouri: Saint Louis, 
Archdiocese of. 

TAYLOR, HANNIS, LL.D., Late Minister Pleni- 
potentiary OF THE United States to Spain, 
Professor of International and Constitu- 
tional Law, Georgetown University, Wash- 
ington: Ryan, Abram J. 

THOMPKINS, JOHN J., S.J., Seminary of the 
Immaculate Conception, Vigan, Philippine 
Islands: Saint Thomas, University of. 

THURSTON, HERBERT, S.J., London: Richard I, 
King of England; Rings; Ritualists; Roger of 
Hoveden; Roger of Wendover; Rolls Series; Ro- 
man CathoHc; Rosary, The; Rosary, Confrater- 
nity of the Holy; Rosary, Feast of the Holy; 
Rotuli; Royal Declaration, The; Santa Casa di 
Loreto; Seal; Shakespeare, The Religion of; 
Slu-oud, The Holy; Shrov-etide; Sign of the 
Cross; Simeon Stylites, the Elder; Simeon Sty- 
lites, the Younger; Saints. 

TOKE, LESLIE ALEXANDER ST. LAWRENCE, 
B.A., Stratton-on-the-Fosse, Bath, England: 
Romuald, Saint. 

TOSCANO, JULIAN, Vicar-General of the Dio- 
cese OF Salta, Argentina: Salta, Diocese of. 

TROBEC, JAMES, S.T.D., Bishop of St. Cloud, 
Minnesota: Saint Cloud, Diocese of. 

TURNER, MGR. JAMES P., S.T.D., Philadel- 
phia, Pennsylvania: Ryan, Patrick John. 

TURNER, WILLIAM, B.A., S.T.D., Professor of 
Logic and the History of Philosophy, Cath- 
olic University of America, W^ashington: 
Robert of Cour(,-on; Robert of Melun; Robert 
Pullus; Scholasticism; Schools; Sedulius Scotus. 

URQUHART, FRANCIS FORTESCUE, Fellow 
AND Lecturer in Modern History, Balliol 
College, Oxford: Roper, Wilham. 

VAILHfi, SIMfiON, A.A., Member of the Rus- 
sian Arch-eological Institute of Constan- 
tinople, Rome: Rhodes; Salmas; Samaria; 
Samos; Samosata; Sardes; Sardica; Sarepta; 
Scythopolis; Sebastia; Seerth; Sehna, Diocese of; 
Seleucia Pieria; Seleucia Trachaea; Sergiopolis; 
Sidon, Melchite and Maronite See. 

VANDER HEEREN, ACHILLE, S.T.L. (Louvain), 
Professor of Moral Theology and Libra- 
rian, Grande S£;.minaire, Bruges, Belgium: 
Scandal; Septuagint Version. 

VAN HOVE, A., D.C.L., Professor of Church 
History and Canon Law, University of Lou- 
vain: SandcK, Felino Maria. 

VAN ORTROY, FRANCIS, S.J., Brussels: Ribadc- 
neira, Pcniro de; Ricci, lyjrenzo. 

VASCHALDE, A.A., C.S.B., Catholic University 
OF America, Washington: Serajiion of Thmuis, 
Saint. 

VIEBAN, ANTHONY, S.S., S.T.D., D.C.L., Cath- 
olic University of America; Washington: 
S<!minar>', EccJcHJaHtical. 

WAINEWniGHT, JOHN BANNERMAN, B.A. 
(Oxon.), London: Hichardwjn, William, Vener- 
able; I{irl,ard Thirkeld, Blesnefj; l{igby, John, 
Venerable; Hisby. Hicharrl; Iiobinw>n, Chrisl/)- 

{»her. Venerable; Roe, BaHhf)lomew, Venerable; 
logcr Cadwallador, Venerable; Sandy, John, 



Venerable; Scott, WiUiam Maurus; Sebastian 
Newdigate, Blessed; Sedgwick, Thomas; Ser- 
geant, Richard, Venerable; Shellej', Richard; 
Sherson, Martin. 

W^ALKER, LESLIE J., S.J., M.A. (Lond.); St. 
Beuno's College, St. Asaph, Wales: Scepti- 
cism. 

WALLAU, HEINRICH WILHELM, Mainz, Ger- 
many: Schoflfer, Peter. 

WALTER, ALOYSIUS, C.SS.R., Rome: Rossini, 
Gioacchino Antonio; Scarlatti, Alessandro; Schel- 
ble, Johann Nepomuk. 

WARD, MGR. BERNARD, Canon of Westmin- 
ster, F.R. Hist. Soc, President of St. Ed- 
mund's College, Ware, England: Saint Omer, 
College of. 

WARREN, CORNELIUS J., C.SS.R., Professor of 
Sacred Scripture, Redemptorist House of 
Studies, Esopus, New York: Seelos, Francis X. 

WEBER, N. A., S.M., S.T.D., Propessorof Church 
History, Marist College, Washington: Rey, 
Anthony; Rho, Giacomo; Rhodes, Alexandre de; 
Riff el, Caspar; Hitter, Joseph Ignatius; Robert 
of Geneva; Rocca, Angelo; Rodriguez, Joao; 
Rohault de Fleury; Rohrbacher, Rene Francois; 
Rostock, Sebastian von; Rudolf of Riideshcim; 
Sarabaites; Schvvenckfcldians; Sect and Sects; 
Sibour, Marie-Dominique-Auguste; Simon of 
Cramaud. 

WEBSTER, D. RAYMUND, O.S.B., M.A. (Oxon.), 
Downside Abbey, Bath, England: Robert of 
Arbissel; Robert of Newminster, Saint; Rose- 
Une, Saint. 

WELCH, SIDNEY READ, S.T.D., Ph.D., J.P., 

Editor of "The Catholic Magazine for 
South Africa", Cape Town: Santos, Joao dos. 

WEST, ALBERT BENJAMIN, M.A., LL.B., Prov- 
idence, Rhode Island: Rhode Island. 

WHITFIELD, JOSEPH LOUIS, M.A. (Cantab.), 
OscoTT College, Birmingham, Encu-and: Row- 
sham, Stephen; Scott, Montford, Blessed. 

WILHELM, JOSEPH, S.T.D., Ph.D., Aachen, Ger- 
many: Roman Catechism; Scheeben, Matthias 
Joseph. 

WILLIAMSON, GEORGE CHARLES, Litt.D., 
London; Rosa, Salvatore; Rosselli, Cosimo; Ru- 
bens, Peter Paul; Sdnchez, Alonzo Coello; Scan- 
nabecchi, Filippo; Schaiifelin, Hans Leonhard; 
Schongauer, Martin; Signorelli, Luca. 

WITZEL, THEOPHILUS, O.F.M., Professor of 
Sacred Scripture, Collegio S. Antonio, 
Rome: Roger Bacon. 

WOLFSGRUBER, COELESTINE, O.S.B., Vienna: 
Salzburg, Archdiocese of; Sankt Polten, Diocese 
of; Schwarzenburg, Freidricli, Prince of; Sebc- 
nico, Diocese of; Serajevo, Archdiocese of. 

ZIMMERMAN, BENEDICT, O.D.C., St. Luke's 
Priory, Wincanton, Somersetshire, Eng- 
land: Rites: Carmelite; Salmanticenses and 
Compluten.ses. 

ZWIERLEIN, FREDERICK J., S.T.L., Docteur 
fes Sciences Mf)RALEs et Historiques (Lou- 
vain), Professor of Church History, St. 
Bernard's Seminary, Rochester, New York: 
Rochester, Diocese of. 



Tables of Abbreviations 



The follo^ang tables and notes are intended to guide readers of The Catholic Encyclopedia in 
interpreting those abbreviations, signs, or technical phrases which, for economy of space, will be most fre- 
quently used in the work. For more general information see the article Abbreviations, Ecclesiastical. 



I. — General Abbreviations. 

a article. 

ad an at the year (Lat. ad annum). 

an., arm the year, the years (Lat. annxis, 

anni). 

ap in (Lat. apiid). 

art article. 

Assyr Assyrian. 

A. S Anglo-Saxon. 

A. V Authorized Version (i.e. tr. of the 

Bible authorized for use in the 
Anglican Church — the so-called 
"King James", or "Protestant 
Bible"). 

b born. 

Bk Book. 

Bl. . . Blessed. 

C, c about (Lat. circa); canon; chap- 

ter; compagnie, 

can canon. 

cap chapter (Lat. caput — used only 

in Latin context). 

cf. compare (Lat. confer), 

cod codex. 

col column. 

concl coHclusion. 

const., constit. . . .Lat. constitutio. 

cura by the industry of. 

d died. 

diet dictionary (Fr. dictionnaire). 

disp Lat. dispuiatio. 

diss Lat. dissertatio. 

dist Lat. distinctio. 

D. V Douay Version. 

ed., edit edited, edition, editor. 

Ep., Epp letter, letters (Lat. epistola). 

Fr French. 

gen genus. 

Gr Greek. 

H. E., Hist. Eccl. .Ecclesiastical History. 

Heb., Hebr Hebrew. 

ib., ibid in the same place (Lat. ibidem). 

Id the same person, or author (Lat. 

idem). 



inf .below (Lat. infra). 

It Italian. 

1. c, loc. cit at the place quoted (Lat. loco 

citato). 

Lat Latin. 

lat latitude. 

lib book (Lat. liber). 

long longitude. 

Mon Lat. Monumenta. 

MS., MSS manuscript, manuscripts. 

n., no number. 

N. T New Testament. 

Nat National. 

Old Fr., O. Fr. . . .Old French. 

op. cit in the work quoted (Lat. opere 

citato). 

Ord Order. 

O. T Old Testament. 

p., pp page, pages, or (in Latin ref- 
erences) ])ars (part). 

par paragraph. 

passim in various places. 

pt part. 

Q Quarterly (a periodical), e.g. 

"Church Quarterly". 

Q-> QQ-> qusest. . . .question, questions (Lat. qucestio). 

q. v which [title] see (Lat. quod vide). 

Rev Review (a periodical). 

R. S Rolls Series 

R. V Revised Version 

S., SS Lat. Sanctus, Sancti, "Saint", 

"Saints" — used in this Ency- 
clopedia only in Latin context. 

Sept Septuagint. 

Sess Session. 

Skt Sanskrit. 

Sp Spanish 

sq., sqq following page, or pages (Lat. 

sequens). 

St., Sts Saint, Saints. 

sup Above (Lat. supra). 

s. V Under the corresponding title 

(Lat. sub voce). 

tom volume (Lat. tomus). 



xiii 



TABLES OF ABBREVIATIONS. 



tr, translation or translated. By it- 
self it means "English transla- 
tion", or " translated into Eng- 
lish by". Where a translation 
is into any other language, the 
language is stated. 

tr., tract tractate. 

V see (Lat. vide). 

Ven Venerable. 

Vol Volume. 

II. — Abbreviations of Titles. 

Acta SS Ada Sanctorum (Bollandists). 

Ann. pont. cath Battandier.AnuuaiVe pontifical 

catholiquc. 

Bibl. Diet. Eng. Cath.GilIo\v, Bibliographical Diction- 
2iry of the English Catholics. 

Diet. Christ. Antiq.. .Smith and Cheetliam (ed.), 
Dictionary of Cliristian An- 
tiquities. 



Diet. Clirist. Biog. . . Smith and Wace (ed.), Diction- 
ary of Cliristian Biography. 

Diet, d'arch. chr6t.. .Cabrol (ed.), Dictionnaire d'ar- 
cheologie chretienne et de litur- 
gie. 

Diet, de th^ol. cath. . Vacant and Mangenot (ed.), 
Dictionnaire de thtologie 
catholique. 

Diet. Nat. Biog Stephen and Lee (ed.), Diction- 
ary of National Biography. 

Hast., Diet, of tlie 

Bible Hastings (ed.), A Dictionary of 

the Bible. 

Kirchenlex Wetzer and Welte, Kirchenlexi- 

con. 

P. G Migne (ed.), Patrcs Groeci. 

P. L Migne (ed.), Patres Latini. 

Vig., Diet, de la Bible. Vigouroux (ed.), Dictionnaire de 
la Bible. 



Note T. — Large Roman numerals standing alone indicate volumes. Small Roman numerals standing alone indicate 
chapters. Arabic numerals standing alone indicate pages. In other cases the divisions are explicitly stated. Thus " Rashdall, 
Universities of Euroi>e, I, ix" refers the reader to the ninth chapter of the first volume of that work; "I, p. be" would indicate the 
ninth page of the preface of the same volimie. 

Note II. — Where St. Thomas (Aquinas) is cited without the name of any particular work the reference is always to 
"Summa Theologica" (not to "Summa Philosophise"). The divisions of the "Summa Theol." are indicated by a system which 
may best be understood by the following example: " I-II, Q. vi, a. 7, ad 2 um " refers the reader to the seventh article of the 
tizth question in the first i)art of the second part, in the response to the second objection. 

Note III. — The abbreviations employed for the various books of the Bible are obvious. Kcclesiasticus is indicated by 
Ecdus., to distinguish it from Ecclesiastes (Eccles.). It should al.so be noted that I and II Kings in D. V. correspond to I and II 
Samuel in A. V.; and I and II Par. to I and II Chronicles. Where, in the spelling of a proper name, there is a marked difference 
between the D. V. and the A. V., the form found in the latter is added, in parentheses. 



Full Page Illustrations in Volume XIII 

Frontispiece in Colour p^(.j. 

The Rapture of the Magdalen, etc. — Jusepe de Ril^era 32 

Equestrian Statue of Richard I, Palace Yard, Westminster 42 

Triple Portrait of Cardinal Richelieu — Philippe de Champaigne 48 

Ruins of the Nave and Transept of Rievaulx Abbey 54 

Rome — Gate of S. Paolo with Pyramid of Caius Sestius, etc 166 

Rome — Basilica of St. Sebastian, etc 170 

Rome — Piazza and Basilica of St. Mary Major, etc 176 

Rood Loft with Organ, in the Hofkirche, Innsbruck 182 

Distant View of the Cathedral, Rouen 210 

The Doctors of the Church, etc. — Peter Paul Rubens 216 

Piazza and Fagade of St. Peter's Carlo Maderna and Bernini 374 

Fagade of the New Cathedral, Salamanca 390 

Salisbury Cathedral, West Front 400 

San Marino — The Castle, View from the North, etc 448 

The Nativity, Piero da San Sepolcro 452 

Loreto — Bas-relief showing the translation of the Holy House, etc 456 

Back of the Choir, The Cathedral, Saragossa 470 

Girolamo Savonarola — ^Fra Bartolommeo 492 

Scotland— Battlefield of Killiecrankie, etc 612 

Sculpture 646 

The Cathedral, Seville 744 

Sicily — Corso Vittorio Emanuele, with the Neptune, IMessina, etc 774 

Siena — Church of St. Francis, etc 780 

The Cathedral, Sigiienza 788 



Maps 

Russia 264 

Scotland 620 



THE 
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA 



R 



Revelation. — I. Meaning of Revelation. — 
Revelation may be defined as the communication 
of some truth by God to a rational creature through 
means which are beyond the ordinary course of nature. 
The truths revealefl may be such as are otherwise in- 
accessible to the human mind — mysteries, which even 
when revealed, the intelknit of man is incapable of 
fully penetrating. But Revelation is not restricted 
to these. God may see fit to employ supernatural 
means to affirm truths, the discovery of which is not 
per se beyond the powers of reason. The essence 
of Revelation lies in the fact that it is the direct 
speech of God to man. The mode of communication, 
however, may be mediate. Revelation does not 
cease to be such if God's message is delivered to us 
by a prophet, who alone is the recipient of the im- 
mediate communication. Such in brief is the account 
of Revelation given in the Constitution "De Fide 
Catholica" of the Vatican Council. The Decree 
" Lamentabili " (3 July, 1907), by its condemnation 
of a contrary proposition, declares that the dogmas 
which the Church proposes as revealed are "truths 
which have come down to us from heaven" (veri- 
tates e coelo ddaps(v) and not "an interpretation of 
religious facts which the human mind has acquired 
by its own strenuous efforts" (prop., 22). It will be 
seen that Revelation as thus explained differs clearh' 
from: (1) inspiration such as is bestowed by God 
on the author of a sacred book; for this, while in- 
volving a special illumination of the mind in virtue 
of which the recipient conceives such thoughts as 
God desires him to commit to writing, docs not 
necessarily suppose a supernatural communication 
of these truths; (2) from the illustrations wliich God 
may bestow from time to time upon any of the faith- 
ful to bring home to the mind the import of some 
truth of religion hitherto obscurely grasped; and 
(3) from the Divine assistance by which the pope 
when acting as the supreme teacher of the Church, is 
preserved from all error as to faith or morals. The 
function of this assistance is purely negative: it need 
not carry with it any positive gift of light to the mind. 
Much of the confusion in wliich the discussion of Reve- 
lation in non-Catholic works is involved arises from 
the neglect to distinguish it from one or other of 
these. 

During the past century the Church has been called 
on to reject as erroneous several views of Revelation 
irreconcilable with Catholic belief. Three of these 
may here be noted. (1) The view of Anton Guenther 
(1783-1863). This writer denied that Revelation 
could include mysteries strictly so-called, inasmuch as 
the human intellect is capable of penetrating to the 
full all revealed truth. He taught, further, that the 
meaning to be attached to revealed doctrines is under- 
going constant change as human knowledge grows and 
man's mind develops; so that the dogmatic formulae 
which are now true will gradually cease to be so. His 
writings were put on the Index in 1857, and his 
XIII.— 1 



erroneous propositions definitively condemned in the 
decrees of the Vatican Council. (2) the Modernist 
view (Loisy, Tyrrell). According to this school, there 
is no such thing as Revelation in the sense of a direct 
communication from God to man. The human soul 
reaching up towards the unknowable God is ever 
endeavouring to interpret its sentiments in intellec- 
tual fornmla;. The formula) it thus frames are our 
ecclesiastical dogmas. These can but symbofize the 
Unknowable; they can give us no real knowledge 
regarding it. Such an error is manifestly subversive 
of all behef, and was explicitly condemned by the 
Decree "LamentabiU" and the Encyclical "Pascendi" 
(8 Sept., 1907). (3) With the view just mentioned is 
closely connected the Pragmatist view of M. Lcroy 
("Dogme et Critique", Paris, 2nd ed. 1907). Like 
the Modernists, he sees in revealed dogmas simply the 
results of spiritual experience, but holds their value 
to fie not in the fact that they symbolize the Unknow- 
able, but that the}'' have practical value in pointing 
the way by which we may best enjoy experience of the 
Divine. This view was condemned in the same docu- 
ments as the last mentioned. 

II. Possibility of Revelation. — The possibility 
of Revelation as above explained has been strenuously 
denied from various points of view during the last 
ccnturj'. For this reason the Church held it necessary 
to issue special decrees on the subject in the Vatican 
Council. Its antagonists may be divided into two 
classes according to the different standpoints from 
which they direct their attack, viz: (1) Rationalists 
(under this class we include both Deist and Agnostic 
WTiters). Those who adopt this standpoint rely in the 
main on two fundamental objections: they either 
urge that the miraculous is impossible, and that Rev- 
elation involves miraculous interposition on the part 
of the Deity; or they appeal to the autonomy of 
reason, which it is maintained can only accept as 
truths the results of its own activities. (2) Immanent- 
ists. To this class may be assigned all those whose 
objections are based on Kantian and Hegelian doc- 
trines as to the subjective character of all our knowl- 
edge. The views of these writers frequently involve a 
purely pantheistic doctrine. But even those who 
repudiate pantheism, in place of the personal God, 
Ruler, and Judge of the world, whom Christianity 
teaches, substitute the vague notion of the "Spirit" 
immanent in all men, and regard all religious creeds 
as the attempts of the human soul to find expression 
for its inward experience. Hence no religion, whether 
pagan or Christian, is wholly false; but none can 
claim to be a message from God free from any admix- 
ture of error. (Cf. Sabatier, "Esquisse", etc., Bk. I, 
cap. ii.) Here too the autonomy of reason is invoked 
as fatal to the doctrine of Revelation properly so 
called. In the face of these objections, it is evident 
that the question of the possibility of Revelation is at 
present one of the most vital portions of Christian 
apologetic. 



REVELATION 



REVELATION 



If the existence of a personal God be once estab- 
lished, the physical possibiUty at least of Revelation 
is undeniable. God, who has endowed man with 
means to communicate his thoughts to his fellows, 
cannot be destitute of the power to communicate His 
own thoughts to us. [Martineau, it is true, denies that 
we possess faculties either to receive or to authen- 
ticate a divine revelation concerning the past or the 
future (Seat of Authority in Religion, p. 311); but 
such an assertion is arbitrary and extravagant in the 
extreme.] However, numerous difficulties have been 
urged on grounds other than that of physical possibil- 
ity. In estimating their value it seems desirable to 
distinguish three aspects of Revelation, viz: as it 
makes known to us (1) truths of the natural law, (2) 
mysteries of the faith, (3) positive precepts, e. g. 
regarding Di%-ine worship. 

(1) The revelation of truths of the natural law is 
certainh' not inconsistent with God's wisdom. God 
BO created man as to bestow on him endowments 
amply sufficient for him to attain his last end. Had 
it been otherwise, the creation would have been im- 
perfect. If over and above this He decreed to make 
the attainment of beatitude yet easier for man by 
placing within his reach a far simpler and far more 
certain way of knowing the law on the observance of 
which his fate depended, this is an argument for the 
Di\-ine generosity; it does not disprove the Divine 
wisdom. To assume, with certain Rationalists, that 
exceptional intervention can only be explained on the 
ground that God was unable to embrace His ultimate 
design in His original scheme is a mere petilio prin- 
cipii. Further, the doctrine of original sin supphes 
an additional reason for such a revelation of the 
natural law. That doctrine teaches us that rnan by 
the abuse of his free will has rendered his attainment 
of salvation difficult. Though his intellectual facul- 
ties are not radically vitiated, yet his grasp of truth 
IB weakened; his recognition of the moral law is con- 
stantly clouded by doubts and questionings. Revela- 
tion gives to his mind the certainty he had lost, and 
so far repairs the evils consequent on the catastrophe 
which had befallen him. 

(2) Still more difficulty has been felt regarding 
mysteries. It is freely as.serted that a myster>' is 
something repugnant to reason, and therefore some- 
thing intrinsically impossible. This objection rests 
on a mere misunderstanding of what is signified by a 
mystery. In theological terminology a conception 
involves a mysterj' when it is such that the natural 
faculties of the mind are unable to see how its elements 
can coalesce. This does not imply anything contrary 
to reason. A conception is only contrary to reason 
when the mind can recognize that its elements are 
mutually exclusive, and therefore involve a contradic- 
tion in terms. A more subtle objection is that urged 
by Dr. J. Caird, to the effect that every truth that 
can be partially communicated to the mind by anal- 
ogies is ultimately capable of being fully grasped by 
the understanding. "Of all such representations, un- 
less they are purely illusfjrj', it must hold good that 
implicitly and in unrlevelftped form they contain 
rational thought and thr;refore thought which human 
intelligence may ultimately fre<- from its sensuous veil. 
. . . Nothing that is absf)!i]t^ly inscrutable to reason 
can be ma/ie known U) faith" (Philosrjphy of Religion, 
p. 71). The objection rests on a wholly exaggerated 
view regarfiing the powers of the human intellect. 
The a>gnitive faculty of any nature is proportionate 
to its gra/le in the scale of being. The mtelligenre oi 
a finite intellect can only penetrate; a finite ohjr'ft; 
it is incapable of comprehending the Infinite. The 
finite t>TX« through which the Infinite is made known 
to it can never under any circumstances lead to more 
than analogous knowledge. It is further frequently 
urgf^d that the revelation of what the mind cannot 
underBtand would be an act of violence to the intel- 



lect; and that tliis faculty can only accept those truths 
whose intrinsic reasonableness it recognizes. This 
assertion, based on the alk^ged autonomy of reason, 
can only be met with denial. The function of the in- 
tellect is to recognize and admit any truth which is 
adequately presented to it, whether that truth be 
guaranteed bj^ internal or by external criteria. The 
reason is not deprived of its legitimate activity be- 
cause the criteria are external. It finds ample scope 
in weighing the arguments for the credibility of the 
fact asserted. The existence of mysteries in the 
Christian religion was expressly taught by the Vatican 
Council (De Fide Cath., cap. ii, can. ii). "If anj^one 
shall say that no mysteries properly so called are con- 
tained in the Divine revelation, but that all the 
dogmas of the faith can be understood and proved 
from natural principles by human reason duly culti- 
vated — let him be anathema." 

(3) The older (Deist) School of Rationalists denied 
the possibility of a Divine revelation imposing any 
laws other than those which natural religion enjoins 
on man. These writers regarded natural religion as, 
so to speak, a political constitution determinmg the 
Divine government of the universe, and held that 
God could only act as its terms prescribed. This 
error like\\ase was proscribed at the same time (De 
Fide Cath., cap. ii, can. ii). " If any one shall say that 
it is impossible or that it is inexpedient that man 
should be instructed regarding God and the worship 
to be paid to Him by Di\ine revelation — let him be 
anathema." 

It can hardly be questioned that the "autonomy of 
reason" furnishes the main source of the difficulties 
at present felt against Revelation in the Christian 
sense. It seems desirable to indicate very briefly the 
various ways in which that principle is understood. 
It is explained by M. Blondel, an eminent member of 
the Immanentist School, as signifying that "nothing 
can enter into a man which does not proceed from 
him, and which does not correspond in some manner 
to an interior need of expansion ; and that neither in 
the sphere of historic facts nor of traditional doctrine, 
nor of commands imposed bj^ authority, can any truth 
rank as valid for a man or any precept as obhgatory, 
unless it be in some way autonomous and autochtho- 
nous" (Lettre sur les exigences, etc., p. 601). Although 
M. Blondel has in his own case reconciled this prin- 
ciple -wath the acceptance of Catholic belief, yet it 
may readily be seen that it affords an easy ground for 
the denial not merely of the possibilitj^ of external 
Revelation, but of the whole historic basis of Chris- 
tianity. The origin of this erroneous doctrine is to 
be found in the fact that within the sphere of the 
natural speculative reason, truths which are received 
purely on external authority, and which are in no way 
connected with principles already admitted, can 
scarcely be said to form part of our knowledge. 
Science asks for the inner reason of things and can 
make no use of truths save in so far as it can reach the 
principles from which they flow. The extension of 
this to religious truths is an error directly traceable to 
the assumption of the eiglilceiilli-cenlury j)liiloso- 
phers that there are no religious t rut lis save t lio.'^e which 
the human intellect can attain unaided. The prin- 
ciple is, however, sometimes applied with a less ex- 
tensive signification. It may be understood to involve 
no more than that reason cannot be compelled to ad- 
mit any religious doctrine or any moral obligation 
merely because they possess extrinsic guarantees of 
truth; they must in every case be able to justify their 
validity on intrinsic grounds. Thus Prof. J. Caird 
writes: "Neither moral nor religious ideas can be 
simply transferred to the human spirit in the form of 
fact, nor can they be verified by any evidence outside 
of or lower than themselves" (Fundamental Ideas of 
Christianity, p. 31). A somewhat different meaning 
again is impUed in the canon of the Vatican Council 



REVELATION 



3 



REVELATION 



in which the right of the intellect to claim absolute 
independence (autonomy) is denied. "If anyone 
shall say that human reason is independent in such 
wise that faith cannot be commanded it by God — 
let him be anathema" (De Fide Cath., cap. iii, can. i). 
This canon is directed against the position maintained 
as already noted by the older Rationalists and the 
Deists, that human reason is amply sufficient with- 
out exterior assistance to attain to absolute truth in 
all matters of religion (of. Vacant, "Etudes Theo- 
logiques", I, 572; II, 387). 

III. Necessity op Revelation. — Can it be said 
that Revelation is necessary to man? There can 
be no question as to its necessity, if it be admitted 
that God destines man to attain a supernatural 
beatitude which surpasses the exigencies of his nat- 
ural endowments. In that case God must needs 
reveal alike the existence of that supernatural end 
and the means by which we are to attain it. But 
is Revelation necessary even in order that man 
should observe the precepts of the natural law? If 
our race be viewed in its present condition as his- 
tory displays it, the answer can only be that it is, 
morally speaking, impossible for men unassisted by 
Revelation, to attain by their natural powers such a 
knowledge of that law as is sufficient to the right or- 
dering of life. In other words, Revelation is morally 
necessary. Absolute necessity we do not assert. 
Man, Catholic theology teaches, possesses the req- 
uisite faculties to discover the natural law. Luther 
indeed asserted that man's intellect had become hope- 
lessly obscured by original sin, so that even natural 
truth was beyond his reach. And the Traditionalists 
of the nineteenth century (Bautain, Bonnetty, etc.) 
also fell into error, teaching that man was incapable 
of arriving at moral and religious truth apart from 
Revelation. The Church, on the contrary, recognizes 
the capacity of human reason, and grants that here 
and there pagans may have existed, who had freed 
themselves from prevalent errors, and who had at- 
tained to such a knowledge of the natural law as 
would suffice to guide them to the attainment of 
beatitude. But she teaches nevertheless that this 
can only be the case as regards a few, and that for 
the bulk of mankind Revelation is necessary. That 
this is so may be shown both from the facts of history 
and from the nature of the case. As regards the 
testimony of history, it is notorious that even the 
most civilized of pagan races have fallen into the 
grossest errors regarding the natural law; and from 
these it may safely be asserted they would never have 
emerged. Certainly the schools of philosophy would 
not have enabled them to do so; for many of these 
denied even such fundamental principles of the nat- 
ural law as the personality of God and the freedom 
of the will. Again, by the very nature of the ca.se, 
the difficulties involved in the attainment of the req- 
uisite knowledge are insuperable. For men to be 
able to attain such a knowledge of the natural law as 
will enable them to order their lives rightly, the 
truths of that law must be so plain that the mass of 
men can discover them without long delay, and pos- 
sess a knowledge of them which will be alike free 
from uncertainty and secure from serious error. 
No reasonable man will maintain that in the case of 
the greater part of mankind this is possible. Even 
the most vital truths are called in question and are 
met by serious objections. The separation of truth 
from error is a work involving time and labour. 
For this the majority of men have neither inclination 
nor opportunity. Apart from the security which 
Revelation gives they would reject an obligation 
both irksome and uncertain. It results that a rev- 
elation even of the natural law is for man in his 
present state a moral necessity. 

IV. Criteria op Revelation. — The fact that 
Revelation is not merely possible but morally neces- 



sary is in itself a strong argument for the existence of 
a revelation, and imposes on all men the strict obliga- 
tion of examining the credentials of a religion which 
presents itself with prima Jade marks of truth. 
On the other hand if God has conferred a revelation 
on men, it stands to reason that He must have at- 
tached to it plain and evident criteria enabling even 
the unlettered to recognize His message for what it 
is, and to distinguish it from all false claimants. 

The criteria of Revelation are either external or 
internal: (1) External criteria consist in certain 
signs attached to the revelation as a divine testimony 
to its truth, e. g., miracles. (2) Internal criteria are 
tho-se which are found in the nature of the doctrine 
itself, in the manner in which it was presented to the 
world, and in the effects which it produces on the soul. 
These are distinguished into negative and positive 
criteria, (a) The immunity of the alleged revela- 
tion from any teaching, speculative or moral, which ia 
manifestly erroneous or self-contradictory, the ab- 
sence of all fraud on the part of those who deliver it 
to the world, provide negative internal criteria, 
(b) Positive internal criteria are of various kinds. 
One such is found in the beneficent effects of the 
doctrine and in its power to meet even the highest 
aspirations which man can frame. Another consists 
in the internal conviction felt by the soul as to the 
truth of the doctrine (Suarez, "De Fide", IV, sect. 
5, n. 9.) In the last century there was in certain 
schools of thought a manifest tendency to deny the 
value of all external criteria. This was largely due 
to the Rationalist polemic against miracles. Not 
a few non-Catholic divines anxious to make terras 
with the enemy adopted this attitude. They allowed 
that miracles are useless as a foundation for faith, 
and that they form on the contrary one of the chief 
difficulties which lie in faith's path. Faith, they 
admitted, must be presupposed before the miracle 
can be accepted. Hence these writers held the sole 
criterion of faith to lie in inward experience — in the 
testimony of the Spirit. Thus Schleiermacher says: 
"We renounce altogether any attempt to demon- 
strate the truth and the necessity of the Christian 
religion. On the contrary we assume that every 
Christian before he commences inquiries of this kind 
is already convinced that no other form of religion 
but the Christian can harmonize with his piety" 
(Glaubenslehre, n. 11). The Traditionalists by deny- 
ing the power of human reason to test the grounds 
of faith were driven to fall back on the same cri- 
terion (cf. Lamennais, "Pensees Diverses", p. 488). 
This position is altogether untenable. The tes- 
timony afforded by inward experience is undoubtedly 
not to be neglected. Catholic doctors have always 
recognized its value. But its force is limited to the 
individual who is the subject of it. It cannot be 
employed as a criterion valid for all; for its absence 
is no proof that the doctrine is not true. Moreover, 
of all the criteria it is the one with regard to which 
there is most possibility of deception. When truth 
mingled with error is presented to the mind, it often 
happens that the whole teaching, false and true alike, 
is believed to have a Divine guarantee, because the 
soul has recognized and welcomed the truth of some 
one doctrine, e. g., the Atonement. Taken alone and 
apart from objective proof it conveys but a prob- 
ability that the revelation is true. Hence the 
Vatican Council expressly condemns the error of 
those who teach it to be the only criterion (De 
Fide Cath., cap. iii, can. iii). 

The perfect agreement of a religious doctrine with 
the teachings of reason and natural law, its power to 
satisfy, and more than satisfy, the highest aspirations 
of man, its beneficent influence both as regards public 
and private life, provide us with a more trustworthy 
test. This is a criterion which has often been applied 
with great force on behalf of the claims of the Catholic 



REVELATION 



REVELATION 



Church to be the sole guardian of God's Revelation. 
These quahties indeed appertain in so transcendent 
a degree to the teaching of the Church, that the argu- 
ment must needs carr>- conviction to an earnest and 
truth-seeking mind. Another criterion which at 
first sight bears some resemblance to this claims a 
mention here. It is based upon the theory of Im- 
manence and has of recent years been strenuously 
advocated by certain of the less extreme members of 
the Modernist School. These wTiters urge that the 
vital needs of the soul imperatively demand, as their 
necessary complement, Divine co-operation, super- 
natural grace, and even the supreme magisterium 
of the Church. To these needs the Catholic religion 
alone corresponds. And this correspondence with 
our vital needs is, they hold, the one sure criterion 
of truth. The theory is altogether inconsistent with 
Catholic dogma. It supposes that the Christian 
Revelation and the gift of grace are not free gifts from 
God, but something of which the nature of man is 
absolutely exigent, and without which it would be 
incomplete. It is a return to the errors of Baius. 
(Denz. 1021, etc.) 

VThile the Church, as we have said, is far from 
under\-aluing internal criteria, she has alwaj's re- 
garded external criteria as the most easily recognizable 
and the most decisive. Hence the Vatican Council 
teaches: "In order that the obedience of our faith 
might be agreeable to reason, God has willed that to 
the internal aids of the Holy Spirit, there should be 
joined external proofs of His Revelation, viz: Divine 
works (Jacla divina), especially miracles and prophecy, 
which inasmuch as they manifestlj' display the 
omnipotence and the omniscience of God are most 
certain signs of a Divine revelation and are suited 
to the understanding of all" (De Fide Cath., cap. 
iii). As an instance of a work evidently Divine, 
and yet other than miracle or prophecy, the council 
instances the Catholic Church, which, "by reason 
of the marvellous manner of its propagation, its sur- 
prising sanctity, its inexhaustible fruitfulness in all 
good works, its catholic unity and its invincible 
stability, is a mighty and perpetual motive of credi- 
bihty and an irrefragable testimony to its own 
divine legation" (1. c). The truth of the teaching 
of the council regarding external criteria is plain to 
any unprejudiced mind. Granted the presence of 
the negative criteria, external guarantees establish 
the Divine origin of a revelation as nothing else can 
do. They are, m to say, a seal affixed by the hand 
of God Himself, and authenticating the work as His. 
(For a fuller treatment of their apologetic value, 
and for a discussion of objections, see Miracles; 
Apologetics.) 

V. The Christian- Revelation. — It remains here 
to distinguish the Christian Revelation or "deposit 
of faith" from what are termed private revelations. 
This distinction is of importance: for while the Church 
recognizes that Gfxi has spoken to His servants in 
every age, and still continues thus to favour chosen 
Bouls, she is careful to distinguish fhese revelations 
from the Revelation which haw been conmiittcd fo 
her charge, and which she proposes t<^j all her members 
for their acceptance. That Revelation was given 
in its entirety to Our Ujrd and His Apostles. After 
the death of the last of the twelve it could receive no 
increment. It wa.s, hh the Church calls it, a deposit 
—"the faith once delivered to the saints" fjude, 
3)-;-for which the Church was to "contend" but to 
which she rxmUl arid nothing. Thus, whenever there 
has bef-n question of defining a doctrine, whether at 
Nicsa, at Trent, or at the Vatican, the sole point 
of debate has been as to whether the dortrine is found 
in Scripture or in Apostf)lic; trafhtion. The gift of 
Divine assistance <ivi- I), Hoinf'tim«;s ronfoundefl with 
Revelation by the Ifss iristru(;ted of anti-Catholic 
writers, merely preserves the supreme [wntiff from 



error in defining the faith; it does not enable him 
to add jot or tittle to it. All subsequent revelations 
conferred by God are known as private revelations, 
for the reason that they arc not directed to the whole 
Church but are for the good of individual members 
alone. They may indeed be a legitimate object for 
our faith; but that will depend on the evidence in 
each particular case. The Church does not propose 
them to us as part of her message. It is true that in 
certain cases she has given her approbation to cer- 
tain private revelations. This, however, only signi- 
fies (1) that there is nothing in them contrary to the 
Catholic Faith or to the moral law, and (2) that there 
are sufficient indications of their truth to justify 
the faithful in attaching credence to them without 
being guilty of superstition or of imprudence. 

It may however be further asked, whether the 
Christian Revelation does not receive increment 
through the development of doctrine. During the 
last half of the nineteenth century the question of 
doctrinal development was widely debated. Owing 
to Guenther's erroneous teaching that the doctrines 
of the faith assume a new sense as human science pro- 
gresses, the Vatican Courfcil declared once for all 
that the meaning of the Church's dogmas is im- 
mutable (De Fide Cath., cap. iv, can. iii). On the 
other hand it exjilicitly recognizes that there is a 
legitimate mode of development, and cites to that 
effect (op. cit., cap. iv) the words of Vincent of Lirins: 
"Let understanding science and wisdom [regarding 
the Church's doctrine] progress and make large in- 
crease in each and in all, in the individual and in the 
whole Church, as ages and centuries advance: but 
let it be solely in its own order, retaining, that is, the 
same dogma, the same sense, the same import" 
(Commonit. 28). Two of the most eminent theolog- 
ical writers of the period. Cardinal Franzelin and 
Cardinal Newman, have on very different lines dealt 
with the progress and nature of this development. 
Cardinal Franzelin in his "De Divina Traditione et 
Scriptura" (pt. XXII-VI) has principally in view 
the Hegelian theories of Gucnther. He consequently 
laj's the chief stress on the identity at all points of 
the intellectual datum, and explains development 
almost exclusively as a process of logical deduction. 
Cardinal Newman wrote his "Essay on the l)e\cl()p- 
ment of Christian Doctrine" in the course of the 
two years (1S43-45) iniin(>(liately preceding his re- 
ception into the Catholic Church. He was called 
on to deal with different adversaries, viz., the I'rot- 
estants who justified their separation from th(> main 
body of Christians on the ground that Rome had cor- 
rupted i^rimitivc teaching by a series of additions. 
In that work he examines in detail the difference be- 
tween a corruption and a development. He shows 
how a true and fertile idea is endowed with a vital 
and assimilative energy of its own, in virtue of which, 
without undergoing the least substantive change, 
it attains to an ever completer expression, as the course 
of time brings it into contact with new aspects of 
truth or forces it into collision with new errors: the 
life of the idea is shown to be analogous to an organic 
development. He provides a series of tests dis- 
tinguishing a true development from a corruption, 
chief among them being the preservation of type, 
and the continuity of princnjjles; and then, applymg 
the tests to the case of the additions of Roman teach- 
ing, shows that these have the marks not of corrup- 
tions but of true and legitimate developments. The* 
th(M)ry, though less scholastic in its form than that of 
Franzelin, is in perfect conformity with orthodox 
belief. Newman no less than his .Jesuit (iontemporary 
teaches that the whole doctrine, alike in its later 
jis in its earlier forms, Wius contained in the original 
revelation given to th(^ Church by Our Lord and His 
Apostles^ and that, its identity is guaranteed to us 
by the infallible magisterium of the Church. The 



REVELATION 



REVELATIONS 



claim of certain Modernist writers that their views 
on the evolution of dogma were connected with New- 
man's theory of development is the merest figment. 

Ottiger, Theologia fundamentalis (FreihuTg, 1897) ; Vacant, 
Eludes Theologiques sur le Concile du Vatican (Paris, 1895) ; 
Lebachelet, De I'apologetique traditionelle et I' apologelique mo- 
derne (Paris, 1897) ; Db Brogue, Religion et Critique (Paris, 1906) ; 
Blondel, Lettre sur les Exigences de la Pensee moderne en matiire 
apologetique in Annales de la Philos: Chretienne (Paris, 1896). 
On private revelations: Suarez, De Fide, disp. Ill, sect. 10; 
Franzelin, De Scriptura et Traditione, Th. xxii (Rome, 1870); 
PouLAiN, Graces of Interior Prayer, pt. IV, tr. (London, 1910). 
On development of doctrine: Bainvel, De magislerio vivo et 
traditione (Paris, 1905) ; Vacant, op. cit., II, p. 281 seq.; Pinard, 
art. Dogme in Diet. Apologetique de la Foi Catholique, ed. d'Al^s 
(Paris, 1910); O'Dwyer, Cardinal Newman and the Encyclical 
Pascendi (London, 1908). 

Among those who from one point of view or another have con- 
troverted the Christian doctrine of Revelation the following may 
be mentioned: Paine, Age of Reason (ed. 1910), 1-30; F. W. 
Newman, Phases of Faith (4th ed., London, 1854); Sabatier, 
Esquisse d'une philosophic de la religion, I, ii (Paris, 1902); 
Pfleiderer, Religionsphilosophie auf geschichtlicher Grundlage 
(Berlin, 1896), 493 seq.; Loisy, Autour d'un petit livre (Paris, 
1903), 192 sqq.; Wilson, art. Revelation and Modern Thought in 
Cambridge Theol. Essays (London, 1905); Tyrrell, Through 
Scylla and Charybdis (London, 1907), ii; Martineau, Seat of 
Authority in Religion, III, ii (London, 1890). 

G. H. Joyce. 
Revelation, Book of. See Apocalypse. 

Revelations, Private. — There are two kinds of 
revelations: (1) universal revelations, which are con- 
tained in the Bible or in the depositum of Apostolic 
tradition transmitted by the Church. These ended 
with the preaching of the Apostles and must be be- 
lieved by all; (2) particular or private revelations 
which are constantly occurring among Christians (see 
Contemplation). When the Church approves pri- 
vate revelations, she declares only that there is 
nothing in them contrary to faith or good morals, and 
that they may be read without danger or even with 
profit; no obligation is thereby imposed on the faith- 
ful to believe them. Speaking of such revelations as 
(e. g.) those of St. HiMcgard (;ii)pr()ved in part by 
Eugcnius III), St. Bridget (by Boniface IX), and St. 
Catherine of Siena (by (Iregory XI) Benedict XIV 
says: "It is not ol)ligatory, nor even possil)le to give 
them the assent of Catholic faith, but only of human 
faith, in conformity with the dictates of prudence, 
which presents them to us as probable and worthy of 
pious belief" (De canon., Ill, liii, 15; II, x.xii, II). 

Illusions connected with private revelations have 
been explained in the article Contemplation. Some 
of them are at first thought suri)rising. Thus a vision 
of an historical scene (e. g., of the life or death of 
Christ) is often only approximately accurate, although 
the visionary may be unaware of this fact, and he may 
be misled, if he believes in its absolute historical fidel- 
ity. This error is quite natural, being bused on the 
assumption that, if the vision comes from (lod, all its 
details (the landscape, dress, words, a(;tions, etc.) 
should be a faithful reproduction of the historic past. 
This assumption is not justified, for accuracy in 
secondary details is not necessary; the main point is 
that the fact, event, or communication revealed be 
strictly true. It may be objected that the Bible con- 
tains historical books, and that thus God may some- 
times wish to reveal certain facts in religious history 
to us exactly. That doubtless is true, when there is 
question of facts which are necessary or useful as a 
basis for religion, in which case the revelation is 
accompanied by proofs that guarantee its accuracy. 
A vision need not guarantee its accuracy in every 
detail. One should thus beware of concluding without 
examination that revelations are to be rejected; the 
prudent course is neither to believe nor to deny them 
unless there is sufficient reason for so doing. Much 
less should one suspect, that the saints have been al- 
ways or very often deceived in their vision. On the 
contrary, such deception is rare, and as a rule in un- 
important matters only. 

There are cases in which we can be certain that a 



revelation is Divine. (1) God can give this certainty 
to the person who receives the revelation (at least 
during it), by granting an insight and an evidence so 
compelling as to exclude all possibility of doubt. We 
can find an analogy in the natural order: our senses 
are subject to many illusions, and yet we frequently 
perceive clearly that we have not been deceived. (2) 
At times others can be equally certain of the revela- 
tion thus vouchsafed. For instance, the Prophets of 
the Old Testament gave indubitable signs of their 
mission; otherwise they would not have been believed. 
There were always false prophets, who deceived some 
of the people, but, inasmuch as the faithful were 
counselled by Holy Writ to distinguish the false from 
the true, it was possible so to distinguish. One incon- 
trovertible proof is the working of a miracle, if it be 
wrought for this purpose and circumstances show this 
to be so. A prophecy reaHzed is equally convincing, 
when it is precise and cannot be the result of chance 
or of a conjecture of the evil spirit. 

Besides these rather rare means of forming an 
opinion, there is another, but longer and more intricate 
method: to discuss the reasons for and against. 
Practically, this examination will often give only a 
probability more or less great. It may be also that the 
revelation can be regarded as Divine in its broad out- 
lines, but doubtful in minor details. Concerning the 
revelations of Marie de Agreda and Anne Catherine 
Emmerich, for example, contradictory opinions have 
been expressed: some believe unhesitatingly every- 
thing they contain, and are annoyed when anyone 
docs not share their confidence; others give the 
revelations no credence whatsoever (generally on a 
priori grounds) ; finally there are many who are sym- 
pathetic, but do not know what to reply when askc^d 
what degree of credibility is to be attributed to the 
writings of these two ecstatics. The truth seems to be 
between the two extreme opinions indicated first. If 
there is question of a particular fact related in these 
books and not mentioned elsewhere, we cannot be 
certain that it is true, expecially in minor details. In 
part icular instances, these visionaries have been mis- 
taken: thus Marie de Agreda tcac^hes, like her con- 
temi)oraries, the existence of cry.slal lieavens, and de- 
clares that one must believe every) liing slie says, al- 
though such an obligation exists only in tlie case of 
the Holy Scriptures. In 1771 Clement XIV forbade 
the continuation of her process of l)eaf ilicalion "on 
account of the book". Catherine Emmerich has like- 
wise given expression to false or unlikely oj)inions: 
she regards the writings of the pseudo-Dionysius as 
due to the Areopagite, and says strange things about 
the terrestrial Paradise, which, according to her, 
exists on an inaccessible mountain towards Tibet. 
If there be question of the general statement of facts 
given in these works, we can admit with probability 
that many of them are true. For these two vision- 
aries led liv(>s that wcsre rcigarded as very holy. Com- 
petent authorities liave judged their ecsta.sies divine. 
It is therefore prudent to aclmit that they received a 
special aissistance from God, preserving them not 
absolutely, but in the main, from error. 

In judging of revelations or visions we may proceed 
in this manner: (a) get detailed information about the 
person who believes himself thus favoured; (b) also 
about the fact of the revelation and the circumstances 
attending it. To prove that a revelation is Divine 
(at least in its general outlines), the method of exclu- 
sion is sometimes employed. It consists in proving 
that neither the demon nor the ecstatic's own ideas 
have interfered (at, least on important points) with 
God's action, and that no one has retouched the revela- 
tion after its occurrence. This method differs from 
the preceding one only in the manner of arranging the 
information obtained, but it is not so convenient. 
To judg(^ revelations or vision.s, we must be acqviainted 
with the character of the person favoured with them 



REVELATIONS 

from a triple point of view: natural, ascetical, and 
mystical. (For those who have been beatified or 
canonized, this inquiry has been already made by 
the Church.) Our inquiry into the visionary's char- 
acter might be pursued as follows: (1) NMiat are his 
natural qualities or defects, from a physical, intellec- 
tual, and especially moral standpoint? If the informa- 
tion is favourable "(if the person is of sound judgment, 
calm imagination; if his acts are dictated by reason 
and not bv enthusiasm, etc.), many causes of illusion 
are thereby excluded. However, a momentary aber- 
ration is still possible. (2) How has the person been 
educated? Can the knowledge of the visionary have 
been derived from books or from conversations with 
theologians? (3) What are the virtues exhibited be- 
fore and after the revelation? Has he made progress 
in holiness and especially in humility? The tree can 
be judged bv its fruits. (4) \Miat extraordinary 
graces of union with God have been received? The 
greater they are the greater the probability in favour 
of the revelation, at least in the main. (5) Has the 
person had other revelations that have been judged 
Divine? Has he made any predictions that have 
been clearly rcaUzed? (6) Has he been subjected to 
heaA-j' trials? It is almost impossible for extraordinary 
favours to be conferred wnthout hea\'y crosses; for 
both are marks of God's friendship, and each is a prep- 
aration for the other. (7) Does he practice the fol- 
lowing rules: fear deception; be open with your 
director; do not desire to have revelations? 

Our information concerning a revelation considered 
in itself or concerning the circumstances that accom- 
panied it might be secured as follows: 

(1) Is there an authentic account, in which nothing 
has been added, suppressed, or corrected? (2) Does 
the revelation agree with the teaching of the Church 
or with the recognized facts of history or natural 
Bcience? (3) Does it teach nothing contrary to good 
morals, and is it unaccompanied by any indecent 
action? The commandments of God are addressed to 
everj'one without exception. More than once the 
demon has persuaded false visionaries that they were 
chosen souls, and that God loved them so much as to 
dispense them from the burdensome restrictions im- 
posed on ordinary mortals. On the contrary, the 
efifect of Divine visitations is to remove us more and 
more from the life of sense, and make us more rigorous 
towards ourselves. (4) Is the teaching helpful towards 
the obtaining of eternal salvation? In Spiritism 
we find the spirits evoked treat only of trifles. They 
reply to idle questions, or descend to providing amuse- 
ment for an assembly (e. g., by moving furniture 
about); deceased relatives or the great jjliilosophcrs 
are interrogated and their replies are woefully com- 
monplace. A revelation is also suspect if its aim is to 
decide a disputed question in theology, history, astron- 
omy, etc. Eternal salvation is the only thing of im- 
portance in the eyes of God. " In all other matters", 
says St. John of the Cross, "He wishes men to have 
recourse to human means " (Montde, II,xxii). Finally, 
a revelation is suspect if it is commonplace, telling 
only what is to be found in every book. It is then 
probable that the visionary is unconsciously repeating 
what he haa learnt by reading. (5) After examining 
all the circumstances accompanying the vision (the 
attitudfy?, acts, words, etc.), do we find that dignity 
and seriousness which become the Divine Majesty? 
The spirits evokcni by Spiritists often speak in a trivial 
manner. Spiritists try to explain this by pretending 
that the spirits are not demons, but the souls of the 
departwl who have retained all their vices ; absurd or 
unbc;(f)rning rci)lifH arf; given by deceased persons who 
are still liars, or lib'-rtinf-s, frivolous or myslifiers, etc. 
But if that be t¥>, communications with these degrarled 
beings is evidently rL-mgcrouH. In Protestant "re- 
vivals" aswrnbled crowds bewail their nins, but in a 
BtrangCj exaggerated way, as if frenzied or intoxicated. 



6 REVELATIONS 

It must be admitted that they are inspired by a good 
principle: a very ardent sentiment of the love of God 
and of repentance. But to this is added another ele- 
ment that cannot be regarded as Divine: a neuro- 
pathic enthusiasm, which is contagious and sometimes 
develops so far as to produce convulsions or repugnant 
contortions. Sometimes a kind of unknown language 
is spoken, but it consists in reality of a succession of 
meaningless sounds. (6) What sentiments of peace, 
or, on the other hand, of disturbance, are experienced 
during or after the revelation? Here is the rule as 
formulated by St. Catherine of Siena and St. Ignatius: 
"With persons of good will [it is only of such that we 
are here treating] the action of the good spirit [God 
or His Angels] is characterized by the production of 
peace, joy, security, courage; except perhaps at the 
first moment." Note the restriction. The Bible 
often mentions this disturbance at the first moment 
of the revelation; the Blessed Virgin experienced it 
w'hen the Angel Gabriel appeared to her. The action 
of the demon produces quite the contrary effect; 
"With persons of good wnll he produces, except per- 
haps at the first moment, disturbance, sorrow, dis- 
couragement, perturbation, gloom." In a word the 
action of Satan encounters a mysterious resistance of 
the soul. (7) It often happens that the revelation 
inspires an exterior work — for instance, the establish- 
ment of a new devotion, the foundation of a new reli- 
gious congregation or association, the revision of the 
constitutions of a congregation, etc., the building of a 
church or the creation of a pilgrimage, the reformation 
of the lax spirit in a certain body, the preaching of a 
new spirituality, etc. In these cases the value of the 
proposed work must be carefully examined : is it good 
in itself, useful, filling a need, not injurious to other 
works, etc.? (8) Have the revelations been subjected 
to the tests of time and discussion? (9) If any work 
has been begun as a result of the revelation, has 
it produced great si)iritual fruit? Have the sovereign 
pontiffs and the bishops believed this to be so, and 
have they assisted the progress of the work? This is 
very well illustrated in the cases of the Scapular of 
Mount Carmel, the devotion to the Sacred Heart, the 
miraculous medal. These are the signs that enable us 
to judge with probability if a revelation is Divine. 
In the case of certain persons very closely united to 
God, the slow study of these signs has been sometimes 
aided or replaced by a supernatural intuition; this is 
what is known as the infused gift of the discernment 
of spirits. 

As regards the rules of conduct, the two principal 
have been explained in the article on Contemplation, 
namely (1) if the revelation leads solely to the love of 
God and the saints, the director may provisionally 
regard it as Divine; (2) at the beginning, the visionary 
should do his best to repulse the revelation quietly. 
He should not desire to receive it, otherwise he will be 
exposing himself to the risk of being deceived. Here 
are some further rules: (a) the director nuist be con- 
tent to proceed slowly, not to express astonishment, 
to treat the person gently. If he were to be luirsh or 
distrustful, he would intimidate the soul he is direct- 
ing, and incline it to conceal important details from 
him; (b) he must be very careful to urge the soul to 
make progress in the way of sanctity. He will point 
out that the only value of the visions is in the spiritual 
fruit that they produce; (c) he will pray fervently, 
and have the subject he is directing pray, that the 
necessary light may be granted. God cannot fail to 
make known the true path to those who ask Him 
humbly. If on the contrary a per.son confided solely 
in his natural prudence, he would expose himself to 
punishment for his self-sufficiency; (d) the visionary 
should be perfectly calm and patient if his superiors 
do not allow him to carry out the enterprises that he 
deems inspired by Heaven or r(!vealed. One who, 
when confronted with this opposition, becomes im- 



REVILLE 



REVOLUTION 



patient or discouraged, shows that he has very little 
confidence in the power of God and is but little con- 
formed to His will. If God wishes the project to 
succeed, He can make the obstacles suddenly dis- 
appear at the time appointed by Him. A very striking 
example of this Divine delay is to be found in the life 
of St. Juliana, the Cistercian prioress of Mont-Cor- 
nillon, near Liege (1192-1258). It is to her that the 
institution of the feast of the Blessed Sacrament is 
due. All her life was passed in awaiting the hour of 
God, which she was .lever to see, for it came only 
more than the cemury after the beginning of the 
revelations. 

As regards inspirations ordinarily, those who have 
not passed the period of tranquillity or a complete 
union, must beware of the idea that they hear su- 
pernatural words; unless the evidence is irresistible, 
they should attribute them to the activity of their own 
imaginations. But they may at least experience in- 
spirations or impulses more or less strong, which seem 
to point out to them how to act in difficult circum- 
stances. This is a minor form of revelation. The 
same line of conduct should be followed as in the 
latter case. We must not accept them blindly and 
against the dictates of reason, but weigh the reasons 
for and against, consult a prudent director, and decide 
only after applying the rules for the discernment of 
spirits. The attitude of reserve that has just been 
laid down does not apply to simple sudden and illu- 
minating views of faith, which enable one to understand 
in a higher manner not novelties, but the truths 
admitted by the Church. Such enlightenment can- 
not have any evil result. It is on the contrary a very 
precious grace, which should be carefully welcomed 
and utilized. 

Consult the writings of St. Teresa and St. John of the Cross, 
passim; Philip of the Blessed Trinity, Summa theologiw 
mysticm (Lyons, 1656), pt. II, tr. iii; de V.\llgornera, Mystica 
theologia (Barcelona, 1662), Q. ii, disp. 5; Lopez de Ezquerra, 
Lucerna mystica (Venice, 1692), tr. v; Amort, De revelationibus 
(Augsburg, 1744) ; Benedict XIV, De servorum Dei canonizatione 
(Rome, 1767), 1. Ill, c. liii; Scaramelli, Dire«oriomiis<ico (Venice, 
1754), tr. iv; Schram, Insiitutiones theologiw mysticcE (Ausgburg, 
1777), pt. II, c. iv; St. Liguori, Homo aposlolicus (Venice, 1782), 
append, i, n. 19; Ribet, La mystique divine, II (Paris, 1879); 
Poulain, Des graces d'oraison (5th ed., Paris, 1909), tr. The 
Graces of Interior Prayer (London, 1910). 

Aug. Poulain. 

Reville, Stephen. See Sandhurst, Diocese of. 

Revocation, the act of recalling or annulling, 
the reversal of an act, the recalling of a grant, or the 
making void of some deed previously existing. This 
term is of wide application in canon law. Grants, 
laws, contracts, sentences, jurisdiction, appointments 
are at times revoked by the grantor, his successor, 
or superior according to the prescriptions of law. 
Revocation without just cause is illicit, though often 
valid. Laws and customs are revoked when, owing 
to change of circumstances, they cease to be just and 
reasonable. Concordats (q. v.) are revocable when 
they redound to the serious injury of the Church. 
Minors and ecclesiastical institutions may have 
sentences in certain civil trials set aside {Restitutio 
in integrum). Contracts by which ecclesiastical prop- 
erty is alienated are sometimes rescindable. A 
judge may revoke his own interlocutory sentence but 
not a definitive judicial sentence. Many appoint- 
ments are revocable at will; others require a judicial 
trial or other formalities. (See Benefice; Facul- 
ties, Canonical; Indults, Pontifical; Jurisdic- 
tion, Ecclesiastical.) 

Andrew B. Meehan. 

Revolution, English, of 1688.— James II, hav- 
ing reached the climax of his power after the suc- 
cessful suppression of Monmouth's rebellion in 1685, 
then had the Tory reaction in his favour, complete 
control over Parliament and the town corporations, 
a regular army in England, a thoroughly Catholic 
army in process of formation in Ireland, and a large 



revenue granted by Parliament for life. His policy 
was to govern England as absolute monarch and to 
restore Catholics to their full civil and rehgious rights. 
Unfortunately, both prudence and statesmanship 
were lacking, with the result that in three years the 
king lost his throne. The history of the Revolution 
resolves itself into a catalogue of various ill-judged 
measures which alienated the support of the Es- 
tablished Church, the Tory party, and the nation as 
a whole. The execution of Monmouth (July, 1685) 
made the Revolution possible, for it led to the Whig 
party accepting William of Orange as the natural 
champion of Protestantism against the attempts of 
James. Thus the opposition gained a centre round 
which it consolidated with ever-increasing force. 

What the Catholics as a body desired was freedom 
of worship and the repeal of the penal laws; but a 
small section of them, desirous of political power, 
aimed chiefly at the repeal of the Test Act of 1673 
and the Act of 1678 which excluded Catholics from 
both houses of Parliament. Unfortunately James fell 
under the influence of this section, which was directed 
by the unprincipled Earl of Sunderland, and he de- 
cided on a policy of repeal of the Test Act. Circum- 
stances had caused this question to be closely bound 
up with that of the army. For James, who placed 
his chief reliance on his soldiers, had increased the 
standing army to .30,000, 13,000 of whom, partly 
officered by Catholics, were encamped on Hounslow 
Heath to the great indignation of London which re- 
garded the camp as a menace to its liberties and a 
centre of disorder. ParUament demanded that the 
army should be reduced to normal dimensions and 
the Catholic officers dismissed; but James, realizing 
that the test would not be repealed, prorogued Parlia- 
ment and proceeded to exercise the "dispensing and 
suspending power". By this he claimed that it was 
the prerogative of the crown to dispense with the 
execution of the penal laws in individual cases and to 
suspend the operation of any law altogether. To 
obtain the sanction of the Law Courts for this doc- 
trine a test case, known as Hales's case, was brought 
to decide whether the king could allow a Catholic 
to hold office in the army without complying with the 
Test Act. After James had replaced some of the 
judges by more complaisant lawyers, he obtained a 
decision that "it was of the king's prerogative to 
dispense with penal laws in particular instances". 
He acted on the decision by appointing Catholics 
to various positions. Lord Tyrconnel becoming Lord 
Lieutenant of Ireland, Lord Arundel Lord Privy 
Seal, and Lord Bellasyse Lord Treasurer in place of 
the Tory minister Lord Rochester, who was regarded 
as the chief mainstay of the Established Church. 
The Church of England, which was rendered uneasy 
by the dismissal of Rochester, was further alienated 
by the king's action in appointing a Court of High 
Commis.sion, which suspended the Bishop of London 
for refusing to inhibit one of his clergy from preach- 
ing anti-Catholic sermons. The feehng was in- 
tensified by the liberty which Catholics enjoyed in 
London during 1686. Public chapels were opened, 
including one in the Royal Palace, the Jesuits founded 
a large school in the Savoy, and Catholic ecclesiastics 
appeared openly at Court. 

At this juncture James, desiring to counterbalance 
the loss of Anglican support, offered toleration to the 
dissenters, who at the beginning of his reign had been 
severely persecuted. The influence of William Penn 
induced the king to issue on 4 April, 1687, the Dec- 
laration of Indulgence, by which liberty of worship 
was granted to all. Catholic and Protestant alike. 
He also replaced Tory churchmen by Whig dissenters 
on the municipal corporations and the commission 
of the peace, and, having dissolved ParHament, 
hoped to secure a new House of Commons which 
would repeal both the penal laws and the Test. But 



REVOLUTION 



8 



REVOLUTION 



he underestimated two difficulties, the hatred of the 
dissenters for "poper>-" and their distrust of royal 
absolutism. His action in promoting Catholics to 
the Privy Council, the judicial bench, and the otiices 
of Lord "lieutenant. sherifT, and magistrate, wounded 
these susceptibilities, while he further oflfended the 
Anglicans by attempting to restore to Catholics some 
of their ancient foundations in the universities. 
Catholics obtained some footing both at Christ 
Church and I'niversitv College, Oxford, and in March 
1688, James gave the presidency of Magdalen Col- 
lege to Honaventure (Jiffard, the Catholic Vicar 
Apostolic of the Midland District. This restoration 
of Magdalen as a Catholic college created the great- 
est alarm, not only among the holders of benefices 
throughout the country, but also among the owners 
of ancient abbey lands. The presence of the papal 
nuncio, Mgr d'Adda, at Court and the public position 
granted to the four Catholic bishops, who had re- 
cently been appointed as vicars ApostoUc, served to 
increase both the di.slike of the dissenters to support 
a king whose acts, while of doubtful legality, were 
also subversive of Protestant interests, and likewise 
the difficulty of the Anglicans in jjractising passive 
obedience in face of such provocation. Surrounded 
by the.se comphcations, James issued his second 
Declaration of Indulgence in April, 1G88, and ordered 
that it should be read in all the churches. This 
strained Anglican obedience to the breaking point. 
The Archbishop of Canterbury and six of his suf- 
fragans presented a petition questioning the dispens- 
ing power. The seven bishops were sent to the Tower 
prosecuted, tried, and acquitted. This trial proved 
to be the immediate occasion of the Revolution, for, 
as Halifax said, "it hath brought all Protestants to- 
gether and bound them up into a knot that cannot 
easily be untied". While the bishops were in the 
Tower, another epoch-marking event occurred — the 
birth of an heir to the crown (10 June, 1688). Hither- 
to the hopes of the king's opponents had been fixed 
on the succession of his Protestant daughter Mary, 
wife of William of Orange, the Protestant leader. 
The birth of Prince James now opened up the pro.s- 
pect of a Catholic; dynasty just at a moment when the 
ancient anti-Catholic bigotry had been aroused by 
events both in England and France. For besides the 
ill-a<i vised acts of James, the persecution of the 
Huguenots by I^uis XIV, consequent on the Revoca- 
tion of the Edict of Nantes in 1685, revived old re- 
ligious animosities. England was flooded with 
French Protestant refugcies bearing everywhere the 
tale of a Catholic king's cruelty. 

Unfortunately for James his whole foreign policy 
ha<l been one of subsc^rvience to France, and at this 
moment of crisis the power of F'rance was a menace 
U) all Europ«!. Even Cathcilic Austria and Spain 
HUpp<jrted the threatened Protestant states, and 
the p<jp<' himself, outrag<;d by Louis XIV in a suc- 
c^rssion of wrongs, joincul the universal resistance; 
to France and was alli(!d with William of Orange 
and other Protestant sovereigns against Louis and his 
single supporter, James. William had long watched 
the situation in England, and during 1687 had re- 
c<'ived communications from the. op[)osifion in which 
it was agrwjd that, whenev(!r revolutionary action 
Bhf)uld bf'cf)me iwlvisable, it should be carried out 
under William's guiriance. As early as th(! autumn 
of 1687 the papal secretary of state was aware; of the 
pK»t to dfrllirone James and make Mary qu(!en, and 
a P'rench agent dispatched the news to Plngland 
through France. The Duke of Norfolk then in 
R/)me aWj learned it, and sent intelligence to the 
king before 18 Df!C.. 1687 rietter of d'Estrc'-es to 
Jjouvoifl, cited by Ranke, II, 424). liut James, 
though early informed, was reluctant to believe 
that his (v>n-in-law would hejul an insurrection against 
him. On the day the seven bishops were acquitted 



seven English statesmen sent a letter to William in- 
viting him to rescue the religion and liberties of Eng- 
land. But William was threatened by a French army 
on the Belgian frontier, and could not take action. 
Louis XIV made a last etTort to save James, and 
warned the Dutch States General that he would re- 
gard any attack on England as a declaration of war 
against France. This was keenly resented by James, 
who regarded it as a .slight upon English indepen- 
dence, and he repudiated t lie charge that he hail made 
a secret treaty with France. Thereupon J.,ouis left 
him to his fate, removed the Fren(;h troops from 
Flanders to begin a campaign against the empire, 
and thus William was free to move. When it was 
too late James realized his danger. By hasty con- 
cessions granted one after another he tried to undo 
his work and win back the Tory churchmen to his 
cause. But he did not remove the Catholic officers 
or suggest the restriction of the dispensing power. 
In October Sunderland was dismissed from office, 
but William was already on the seas, and, though 
driven back by a storm, he re-embarked and landed 
at Torbay on /j Nov., 1688. James at first prepareil 
to resist. The army was sent to intercept William, 
but by the characteristic treachery of Churchill, 
disafTection was spread, and the king, not knowing 
in whom he could place confidence, attempted to 
escape. At Sheerne.ss he was stopped and sent back 
to London, where he might have proved an embarras- 
sing prisoner had not his escape been connived at. 
On 23 Dec, 1688, he left England to take refuge with 
Louis XIV; the latter received him generously and 
granted him both palace and pension. On his first 
departure the mob had risen in London against the 
Catholics, and attacked chapels and houses, plunder- 
ing and carrying off the contents. Even the am- 
bassadors' houses were not spared, and the Spanish 
and Sardinian embassy chapels were destroyed. 
Bishops Giffard and Leyburn were arrested and com- 
mitted to the Tower. Father Petre had escai)ed, 
and the Nuncio disguised himself as a servant at 
the house of the envoy from Savoy, till he was en- 
abled to obtain from William a passport. So far as 
the English Catholics were concerned, the result of 
the Revolution was that their restoration to freedom 
of worship and liberation from the penal laws was 
delayed for a century and more. 

So completfily had James lost the confidence of the 
nation that William experienced no opposition and 
the Revolution ran its course in an almost regular 
way. A Convention Parliament met on 22 .Jan., 
1689, declared that James "having withdrawn him- 
self out of the kingdom, had abdicated the govern- 
ment, and that the throne was thereby vacant", and 
"that experience had shown it to be inconsistent 
with the safety and welfare of this Protestant king- 
dom to be governed by a Popish Prince". The 
crown was offercid to William and Mary, who ac- 
cepted the Declaration of Right, which laid dinvn the 
principles of the constitution with r(;gard to the flis- 
pensiiig power, th(; liberties of Parliament, and other 
matters. After their i)roclaination as king and (lueen, 
the Declaration was ratified by the Bill of Rights, 
and the work of tlu; Revolution was c()nii)lete. 
English Catholics have indeed had good cause to 
lament the failure of th(! king's well-meant, if unwise, 
attempts to restore their liberty, and to regret that 
he did not act on the wise advice; of Pope Innocent 
XI and Cardinal Howard to proc(;ed by slow degrees 
and obtain first the repeal of the penal laws b(;fore 
going on to restore their full civil rights. But on the 
other hand we can now realize that the Revolution 
had the advantage of finally closing the long struggle 
between king and Parliament that had lasted for 
nearly a century, and of establishing general prin- 
ciples of religious toleration in which Catholics were 
bound sooner or later to be included. 



REVOLUTION 



REVOLUTION 



LiNGARD, Hist, of England, X (London, 1849), the standard 
Catholic account; Lodge in Hunt and Poole, Political Hist, of 
England, VIII (London, 1910); Temperley in Cambridge Modern 
Hist., V (London, 1908); Trevelyan, England under the Stuarts 
(London, 1904); Wtatt-Davies, Hist, of England for Catholic 
Schools (London, 1903); Green, Hist, of the English People 
(London, 1877-80); Macaulay, Hist, of England (London, 1849); 
Taswell-Langmead, English Constitutional Hist. (London, 
1875); Bright, Hist, of England, 2nd period (London, 1880); 
GuizOT, Pourquoi la Revolution a-t-elle reussif {1640-1688) 
(Paris, 1850) ; Mazure, Hist, de la revol. de 1688 (3 vols., Paris, 
1825). For earlier accounts consult Defoe, Revol. of 1688 re- 
printed in Arber, English Garner, XII (London, 1903) ; Eachard, 
Hist, of the Revol. in 1688 (London, 1725); Burnet, Hist, of my 
Own Times (last edition, Oxford, 1897-1900); Dodd, Church 
Hist. (Wolverhampton vere Brussels, 1737-42); Speke, Secret 
Hist, of the happy Revol., 1688 (London, 1715). 

Edwin Burton. 

Revolution, French. — The last thirty years 
have given us a new version of the history of the 
French Revolution, the most diverse and hostile 
schools having contributed to it. The philosopher, 
Taine, drew attention to the affinity between the 
revolutionary and what he calls the classic spirit, that 
is, the spirit of abstraction which gave rise to Car- 
tesianism and produced certain masterpieces of French 
literature. Moreover he admirably demonstrated the 
mechanism of the local revolutionary committees and 
showed how a daring Jacobin minority was able to 
enforce its will as that of "the people ". Following up 
this line of research M. Augustin Cochin has quite 
recently studied the mechanism of the socieles de 
pensee in which the revolutionary doctrine was devel- 
oped and in which were formed men quite prepared 
to put this doctrine into execution. The influence of 
freemasonry in the P>ench Revolution proclaimed by 
Louis Blanc and by freemasonry itself is proved by 
the researches of M. Cochin. Sorel has brought out 
the connexion between the diplomacy of the Revolu- 
tion and that of the old regime. His works prove 
that the Revolution did not mark a break in the 
continuity of the foreign policy of France. The 
radically inclined historical school, founded and led by 
M. Aulard, has published numerous useful documents 
as well as the review, "La Revolution Frangaise". 
Two years since, a schism occurred in this school, M. 
Mathiez undertaking in opposition to I\L Aulard the 
defence of Robespierre, in consequence of which he 
founded a new review, "LesAnnales Revolution- 
naires". The "Societe d'histoire contemporaine", 
founded under Catholic auspices, has published a 
series of texts bearing on revolutionary history. 
Lastly the works of Abbe Sicard have revealed in the 
clergy who remained faithful to Rome various ten- 
dencies, some legitimist, others more favourable to 
the new political forms, a new side of the history of 
the French clergy being thus developed. Such are 
the most recent additions to the history of the French 
Revolution. This article, however, will emphasize 
more especially the relations between the Revolution 
and the Church (see France). 

Meeting of the Estates. — The starting point of 
the French Revolution was the convocation of the 
States General by Louis XVL They comprised three 
orders, nobility, clergy, and the third estate, the 
last named being permitted to have as many members 
as the two other orders together. The electoral 
regulation of 24 January. 1789, assured the parochial 
clergy a large majority in the meetings of the bailliages 
which were to elect clerical representatives to the 
States General. While chapters were to send to 
these meetings only a single delegate for ten canons, 
and^ each convent only one of its members, all the 
cures were permitted to vote. The number of the 
"order" of clergy at the States General exceeded 
300, among whom were 44 prelates, 208 cures, 50 
canons and commendatory abbots, and some monks. 
The clergy advocated almost as forcibly as did the 
Third Estate the establishment of a constitutional 
government based on the separation of the powers, 



the periodical convocation of the States General, their 
supremacy in financial matters, the responsibility of 
ministers, and the regular guarantee of individual 
liberty. Thus the true and great reforms tending to 
the establishment of liberty were advocated by the 
clergy on the eve of tlie Revolution. When the 
Estates assembled 5 May, 1789, the Third Estate 
demanded that the verification of powers should be 
made in common by the three orders, the object being 
that the Estates should form but one assembly in 
which the distinction between the "orders" should 
disappear and where every member was to have a 
vote. Scarcely a fourth of the clergy had formally 
advocated this reform, but from the opening of the 
Estates it was evident that the parochial clergy 
desired individual voting which would give the mem- 
bers of the Third Estate, the advocates of reform, 
an effectual preponderance. 

As early as 23 May, 1789, the cur^s at the house 
of the Archbishop of Bordeaux were of the opinion 
that the power of the deputies should be verified 
in the general assembly of the Estates, and when 
on 17 June the members of the Third Estate pro- 
claimed themselves the "National Assembly", the 
majority of the clergy decided (19 June) to join them. 
As the higher clergy and the nobility still held out, 
the king caused the hall where the meetings of the 
Third Estate were held to be closed (20 June), where- 
upon the deputies, with their president, Bailly, re- 
paired to the Jeu de Paume and an oath was taken 
not to disband till they had provided France with a 
constitution. After ^lirabeau's thundering speech 
(23 June) addressed to the Marquis de Dreux-Brcze, 
master-of-ceremonies to Louis X\T, the king himself 
(27 June) invited the nobility to join the Third 
Estate. Louis XVFs dismissal of the reforming 
minister, Necker, and the concentration of the royal 
army about Paris, brought about the insurrection 
of 14 July, and the capture of the Bastille. M. Funck- 
Brentano has destroyed the legends which rapidly 
arose in connexion with the celebrated fortress. 
There was no rising en masse of the people of Paris, 
and the number of the besiegers was but a thousand 
at most; only seven prisoners were found at the 
Bastille, four of whom were forgers, one a young 
man guilty of monstrous crimes and who for the sake 
of his family was kept at the Bastille that he might 
escape the death-penalty, and two insane prisoners. 
But in the public opinion the Bastille symbolized 
royal absolutism and the capture of this fortress was 
regarded as the overthrow of the whole regime, and 
foreign nations attached great importance to the 
event. Louis XVI yielded before this agitation; 
Necker was recalled; Bailly became Mayor of Paris; 
Lafayette, commander of the national "militia; the 
tri-colour was adopted, and Louis X\T consented to 
recognize the title of "National Constituent Assem- 
bly". Te Deums and processions celebrated the 
taking of the Bastille; in the pulpits the Abbe 
Fauchet preached the harmony of religion and 
liberty. As a result of the establishment of the "vote 
by order" the political privileges of the clergy may 
be considered to have ceased to exist. 

During the night of 4 August, 1789, at the instance 
of the Vicomte de Noailles, the Assembly voted with 
extraordinary enthusiasm the abolition of all priv- 
ileges and feudal rights and the equality of all French- 
men. A blow was thereby struck at the wealth of the 
clergy, but the churchmen were the first to give an 
example of sacrifice. Plurality of benefices and 
annates was abolished and the redemption of tithes 
was agreed upon, but two days later, the higher 
clergy becoming uneasy, demanded another discus- 
sion of the vote which had carried the redemption. 
The result was the abolition, pure and simple, of 
tithes without redemption. In the course of the dis- 
cussion Buzot declared that the property of the clergy 



REVOLUTION 



10 



REVOLUTION 



belonged to the nation. Louis X\'rs conscience began 
to be alarmed. He temporized for five weeks, then 
merely published the decrees as general principles, 
reserving the right to approve or reject later the 
measures which the Assemblj' would take to enforce 
them. 

Declaration of the Rights of Man. Cathol- 
icism Ce.^ses to be the Religion of the State. — 
Before giving P>ance a constitution the Assembly 
judged it necessarj' to draw up a "Declaration of the 
Rights of Man and of the Citizen", which should form 
a preamble to the Constitution. Camus's suggestion 
that to the declaration of the rights of man should be 
added a declaration of his duties, was rejected. The 
Declaration of Rights mentions in its preamble that 
it is made in the presence and under the auspices of 
the Supreme Being, but out of three of the articles 
proposed by the clergy, guaranteeing the respect due 
to religion and public worship, two were rejected after 
speeches by the Protestant, Rabaut Saint-Etienne, 
and ^lirabeau, and the only article relating to religion 
was worded as follows: "No one shall be disturbed 
for his opinions, even religious, provided their mani- 
festation does not disturb the puljlic order established 
by law." In fact it was the wish of the Assembly 
that Catholicism should cease to be the religion of the 
State and that liberty of worship should be estab- 
lished. It subsequently declared Protestants eligible 
to all offices (24 Dec, 1789), restored to their posses- 
sions and status as Frenchmen the heirs of Protestant 
refugees (10 July and 9 Dec, 1790), and uook measures 
in favour of the Jews (28 January, 2C July, 16 Aug., 
1790). But it soon became evident in the discussions 
relating to the Civil Constitution of the clergy that 
the A.ssembly desired that the Catholic Church, to 
which the majority of the French people belonged, 
should be subject to the State and really organized 
by the State. 

The rumours that Louis XVI sought to fly to Metz 
and place himself under the protection of the army 
of Bouill6 in order to organize a counter-revolu- 
tionarj' movement and his refusal to promulgate the 
Declaration of the Rights of Man, brought about an 
uprising in Paris. The mob set out to Versailles, 
and amid insults brought back the king and queen 
to Paris (6 Oct., 1789). Thenceforth the Assembly 
sat at Paris, first at the archiepiscopal residence, then 
at the Tuileries. At this moment the idea of taking 
possession of the goods of the clergy in order to meet 
financial exigencies began to appear in a number of 
journals and pamphlets. The plan of confiscating 
this property, which had been suggested as early 
as 8 August by the Marquis de Lacostc, -wuh resumed 
(24 Sept.) by the economist, Dupont de Nemours, 
and on 10 October was supported in the name of the 
Committee of Finances in a report which caused 
scandal by Talleyrand, Bishop of Autun, who under 
the old regime had been one of the two "general 
agents" charged with defending the financial in- 
terests of the French clergv. On 12 October 
Mirabeau requ(iKt<^5d the Assernbly to decree (1) that 
the ownership of the church i)roperty belonged to 
the nation that it might provide for the support of 
the Drif«t«; (2) that the salary of each curt'- should 
not be less than 12CJ0 livres. The plan was discussed 
from 13 OctoV>er to 2 November. It was opposed 
by lioisgelin, la Luzerne, Bonal, Dillon, the Abb*'; de 
Montf«fjuieu, and tlic Abb('; Maury, who contended 
that the clergy being a moral person could be an 
owner, disput^^l the ffstimaffs placed upon the 
wealth of the clergy, and suggested that fhcir nos- 
BfHKion)" should simfily hctvc as a guarantee for a loan 
of 4(KJ.fKK),fKK) livres to the nation. The a^lvocates 
of confisfatiori maintained that the clergy no longer 
existwl as an order, that the; property wan like an 
escheatefl Huccfrssion, and that thr- State had th«' right 
to claim it, that moreover the Royal Government had 



never expressly recognized the clergj' as a proprietor, 
that in 1749 Louis XV had forbidden the clergy to 
receive anything without the authoritj' of the State, 
and that he had confiscated the property of the 
Society of Jesus. Malouet took an intermediate 
stand and demanded that the State should confiscate 
only superfluous ecclesiastical possessions, but that 
the parochial clergy should be endowed with land. 
Finally, on 2 November, 1789, the Assembly decided 
that the possessions of the clergy be "placed at the 
disposal" of the nation. The results of this vote 
were not long in following. The first was Treilhard's 
motion (17 December), demanding in the name of the 
ecclesiastical committee of the Assembly, the closing 
of useless convents, and decreeing that the State 
should permit the religious to release themselves 
from their monastic vows. 

The discussion of this project began in February, 
1790, after the Assembly by the creation of assemblies 
of departments, districts, and commons, had pro- 
ceeded to the administrative reorganization of France. 
The discussion was again very violent. On 13 
February, 1790, the Assembly, swayed by the more 
radical suggestions of Barnave and Thouret, decreed 
as a "constitutional article" that not only should the 
law no longer recognize monastic vows, but that re- 
ligious orders and congregations were and should 
remain suppressed in France, and that no others 
should be established in the future. After having 
planned a partial suppression of monastic orders the 
Assembly voted for their total suppression. The 
proposal of Cazalcs (17 P^ebruary) calling for the dis- 
solution of the Constituent Assembly, and the right- 
ful efforts made by the higher clergy to prevent 
Catholics from purchasing the confiscated goods of 
the Church provoked rejirisals. On 17 March, 1790, 
the Assembly decided that the 400,000,000 livres^ 
worth of alienated ecclesiastical properties should 
be sold to municipalities which in turn should sell 
them to private buyers. On 14 April it decided that 
the maintenance of Catholic worship should be 
provided for without recourse to the revenues of 
former ecclesiastical property and that a suflficient 
sum, fixed at more than 133,000,000 livres for the 
first year, should be entered in the budget for the 
allowances to be made to the clergy; on 17 April 
the decree was passed dealing with the assignats, 
papers issued by the Government paying interest 
at 5 per cent, and which were to be accepted as 
money in payment for the ecclesiastical jjrojierty, 
thenceforth called national property; finally, on 9 
July, it was decreed that all this property should 
be put up for sale. 

Civil Constitution of the Clergy. — On 6 
February, 1790, the Assembly charged its ecclesias- 
tical committee, appointed 20 Aug., 1789, and com- 
posed of fifteen members to prepare the reorganiza- 
tion of the clergy. Fifteen new members were added 
to the committee on 7 February. The "constitu- 
ents" were disciples of the eighteenth-century 
philosophes who subordinated religion to the State; 
moreover, to understand their standpoint it is well 
to bear in mind that many of them were jurists im- 
bued with Gallican and Josephist ideas. Finally 
Taine has proved that in many respects their re- 
ligious policy merely followed in the footstei)s of the 
old regime, but while the old regime protected the 
Catholic Church and made it llie church exclusively 
recognizcfl, the constituents planned to enslave it 
after h.-iving stripyx'd it of its privileges. Further- 
more they did not take into account that there are 
mixed matters that can only be regulated after an 
agreement with ecclesiastical authority. They were 
especially incensed against the clergy after the 
consistorial address in which Pius VI (22 March, 
1790) reproved some of the measures already taken 
by the Constituent Assembly, and by the news re- 



REVOLUTION 



11 



REVOLUTION 



ceived from the West and kSouth where the just 
dissatisfaction of Cathohc consciences had provoked 
disturbances; in particular the election of the Prot- 
estant Rabaut Saint-Etienne to the presidency of 
the National Assembly brought about commotions 
at Toulouse and Nimes. Under the influence of these 
disturbances the Civil Constitution of the Clergy 
was developed. On 29 May, 1790, it was laid before 
the Assembly. Bonal, Bishop of Clermont, and 
some members of the Right requested that the proj- 
ect should be submitted to a national council or to 
the pope. But the Assembly proceeded ; it discussed 
the Civil Constitution of the Clergy from 1 June to 
12 July, 1790, on which date it was passed. 

This Constitution compri.sed four titles. Title 
I, Ecclesiastical Offices: Diocesan boundaries were 
to agree with those of departments, 57 episcopal 
sees being thus suppressed. The title of archbishop 
was abolished; out of S3 remaining bishoprics 10 
were called metropolitan bishoprics and given juris- 
diction over the neighbouring dioceses. No section 
of French territory should recognize the authority 
of a bishop living abroad, or of his delegates, and this, 
adds the Constitution, "without prejudice to the 
unity of faith and the communion which shall be 
maintained with the head of the Universal Church". 
Canonries, prebends, and priories were aboli-shed. 
There should no longer be any sacerdotal posts es- 
pecially devoted to fulfilling the conditions of Mass 
foundations. All appeals to Rome were forbidden. 
Title II, Appointment to Benefices: Bishops should 
be appointed by the Electoral Assembly of the de- 
partment; they should be invested and consecrated 
by the metropolitan and take an oath of fidelity 
to the nation, the King, the Law. and the Constitu- 
tion; they should not seek any confirmation from the 
pope. Pari.sh priests should be elected by the elec- 
toral as.semblies of the districts. Thus all citizens, 
even Protestants, Jews, and nominal Catholics, might 
name titulars to ecclesiastical offices, and the first 
obligation of priests and bishops was to take an oath 
of fidelity to the Constitution which denied to the 
Holy See any effective power over the Church. 
Title III, Salary of ministers of Religion: The Con- 
stitution fixed the salary of the Bishop of Paris at 
51,000 livres (about $10,200), that of bishops of 
towns whose population exceeded 50,000 souls at 
20,000 livres (about $4000), that of other bishops at 
12,000 livres (about $2400), that of curfe at a sum 
ranging from 6000 (about $1200) to 1200 livres 
(about $240). For the lower clergy this was a bet- 
terment of their material condition, especially as the 
real value of these sums was two and one-half times 
the present amount. Title IV, dealing with resi- 
dence, made very severe conditions regarding the ab- 
sences of bishops and priests. 

At the festival of the Federation (14 July, 1790) 
Talleyrand and three hundred priests ofliciating at the 
altar of the nation erected on the Champs-de-Mars 
wore the tri-coloured girdle above their priestly 
vestments and besought the ble.ssing of God on the 
Revolution. Deputations were present from the 
towns of France, and there was inaugurated a sort 
of cult of the Fatherland, the remote origin of all 
the "Revolutionary cults". On 10 July, 1790, in a 
confidential Brief to Louis XVI, Pius VI expressed the 
alarm with which the project under discussion filled 
him. He commissioned two ecclesiastics who were 
ministers of Louis XVI, Champion de Cice and 
Lefranc de Pompignan, to urge the king not to sign 
the Civil Constitution of the Clergy. On 28 July, 
in a letter to the pope, Louis XVI replied that he 
would be compelled, "with death in his soul", to 
promulgate the Constitution, that he would reserve 
the right to broach as soon as possible the matter 
of some concession, but that if he refused, his life 
and the lives of his family would be endangered. 



The pope replied (17 August) that he still held the 
same opinion of the Constitution, but that he would 
make no public declaration on the subject until 
he consulted with the Sacred College. On 24 August 
the king promulgated the Constitution, for which 
he was blamed by the pope in a confidential Brief 
on 22 September. M. Mathiez claims to have 
proved that the hesitancy of Pius VI was due to 
temporal rather than to spiritual considerations, 
to his serious fears about the affairs of Avignon and the 
Comtat Venaissin, where certain popular parties were 
clamouring for French troops, but the truth is that 
Pius VI, who had made known his opinion of the 
Constitution to two French prelates, was awaiting 
some manifestation on the part of the French epis- 
copate. Indeed the bishops spoke before the pope 
had spoken publicly. At the end of October, 1790, 
they published an "Exposition des principes sur la 
constitution civile du clerge", compiled by Boisgelin, 
Archbishop of Aix, in which they rejected the Con- 
stitution and called upon the faithful to do the same. 
This publication marks the beginning of a violent 
conflict between the episcopate and the Constitution. 
On 27 November, 1790, after a speech bj' Mirabeau, 
a decree stipulated that all bishops and priests should 
within a week, under penalty of losing their offices, 
take the oath to the Constitution, that all who re- 
fused and who nevertheless continued to discharge 
their priestly functions should be prosecuted as 
disturbers of the public peace. The king, who was 
much disturbed by this decree, eventually sanctioned 
it (2(i December, 1790) in order to avoid a rising. 

Hitherto a large section of the lesser clergy had 
shown a certain amount of sympathy for the Revolu- 
tion, but when it was seen that the episcopal members 
of the As.sembly refused to take the oath, thus sac- 
rificing their sees, a number of the priests followed 
this disinterested example. It may be said that from 
the end of 1790 the higher clergy and the truly or- 
thodox elements of the lower clergy were united 
against the revolutionary measures. Thenceforth 
there were two classes, the non-juring or refractory 
priests, who were faithful to Rome and refused the 
oath, and the jurors, sworn, or Constitutional priests, 
who had consented to take the oath. M. de la Gorce 
has recently sought to estimate the exact proportion 
of the priests who took the oath. Out of 125 bishops 
there were only four, Talleyrand of Autun, Brienne of 
Sens, Jarente of Orleans, and Lafond de Savine, of 
Viviers; three coadjutors or bishops in partibus, 
Gobel, Coadjutor Bishop of Bale; Martial de 
Brienne, Coadjutor of Sens; and Dubourg-Miraudet, 
Bishop of Babylon. In the important towns most of 
the priests refused to take the oath. Statistics for 
the small boroughs and the country are more difficult 
to obtain. The national archives preserve the com- 
plete dockets of 42 departments which were sent to 
the Constituent Assembly by the civil authorities. 
This shows that in these 42 departments, of 23,093 
priests called upon to swear, 13,118 took the oath. 
There would be therefore out of 100 priests, 56 to 
57 jurors against 43 to 44 non-jurors. M. de la Gorce 
gives serious reasons for contesting these statistics, 
which were compiled by zealous bureaucrats anxious 
to please the central administrators. He asserts on 
the other hand that the schism had little hold in 
fifteen departments and concludes that in 1791 the 
number of priests faithful to Rome was 52 to 55 out 
of 100; this is a small enough majority, but one 
which M. de la Gorce considers authentic. 

On 5 February, 1791, the Constituent Assembly 
forbade every non-juring priest to preach in pubhc. 
In March the elections to provide for the vacant 
episcopal sees and parishes took place. Disorder 
grew in the Church of France; young and ambitious 
priests, better known for their political than for their 
religious zeal, were candidates, and in many places 



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12 



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owinp to the opposition of good Catholics those elected 
had much difficulty in taking possession of their 
churches. At this juncture, seeing 1h«' Constitutional 
Church thus set uj) in France ;igainst the legitimate 
Church, Pius \l wrote two letters, one to the bishops 
and one to lx)uis X\'I, to inquire if there remained 
anv means to prevent schism; and finally, on 13 
April, 1791, he issued a solemn condenmation of the 
Civil Constitution in a solemn Brief to the clergy 
and the pooplo. On 2 May, 1791, the annexation of 
the Comtat \enaissin and the city of Avignon by the 
P>ench troops marked the rupture of diplomatic 
n-lations between France and tlie Holy See. From 
May, 1791. there was no longer an ambassador from 
France at Rome or a nuncio at Paris. The Brief of 
Pius ^'I encouraged the resistance of the Catholics. 
The Masses celebrated by non-juring priests attracted 
crowds of the faithful. Then mobs gathered and 
beat and outraged nims and other pious women. 
On 7 May, 1791, the Assembly decided that the non- 
juring priests a,s pretres habitues might continue to say 
Ma.ss in parochial churches or conduct their services 
in other churches on condition that they would 
respect the laws and not stir up revolt against the 
Civil Constitution. The Constitutional priests became 
more and more unpopular with good Catholics; 
Sciout's works go to show that the "departmental 
dirfH-tories" hsA to spend their time in organizing 
regular police expeditions to protect the Constitu- 
tional priests in their parishes against the opposition 
of good Catholics, or to prosecute the non-juring 
priests who heroically persisted in remaining at their 
posts. Finally on 9 June, 1791, the Assembly forbade 
the publication of all Bulls or Decrees of the Court of 
Rome, at least until they had been submitted to the 
legislative body and their pubUcation authorized. 
Thus Revolutionary France not only broke with 
Rome, but wished to place a barrier between Rome 
and the Catholics of France. 

The king's tormenting conscience was the chief 
reason for his attempted fhght (20-21 June, 1791). 
Before fleeing he had addressed to the Assembly a 
declaration of his di.ssati.sfaction with the Civil Con- 
stitution of the Clerg>% and once more protested 
against the moral violence which had compelled him 
tfj accept such a document. Halted at Varennes, 
Louis X\T was brought back on 2.5 June, and was 
suspended from his functions till the completion of the 
Constitution, to which he took the oath 13 Sept., 
1791. On 30 Sept., 1791, the Constituent Assembly 
diswjlved, to make way for the Legislative Assembly, 
in which none of the members of the Constituent 
A8K<Tribly could sit. The Constituent As.sembly had 
pa«w*d 2.5(X) laws and reorganized the whole P>ench 
a/lministration. Its chief error from a social stand- 
fXiint, which Anatole I^eroy-Beaulieu calls a capital 
one, was U) paws the Chapelier Decree (15 June, 1791), 
which forbiide working pwple to band tcjgether and 
form associations "for their so-called common in- 
UTfwt". L<*d astray by their spirit of individualism 
and their hatred for certain abuses of the old cor- 
pfjrations, the Omstituents did not understand that 
the world of labour should be organized. They were 
n^pfjrihible for the economic anarchy which reigned 
during the nineUicnth century, and the present syndi- 
cate- movement as well a« the efforts of the social 
Catholics in cfjnforrnity with the Encyclical "Rcrum 
novarum" marks a de«'p and decisive reaction against 
the work f)f the Omstitufnt A8s<!mbly. 

The L?:f;iKLATivK Askk.mhly. — When the Constit- 
uent Asw-mbly flisbandffl (.30 Sept., 1791), France 
was aflame cx>ncfming the religious rjuestion. More 
than half the French pf-oph- did not want tlie new 
Church, the fae-titious creation of the- law; the old 
Church W!iH njine<l, demolished, hunted down, and 
the general amnesty decreed by the C>)nHtituent 
Aaeembly before disbanding could do nothing towards 



restoring peace in the country, where that Assembly's 
bungling work had unsettled the consciences of indi- 
viduals. The parti(>s in the Legislative Assembly 
were soon irreconcilable. The Feuillants, on the 
Right, saw no salvation save in the Constitution; 
the Girondins on the Left, and the Montagnards 
on the Extreme Left, made ready for the Republic. 
There were men who, like the poet Andre Chenier, 
dreamed of a complete separation of Church and 
State. "The priests", he wrote in a letter to the 
"Moniteur" (22 October, 1791), "will not trouble the 
Estates when no one is concerned about them, and 
they will always trouble them while anyone is con- 
cerned about them as at present." But the majority 
of the members of the Legislati\e Assembly had sat 
in the departmental or district assemblies; they had 
fought against the non-juring priests and brought 
violent passions and a hostile spirit to the Legislative 
Assembly. A report from (Jensonne and Gallois to 
the Legislative Assemblj' (9 October, 1791) on the con- 
dition of the provinces of the West denounced the 
non-juring ])riests as exciting the populace to rebellion 
and called for measures against them. It accused 
them of complicity with the emigres bishops. At 
Avignon the Revolutionary L^cuyer, having been 
slain in a church, some citizens reputed to be partizans 
of the pope were thrown into the ancient papal castle 
and strangled (16-17 Oct., 1791). Calvados was also 
the scene of serious disturbances. 

The Legislative Assembly, instead of repairing the 
tremendous errors of the Constituent Assembly, took 
up the question of the non-juring priests. On 29 
November, on the proposal of PYan^oisdeNeuf chateau, 
it decided that if within eight days they did not take 
the civil oath they should be deprived of all salary, 
that they should be placed under the surveillance of 
the authorities, that if troubles arose w'here they 
resided they should be sent away, that they should 
be imprisoned for a year if they persisted in remain- 
ing and for two years if they were convicted of having 
provoked disobedience to the king. Finally it forbade 
non-juring priests the legal exercise of worship. It 
also requested from the departmental directories lists 
of the jurors and non-jurors, that it might, as it said, 
"stamp out the rebellion which disguises itself under 
a pretended dissidence in the exercise of the Catholic 
religion". Thus its decree ended in a threat. But 
this decree was the object of a sharp conflict between 
Louis XVI and the Assembly. On 9 Dec, 1791, the 
king made his veto known officially. Parties began 
to form. On one side were the king and the Catholics 
faithful to Rome, on the other the Assembly and the 
priests who had taken the oath. The legislative power 
was on one side, the executive on the other. In 
March, 1792, the Assembly accused the ministers of 
Louis XVI; the king replaced them by a Girondin 
ministry headed by Dumouriez, with Roland, Servan, 
and Claviere among its members. They had a double 
policy: abroad, war with Austria, and at home, 
measures against the non-juring priests. Louis XVI, 
surrounded by dangers, was also accused of duplicity; 
his .secret negotiations with foreign courts made it 
possible for his enemies to say that he had already 
conspired against France. 

A pai)al Brief of 19 March, 1792, renewed the con- 
demnation of the Civil Constitution and visited with 
major excommunication all juriiig i)riests who after 
sixty days should not have retracted, and all Catholics 
who remained faithful to t hes(> priest s. The Assembly 
replied by the Decree of 27 May, 1792, declaring that 
all non-juring priests might be deported by the direc- 
tory of their department at the request of twenty 
citizens, and if they should return after expulsion 
they would be liable to ten years' imprisonment, 
lyouis vetoed this decree. Thus arose a struggle not 
only between Ix)tiis XVI and the Assembly, but 
between the king and his ministry. On 3 June, 1792, 



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13 



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the Assembly decreed tlic formation of a camp near 
Paris of 20,000 volunteers to guard the king. At the 
ministerial council Roland read an insulting letter 
to Louis, in which he called upon him to sanction the 
decrees of November and May against the non-juring 
priests. He was dismissed, whereupon the populace 
of Paris arose and invaded the Tuileries (20 June, 
1792), and for several hours the king and his family 
were the objects of all manner of outrages. After the 
public manifesto of the Duke of Brunswick in the 
name of the powers in coalition against France (25 
July, 1792) and the Assembly's declaration of the 
"Fatherland in danger" there came petitions for 
the deposition of the king, who was accused of be- 
ing in communication with foreign rulers. On 10 
August, Santerre, Westermann, and Fournier I'Am^ri- 
cain at the head of the national guard attacked the 
Tuileries defended by 800 Swiss. Louis refused to 
defend himself, and with his family sought refuge 
in the Legislative Assembly. The Assembly passed a 
decree which suspended the king's powers, drew up 
a plan of education for the dauphin, and convoked a 
national convention. Louis XVI was imprisoned 
in the Temjile l)y order of the insurrectionary Com- 
mune of Paris. 

Madness spread through France caused by the 
threatened danger from without; arrests of non- 
juring priests nuiltiiilicd. In an effort to make them 
give way. The Assembly decided (15 August) that 
the oath should consist only in the promise "to up- 
hold with all one's might liberty, equality, and the 
execution of the law, or to die at one's post". But 
the non-juring priests remained firm and refused 
even this second oath. On 26 August the Assembly 
decreed that within fifteen days they should be ex- 
pelled from the kingdom, that those who remained 
or returned to France should be deported to Guiana, 
or .should be liable to ten years' imprisonment. It 
then extended this threat to the priests, who, having 
no publicly recognized priestly duties, had hitherto 
been dispemsed from the oath, declaring that they also 
might be expelled if they were convicted of having 
provoked disturbances. This was the signal for a 
real civil war. The peasants armed in La Vendee, 
Deux Hevnjs, Loire Inferieure, Maine and Loire, He 
and Vilaine. This news and that of the invasion 
of Champagne bj' the Prussian army caused hidden 
influences to arouse the Parisian populace; hence the 
September ma.ssacres. In the prisons of La Force, 
the Conciergerie, and the Abbaye Saint Germain, at 
least 1500 women, priests and soldiers fell under the 
axe or the club. The celebrated tribune, Danton, 
cannot be entirely acquitted of complicity in these 
massacres. The Legislative Assembly terminated its 
career by two new measures against the Church: it 
deprived priests of the right to register births, etc., 
and authorized divorce. Laicizing the civil state waa 
not in the minds of the Constituents, but was the 
result of the blocking of the Civil Constitution of the 
Clergy. The Legislative Assembly was induced to 
enact it because the Catholics faithful to Rome 
would not have recour.se to Constitutional priests for 
the registering of births, baptisms, and deaths. 

The Convention; the Repuhlic; the Reign of 
Terror. — The oi)ening of the National Convention 
(21 Sept., 1792) took place the day following Dumou- 
riez's victory at Valmy over the Prussian troops. 
The constitutional bishop, Gregoire, proclaimed the 
republic at the first session; he was surrounded in 
the assembly by fifteen constitutional bishops and 
twenty-eight constitutional priests. But the time 
was at hand when the constitutional clergy in turn 
was to be under suspicion, the majority of the Con- 
vention being hostile to Christianity itself. As early 
as 16 November, 1792, Cambon demanded that the 
salaries of the priests be suppressed and that hence- 
forth no religion should be subsidized by the State, 



but the motion was rejected for the time being. 
Henceforth the Convention enacted all manner of 
arbitrary political measures: it undertook the trial 
of Louis XVI, and on 2 January, 1793, "hurled a 
king's head at Europe". But from a religious stand- 
point it w;;as more timid; it feared to disturb the 
people of Savoy and Belgium, which its armies were 
annexing to France. From 10 to 15 March, 1793, 
formidable insurrections broke out in La Vendee, 
Anjou, and a part of Brittany. At the same time 
Dumouriez, having been defeated at Neerwinden. 
sought to turn his army against the Convention, and 
he himself went over to the Austrians. The Con- 
vention took fright; it instituted a Revolutionary 
Tribunal on 9 March, and on 6 April the Committee 
of Public Safety, with formidable powers, was estab- 
lished. 

Increasingly severe mea.sures were taken chiefly 
against the non-juring clergy. On 18 Feb., 1793, the 
Convention voted a prize of one hundred livres to 
w;homsoever should denounce a priest liable to deporta- 
tion and who remained in France despite the law. 
On 1 March the emigres were sentenced to perpetual 
banishment and their property confiscated. On 18 
March it was decreed that any emigre or deported 
priest arrested on French soil should be executed 
within twenty-four hours. On 23 April it was enacted 
that all ecclesiastics, priests or monks, who had not 
taken the oath prescribed by the Decree of 15 August, 
1792, should be transported to Guiana; even the 
priests who had taken the oath should be treated 
likewise if six citizens should denounce them for lack 
of citizenship. But despite all these measures the 
non-juring priests remained faithful to Rome. The 
pope had maintained in France an official internuncio, 
the Abb6 de Salamon, who kept himself in hiding 
and performed his duties at the risk of his life, gave 
information concerning current events, and trans- 
mitted orders. The proconsuls of the Convention, 
Freron and Barras at Marseilles and Toulon, Tallien 
at Bordeaux, Carrier at Nantes, perpetrated abomin- 
able ma.ssacres. In Paris the Revolutionary Tribunal, 
carrying out the proposals of the public accu.ser, 
Foucjuier-Tinville, inaugurated the Reign of Terror. 
The proscription of the Girondins by the Montagn- 
ards (2 June, 1793), marked a progress in demagogy. 
The assassination of the bloodthirsty demagogue, 
Marat, by Charlotte Corday (13 July, 1793) gave rise 
to extravagant manifestations in honour of Marat. 
But the provinces did not follow this policy. News 
came of insurrections in Caen, Marseilles, Lyons, and 
Toulon; at the same time the Spaniards were in 
Roussillon, the Piedmontese in Savoy, the Austriana 
in Valenciennes, and the Vendeans defeated Kleber 
at Torfou (Sept., 1793). The crazed Convention 
decreed a rising en masse; the heroic resistance of 
Valenciennes and Mainz gave Carnot time to organ- 
ize new armies. At the same time the Convention 
passed the Law of Suspects (17 Sept., 1793), which 
authorized the imprisonment of almost anyone and 
as a consequence of which 30,000 were imprisoned. 
Informing became a trade in France. Queen Marie 
Antoinette was beheaded 16 October, 1793. Fourteen 
Carmelites who were executed 17 July, 1794, were 
declared Venerable by Leo XIII in 1902. 

From a religious point of view a new feature arose 
at this period — the constitutional clergy, accused of 
sympathy with the Girondins, came to be suspected 
almost as much as the non-juring priests. Numerous 
conflicts arose between the constitutional priests and 
the civil authorities with regard to the decree of the 
Convention which did not permit priests to ask those 
intending to marry if they were baptized, had been 
to confession, or were divorced. The constitutional 
bi.shops would not .submit to the Convention when it 
required them to give apostate priests the nuptial 
bles.sing. Despite the example of the constitutional 



REVOLUTION 



14 



REVOLUTION 



bishop, Thomas Lindet, a member of the Convention, 
who won the applause of the .\ssembly by announcing 
his marriage, despite the scandal given by Gobel, 
Bishop of Paris, in appointing 2, married priest to a 
post in Paris, the majority of constitutional bishops 
remained hostile to the marriage of priests. The 
conflict between them and the Convention became 
notorious when, on 19 July, 1793, a decree of the Con- 
vention decided that the bishops who directly or 
indirectlv offered any obstacle to the marriage of 
priests should be deported and replaced. In October 
the Convention declared that the constitutional 
priests themselves should be deported if they were 
found wanting in citizenship. The measures taken 
by the Convention to substitute the Revolutionary 
calendar for the old Christian calendar, and the 
decrees ordering the municipalities to seize and melt 
down the bells and treasures of the churches, proved 
that certain currents prevailed tending to the de- 
christianization of France. On the one hand the rest 
of dccadi, every tenth day, replaced the Sunday rest; 
on the other the Convention commissioned Leonard 
Bourdon (19 Sept., 1793) to compile a collection of 
the heroic actions of Republicans to replace the lives 
of the saints in the schools. The "missionary repre- 
sentatives", sent to the provinces, closed churches, 
hunted down citizens suspected of religious practices, 
endeavoured to constrain priests to marry, and 
threatened with deportation for lack of citizenship 
priests who refused to abandon their posts. Persecu- 
tion of all religious ideas began. At the request of 
the Paris Commune, Gobel, Bishop of Paris, and 
thirteen of his vicars resigned at the bar of the Con- 
vention (7 November) and their example was followed 
by several constitutional bishops. 

The Montagnards who considered worship neces- 
sary replaced the Catholic Sunday Mass by the civil 
mass of decadi. Having failed to reform and na- 
tionalize Catholicism they endeavoured to form a 
sort of civil cult, a development of the worship of the 
fatherland which had been inaugurated at the feast 
of the Federation. The Church of Notre-Dame-de- 
Paris became a temple of Reason, and the feast of 
Reason was celebrated on 10 November. The 
Goddesses of Reason and Liberty were not always the 
daughters of low people; they frequently came of 
the middle classes. Recent research has thrown 
new light on the history of these cults. M. Aulard 
was the first to recognize that the idea of honouring 
the fatherland, which had its origin in the festival 
of the Federation in 1790, gave rise to successive 
cults. Going deeper M. Mathicz developed the 
theory, that confronted by the blocking of the Civil 
Constitution, the Conventionals, who had witnessed 
in the successive feasts of the Federation the power 
of formulas on the minds of the ma.sses, wanted to 
create a real culle de la palrie, a sanction of faith in 
the fatherland. On 23 November, 1793, Chaumette 
pasftfKl a law alienating all churches in the capital. 
This example was followed in the provinces, where all 
city churches and a number of tnose in the country 
were closed to Catholic worship. The Convention 
offered a prize for the abjuration of priests by passing 
a decree which assured a pension to priests who 
abjurwl, and the most painful day of that sad periorl 
was 20 Novr-mber, 1793, when men, women, and 
childrf-n drfssfd in priostly garments taken from the 
Church of St. Gfrmain df-s Pr<'-H marched through the 
hall of the Convention. Laloi, who presiflorl, con- 
(5ratulaf/'d them, sayint? thcv ha/1 " wiper] out eigh- 
teen centiirifrs of frror". Despite the part played 
bv Chaumftt/^- and thf Commune of Paris in the work 
of violont dechriptianization, M. Mathiez h.'is proved 
that it is not correct fo lav on the 0^)mmune and the 
Exagf'Tf'H fui fhf-y were called . the entire responnibility, 
and that a Moflerate, an Indulgent, namely Tlmriot, 
\h{t friend of Danton, was one of the most violent 



instigators. It is thus clear why Robespierre who 
desired a reaction against these excesses, should at- 
tack both Exageres and Indulgents. 

Indeed a reactionary movement was soon evident. 
As early as 21 November, 1793, Robespierre com- 
plained of the "madmen who could only revive 
fanaticism". On 5 December, he caused the Con- 
vention to adopt the text of a manifesto to the na- 
tions of Europe in which the members declared that 
they sought to protect the liberty of all creeds; on 
7 December, he supported the motion of the Com- 
mittee of Public Safety which reported the bad effect 
in the provinces of the intolerant violence of the 
missionary representatives, and which forbade in 
future all threats or violence contrary to liberty of 
worship. These decrees were the cause of warfare 
between Robespierre and enthusiasts such as Hubert 
and Clootz. At first Robespierre sent his enemies 
to the scaffold; Hcbert and Clootz were beheaded 
in March, 1794, Chaumette and Bishop Gobel in 
April. But in this same month of April Robes- 
pierre sent to the scaffold the Moderates, Des- 
moulins and Danton, who wanted to stop the 
Terror, and became the master of France with his 
lieutenants Couthon and Saint-Just. M. Aulard 
regards Robespierre as having been hostile to the 
dechristianization for religious and political motives; 
he explains that Robespierre shared the admiration 
for Christ felt by Rousseau's Vicar Savoyard, and 
that he feared the evil effect on the powers of Eu- 
rope of the Convention's anti-religious policy. M. 
Mathiez on the other hand considers that Robespierre 
did not condemn the dechristianization in principle; 
that he knew the common hostility to the Committee 
of Public Safety of Moderates such as Thuriot 
and enthusiasts like Hcbert; and that on the in- 
formation of Basire and Chabot he suspected both 
parties of having furthered the fanatical measures 
of dechristianization only to discredit the Conven- 
tion abroad and thus more easily to plot with the 
powers hostile to France. Robespierre's true in- 
tentions are still an historical problem. On 6 April, 
1794, he commissioned Couthon to propose in the 
name of the Committee of Public Safety that a feast 
be instituted in honour of the Supreme Being, and on 
7 May Robespierre himself outlined in a long speech 
the plan of the new religion. He explained that from 
the religious and Republican standpoint the idea of a 
Supreme Being was advantageous to the State, that 
religion should dispense with a priesthood, and that 
priests were to religion what charlatans were to 
medicine, and that the true priest of the Supreme 
Being was Nature. The Convention desired to 
have this speech translated into all languages and 
adopted a decree of which the first article was: 
"The French people recognize the existence of a 
Supreme Being and the immortality of the soul". 
The same decree stat(>s that freedom of worship is 
maintained but adds that in the case of disturbances 
caused by the exerci.se of a religion tho.s(> who "ex- 
cite them by fanatical preaching or by counter- 
Revolutionary innovations", shall be puni.shed ac- 
cording to the rigour of the law. Thus the condition 
of the Catholic Church remained equally precarious 
and the first festival of the Supreme Being was cele- 
brated throughout France on 8 June, 1794, with 
aggressive splendour. Whereas the Exagir^s wished 
simply to destroy Catholicism, and in the temples 
of Reason political rather than moral doctrines were 
taught, RobeHi)ierre desired that the civic religion 
should have a moral code which he based on the two 
dogm.'is of God and the immortality of the soul. 
He w;is of the opinion that the idea of God had a 
social value, that public morality depended on it, 
and that Catholics would more readily support the 
republic under the auspices of a Supreme Being. 

The victories of the Republican armies, especially 



REVOLUTION 



15 



REVOLUTION 



that of Fleurus (July, 1794), reassured the patriots 
of the Convention; those of Cholet, Mans, and 
Savenay marked the checking of the Vendean in- 
surrection. Lyons and Toulon were recaptured, 
Alsace was delivered, and the victory of Fleurus 
(26 June, 1794) gave Belgium to France. 'Wliile 
danger from abroad was decreasing, Robespierre made 
the mistake of putting to vote in June the terrible 
law of 22 Prairial, which still further shortened the 
summary procedure of the Revolutionary tribunal 
and allowed sentence to be passed almost without 
trial even on the members of the Convention. The 
Convention took fright and the next day struck out 
this last clause. INIontagnards like Tallien, Billaud- 
Varenne, and Collot d'Herbois, threatened by Robes- 
pierre, joined with such Moderates as Boissy 
d' Anglas and Durand Maillane to bring about the 
coup d'etat of 9 Thermidor (27 July, 1794). Robes- 
pierre and his partisans were executed, and the 
Thermidorian reaction began. The Commune of 
Paris was suppressed, the Jacobin Club closed, the 
Revolutionary tribunal disappeared after having sent 
to the scaffold the public accuser Fouquicr-Tinville 
and the Terrorist, Carrier, the author of the noyades 
(drownings) of Nantes. The death of Robespierre 
was the signal for a change of policy which proved 
of advantage to the Church; many imprisoned 
priests were released and many emigre priests re- 
turned. Not a single law hostile to Catholicism was 
repealed, but the application of them was greatly 
relaxed. The religious policy of the Convention 
became indecisive and changeable. On 21 December, 
1794, a .speech of the constitutional bi.shop, Grcgoire, 
claiming effective liberty of worship, aroused violent 
murmurings in the Convention, but was applauded 
by the people; and when in Feb., 179o, the generals 
and commissaries of the Convention in their negotia- 
tions with the Vendeans promised them the restora- 
tion of their religious liberties, the Convention re- 
turned to the idea supported by Gregoire, and at 
the suggestion of the Protestant, Boissy d' Anglas, 
it passed the Law of 3 Venldse (21 Feb., 1795), which 
marked the enfranchisement of the Catholic Church. 
This law enacted that the republic should pay salaries 
to the ministers of no religion, and that-no churches 
should be reopened, but it declared that the ex- 
ercise of religion should not be disturbed, and pre- 
scribed penalties for disturbers. Immediately the 
constitutional bishops issued an Encyclical for the 
re-establishment of Catholic worship, but their 
credit was shaken. The confidence of the faithful 
was given instead to the non-juring priests who were 
returning by degrees. These priests were soon so 
numerous that in April, 1795, the Convention or- 
dered them to depart within a month under pain of 
death. This was a fresh outbreak of anti-Catholi- 
cism. With the fluctuation which thenceforth charac- 
terized it the Convention soon made a counter-move- 
ment. On 20 May, 1795, the assembly hall was in- 
vaded by the mob and the deputy Feraud assassinated. 
These violences of the Extremists gave some in- 
fluence to the Moderates, and on 30 May, at the sug- 
gestion of the Catholic, Lanjuinais, the Convention 
decreed that (Law of 11 Prairial) the churches not 
confiscated should be placed at the disposal of citi- 
zens for the exercise of their religion, but that every 
priest who wished to officiate in these churches should 
previously take an oath of submission to the laws; 
those who refused might legally hold services in 
private houses. This oath of submission to the laws 
was much less serious than the oaths formerly pre- 
scribed by the Revolutionary authorities, and the 
Abbe Sicard has shown how Emery, Superior General 
of St. Sulpice, Baus.set, Bishop of Alais and other 
ecclesiastics were inclined to a policy of pacification 
and to think that such an oath might be taken. 
While it seemed to be favouring a more tolerant 



policy the Convention met with diplomatic successes, 
the reward of the military victories: the treaties 
of Paris with Tuscany, of the Hague with the Bata- 
vian Republic, of Basle with Spain, gave to France 
as boundaries the Alps, the Rhine, and the Meuse. 
But the policy of religious pacification was not 
lasting. Certain periods of the history of the 
Convention justify M. Champion's theory that 
certain religious measures taken by the Revolution- 
ists were forced upon them by circumstances. The 
descent of the emigres on the Breton coasts, to be 
checked by Hoche at Quiberon, aroused fresh at- 
tacks on the priests. On 6 Sept., 1795 (Law of 20 
Frudidor), the Convention exacted the oath of sub- 
mission to the laws even of priests who officiated in 
private houses. The Royalist insurrection of 13 
Vendemiaire, put down by Bonaparte, provoked a 
very severe decree against deported priests who should 
be found on French territory; they were to be sen- 
tenced to perpetual banishment. Thus at the time 
when the Convention was disbanding, churches were 
separated from the State. In theory worship was 
free; the Law of 29 Sept., 1795 (7 Vendemiaire), on 
the religious policy, though still far from satisfactory 
to the clergy, was nevertheless an improvement on 
the laws of the Terror, but anarchy and the spirit 
of persecution still disturbed the whole country. 
Nevertheless France owes to the Convention a num- 
ber of lasting creations: the Ledger of the Public 
Debt, the Ecole Polytechnique, the Conservatory 
of Arts and Crafts, the Bureau of Longitudes, the 
Institute of France, and the adoption of the decimal 
system of weights and measures. The vast projects 
drawn up with regard to primary, secondary, and 
higher education had almost no results. 

The Directory. — In virtue of the so-called "Con- 
stitution of the year III", promulgated by the Con- 
vention 23 Sept., 1795, a Directory of five members 
(27 Oct., 1795) became the executive, and the Coun- 
cils of Five Hundred and of the Ancients, the legis- 
lative power. At this time the pubUc treasuries were 
empty, which was one reason why the people came 
by degrees to feel the necessity of a strong restorative 
power. The Directors Carnot, Barras, Letourneur, 
Rewbell, La Reveilliere-Lcpeaux were averse to Chris- 
tianity, and in the separation of Church and State 
saw only a means of annihilating the Church. They 
wi.shed that even the Constitutional episcopate, 
though they could not deny its attachment to the 
new regime, should become extinct by degrees, and 
when the constitutional bishops died they sought to 
prevent the election of successors, and multiplied 
measures against the non-juring priests. The Decree 
of 16 April, 1796, which made death the penalty for 
provoking any attempt to overthrow the Republican 
government was a threat held perpetually over the 
heads of the non-juring priests. That the Directors 
really wished to throw difficulties in the way of all 
kinds of religion, despite theoretical declarations 
affirming liberty of worship is proved by the Law of 
11 April, 1796, which forbade the use of bells and all 
sorts of pubhc convocation for the exerci.se of religion, 
under penalty of a year in prison, and, in case of a 
second offence, of deportation. The Directory having 
ascertained that despite police interference some non- 
juring bishops were officiating publicly in Paris, and 
that before the end of 1796 more than thirty churches 
or oratories had been opened to non-juring priests in 
Paris, laid before the Five Hundred a plan which, 
after twenty days, allowed the expulsion from French 
soil, without admission to the oath prescribed by the 
Law of Vendemiaire, all priests who had not taken 
the Constitutional Oath prescribed in 1790, or 
the Oath of Liberty and Equality prescribed in 1792; 
those who after such time should be found in France 
would be put to death. But amid the discussions to 
which this prpject gave rise, the revolutionary Social- 



REVOLUTION 



16 



REVOLUTION 



ist conspiracy of Babeuf was discovered, which 
showed that danger lav on the Left; and on 25 Aug., 
1796. the dreadful project which had only been passed 
with much difficulty by the Five Hundred was re- 
jected bv the Ancients. 

The Directory began to feel that its pohcy of reli- 
gious persecution was no longer followed by the 
Councils. It learned also that Bonaparte, who in 
Italv led the armies of the Directory from victorj^ to 
victory, displaved consideration for the pope. P'ur- 
thermore, in France the electors themselves showed 
that they desired a change of policy. The elections 
of 20 Mav, 1797, caused the majority of Councils to 
pass from" the Left to the Right. Pichegru became 
President of the Five Hundred, a Royalist, Barthe- 
lemv, became one of the Five Directors. Violent dis- 
cussions which took place from 26 June to 18 July, 
in which Rover-Collard distinguished himself, brought 
to the vot«"the proposal of the deputy Dubruel for 
the abohtion of all laws against non-juring priests 
passed since 1791. The Directors, alarmed by what 
they considered a reactionary movement, com- 
missioned General Augereau to effect the coup d'etat 
of 18 Fructidor (4 Sept., 1797); the elections of 49 
departments were quashed, two Directors, Carnot 
and Barthclomy, proscribed, 53 deputies deported, 
and laws against the emigres and non-juring priests 
restored to their \-igour. Organized hunting for these 
priests took place throughout France; the Directory 
cast hundreds of them on the unhealthy shore of 
Sinnamar>', Guiana, where they died. At the same 
time the Directory commissioned Berthier to make 
the attack on the Papal States and the pope, from 
which Bonaparte had refrained. The Roman Re- 
pubhc was proclaimed in 1798 and Pius VI was taken 
prisoner to Valence (see Pius VI). An especially 
odious persecution was renewed in France against 
the ancient Christian customs; it was known as the 
decadaire persecution. Officials and municipalities 
were called upon to overwhelm with vexations the 
partisans of Sundaj^ and to restore the observance 
of decadi. The rest of that day became compulsory 
not only for administrations and schools, but also 
for business and industry. Marriages could only be 
celebrated on decadi at the chief town of each canton. 

Another religious venture of this period was that of 
the Theophilanthropists, who wished to create a spirit- 
ualist church without dogmas, miracles, priesthood or 
sacraments, a sort of vague religiosity, similar to 
the " ethical societies of the United States". Contrary 
to what has been asserted for one hundred years, 
M. Mathiez has proved that Theophilanthropism was 
not founded by the director, La Reveilliere-Lepeaux. 
It was the private initiative of a former Girondin, the 
hbrarian Chemin Dupontfes, which gave rise to this 
cult; Valentine Hauy, iiLstructor of the blind and 
former Terrorist, and the physiocrat, Dupont de 
Nemours, collaboraU'd with him. During its early 
existence, the new Church was pcrs(!cuted by the 
agents of Qjchon, Minister of Police, who was the 
Ux)\ of Camot, and it was only for a short time, 
aft^T the coup d'etat of IS Fructiilor, that the Theo- 

fihilanthropists benefited by the protection of 
>a R(5veilli^ire. In propf)rtion to the efforts of the 
Directory for the c^dle decadaire, the Theophilan- 
thropists Buflfered and were persecuted; in Paris, they 
were Bometimes treated even worse than the Cath- 
olics, Catholic priests being at times permitted to 
occupy the builaings connected with certain churches 
while the Theophilanthropists were driven out. On 
a curious memoir written aftxT IS Fructidor entitled 
"Dr« circrmstances Hjc\np\\i'» qui peuvent U^ininer 
la R/;volution et d'-s prinripes qui doivent fonder la 
R/'publique en France", the famous Ma^lame de 
Sta/'l, who was a Protentanf, declared herself against 
Thefjphilanfhropy; like many Prot^'stants, she hoped 
that Protastantism would becx)me the State religion 



of the RepubUc. Through its clumsy and odious 
reUgious policy the Directory exposed itself to serious 
difficulties. Disturbed by the anti-religious innova- 
tions, the Belgian provinces revolted; 6000 Belgian 
priests were proscribed. Brittany, Anjou, and Maine 
again revolted, winning over Normandy. Abroad 
the prestige of the French armies was upheld by 
Bonaparte in Egypt, but they were hated on the 
Continent, and in 1799 were compelled to evacuate 
most of Ital}'. Bonaparte's return and the coup 
d'etat of 18 Bruniairc (10 November, 1799) were 
necessary to strengthen the glory of the French armies 
and to restore peace to the country and to consciences 
(see Napoleon). 

Bibliographical. — Tourxeux, Bihl. de I'hisl. de Paris pendant 
la RevohUion (Paris, 1896-1906); Tuetey, Repertoire des sources 
manuscriles de I'hist. de Paris sous la Revolution, 7 vols, already- 
published (Paris, 1896-1906); Fortescue, List of the three col- 
lections of books, pamphlets, and journals in the British Museum 
relating to the French Revolution (London, 1899). 

Sources. — Reprint of the Moniteur Universel (1789-99); the 
two collections in course of publication of Documents inidits 
sur I'hist. economique de la Rivolution franQaise, and Documents 
sur I'hist. de Paris pendant la Revolution fran^aise; the works of 
Barruel (q. v.); Bourgin, La France et Rome de 1788 a 1797, 
regeste des depiches du cardinal secretaire d'etat, tirees du fond des 
" Vescovi " des archives secretes du Vatican (Paris, 1909), fasc. 102 
of the Library of French Schools of Athens and Rome; among 
numerous memoirs on France on the eve of the Revolution may 
be mentioned: Young, Travels in France, ed. Betham-Edwards 
(London, 1889); and on the Revolution itself: Memoires de I'in- 
ternonce Salamon, ed. Bridier (Paris, 1890) ; Gottverneur 
Morris, Diary and Letters (New York, 1&S2); Un sijour en 
France 1 792 a 1 7.95, lettres d'un temoin de la Revolution fran^aise, tr. 
Taine (Paris, 1883) ; the work of the famous Burke, Reflections 
on the Revolution in France, ed. Selby (London, 1890), remains an 
important criticism of Revolutionary ideas. 

General Works. — Thiers, Hist, de la Revolution franQaise (tr. 
Paris. 1823-27) ; Mignet, Hist, de la Revolution franqaise (Paris, 
1824); Carlyle, The French Revolution (London, 1837); Miche- 
LET, Hist, de la Revolution franqaise (Paris, 1847-1853) ; Louis 
Blanc, Hist, de la Revolution franqaise (Paris, 1847-63); Tocque- 
viLLE, L'ancien regime et la Revolution (Paris, 1856); Taine, 
Les origines de la France contemporaine: la Revolution (tr. Paris, 
1878-84) ; Sorel, L' Europe et la Revolution franQaise (Paris, 
1885-1904) ; Sybel, Gesch. der Revolutionszeit (Dusseldorf, 1853- 
57); Chuquet, Les guerres de la Revolution (Paris, 1889-1902); 
AuLARD, Hist, politique de la Revolution franQaise (Paris, 1901) ; 
Idem, Etudes et IcQons sur la Revolution franQaise (Paris, 1893- 
1910) ; Gautherot, Cours professes a V Institut Catholique de Paris 
sur la Revolution franQaise, a periodical begun at the end of 1910 
and promising to be very important; Madelin, La Revolution 
(Paris, 1911), a summary commendable for the exactness of its 
information and its effort at justice in the most delicate questions; 
The Cambridge Modern History, planned by the late Lord Acton, 
n. The French Revolution (Cambridge, 1904); MacCarthy, The 
French Revolution (London, 1890-97); Ross, The Revolutionary 
and Napoleonic Era (Cambridge, 1907) ; Lego, Select Documents 
Illustrative of the History of the French Revolution (Oxford, 1905); 
Gibes, Men and Women of the French Revolution (London, 1905). 

Monographs and Special Works. — Aulard, Taine, historien de 
la Revolution franQaise (Paris, 1907); Cochin, La crise de I'hist. 
rivolutionaire: Taine et M. Aulard (Paris, 1909); Bord, La 
francnuiQonnerie en France des origines d 1815, bk. I, Les ouvriers 
de Videerivolutionnaire (Paris, 1909) ; Idem, La conspiration revolu- 
tionnaire de 1789, les complices, les victimes (Paris, 1909); Funck- 
Brentano, Ligendes et archives de la Bastille (Paris, 1898) ; Mal- 
let, Mallei du Pan and the French Revolution (London, 1902); 
Fling, Mirabeau and the French Revolution (London, 1906); 
Lenotrb, Mimoires et souvenirs sur la Rivolution et I'Empire 
(Paris, 1907-9); Idem, Paris rivolutionnaire, vieilles maisons, vieux 
papiers (Paris, 1900-10) ; Warwick, Robespierre and the French 
Revolution (Philadelphia, 1909); Bliard, Fraternity rivolution- 
naire, Hudes el ridls d'aprks des documents inidits (Paris, 1909); 
Mortimer Ternaux, Hist, de la Terreur (Paris, 1862-81); 
Wali-on, Hist, du tribunal rSvolutionnaire (Paris, 1880-2); Idem, 
La journie du 31 mai et le fidiralisme en 1793 (Paris, 1886) ; Idem, 
Les representanls en mission (Paris, 1888-90); Daudet, Hist, de 
I'imigration pendant la Rivolution franqaise (Paris, 1904-7); LaI/- 
lemand. La Rivolution et les pauvres (Paris, 189H); Aloeb, Eng- 
lishmen in the French Revolution (London. 1889); Dowden, The 
French Revolution and English Literature (London, 1897) ; Cestre, 
La Rivolution franQaise et les poHes anglais (Paris, 1906). 

Religious History. — Sicard, L'ancien clergi de France, II, III 
(Paris, 1902-3); Idem, L'iducation morale et civique avant et pen- 
dant la RivobUion (Paris, 1884); Pierre de la Gorge, Hist, 
religieuse de la Rivolution franQaise, I (Paris, 1909); Mathiez, 
Rome et le clergi franQais sous la Constituante (Paris, 1911); Idem, 
lyi thiophilanlhropie et le culte dicadaire (Paris, 1903); Idem, Lea 
origines des r.nltes rivolulionnnires (Paris, 1904); Idem. Conlrtbu- 
linn A I'histoire religieuse de la Rivolution FranQaise (Paris, 1907); 
Idbm, La Rivolution et I'Eglise (Paris, 1910); Aulard, La Rivolu- 
tion franQaise et les congrigations (Paris, 1911); Idem, Le culte de la 
raison et le culte de I'Etre suprime (Paris, 1892); Champion, La 
Kiparalion de I'Eglise et de I'Elat en 17.94 (Paris, 1903); Pierre, 
La diportation eccUsiastique sous le Dircctoire (Paris, 19()('i). 

Georges Goyak. 



REX 



17 



REYNOLDS 



Rex Gloriose Martyrum, the hymn at Lauds in 
the Common of Martyrs (Commune plurimorum 
Martyrum) in the Roman Breviary. It comprises 
three strophes of four verses in Classical iambic 
dimeter, the verses rhyming in couplets, together with 
a fourth concluding strophe (or doxology) in unrhymed 
verses varying for the season. The first stanza will 
serve to illustrate the metric and rhymic scheme: 

Rex gloriose martyrum, 

Corona confitentiimi, 

Qui respuentes terrea 

Perducis ad coelestia. 
The hymn is of uncertain date and unknown 
authorship, Mone (Lateinische Hymnen des Mittel- 
alters. III, 143, no. 732) ascribing it to the sixth 
century and Daniel (Thesaurus Hymnologicus, IV, 
139) to the ninth or tenth century. The Roman 
Breviary text is a revision, in the interest of Classical 
prosody, of an older form (given by Daniel, I, 248). 
The corrections are: terrea instead of terrena in the 
line "Qui respuentes terrena"; parcisque for parcendo 
in the line "Parcendo conf essoribus " ; inter Mar tyres 
for in Martyrihus in the line "Tu vincis in Marty- 
ribus"; "Lnrgilor indulgentioe" for the line "Do- 
nando indulgcntiam". A non-prosodic correction is 
intende for appone in the line "Appone nostris 
vocibus". Daniel (IV, 139) gives the Roman Bre- 
viary text, but mistakenly includes the uncorrected 
Hne "Parcendo conf e.s.soribus " . He places after the 
hymn an elaboration of it in thirty-two lines, found 
written on leaves added to a Nuremberg book and 
intended to accommodate the hymn to Protestant 
doctrine. This elaborated form uses only lines 

I, 2, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9 of the original. Two of the added 
strophes may be quoted here to illustrate the possible 
reason (but also a curious misconception of Catholic 
doctrine in the apparent assumption of the Unes) 
for the modification of the original hymn: 

Velut infirma vascula 
Ictus inter lapideos 
Videntur sancti martyres, 
Sed fide durant fortiter. 

Non fidunt suis meritis, 

Sed sola tua gratia 

Agnoscunt se persistere 

In tantis cruciatibus. 
Of the thirteen translations of the original hymn into English, 
nine are by Catholics. To the list given in Julian, Dictionary of 
Hymnologij, 958, should be added the versions of Bagshawb, 
Breviary Hymns and A/j.s.sai Sequences (London, 1900), 166, and 
DoNAHOE, Early Christian Hymns (New York, 1908), 50. For 
many MS. references and readings, see Blume, Analecta Hymnica, 
LI (Leipzig, 1909), 128-29; Idem, Der Cursus s. BenedicH Nursini 
(Leipzig, 1909). 67. 

H. T. Henry. 

Rex Sempiteme Caelitum, the Roman Breviary 
hymn for Matins of .Sundays and weekdays during 
the Paschal Time (from Low Sunday to Ascension 
Thursday). Cardinal Thomasius ("Opera omnia", 

II, Rome, 1747, 370) gives its primitive form in eight 
strophes, and Vezzosi conjectures, with perfect 
justice, that this is the hymn mentioned both by 
Ca;sarius (d. 542) and Aurelianus (d. c. 550) of Aries, 
in their "Rules for Virgins", under the title "Rex 
aeterne domine". Pimont (op. cit. infra. III, 95) 
agrees with the conjecture, and present-day hymnolo- 
gists confirm it without hesitation. The hymn is 
especially interesting for several reasons. In his 
"De arte metrica" (xxiv) the Ven. Bede selects it 
from amongst "Alii Ambrosiani non pauci" to illus- 
trate the difference between the metre of Classical 
iambics and the accentual rhythms imitating them. 
Ordinarily brief in his comment, he nevertheless re- 
fers to it (P. L., XC, 174) as "that admirable hymn 
. . . fashioned exquisitely after the model of iambic 
metre" and quotes the first strophe: 

XIII.— 2 



Rex EDternc Domine, 

Rerum Creator omnium, 

Qui eras ante sajcula 

Semper cum patre filius. 
Pimont (op. cit.. Ill, 97) points out that, in its orig- 
inal text, it is amongst all the hymns, the one a.s- 
suredly which best evidences the substitution of 
accent forprosodical quantity, and that the (unknown) 
author gives no greater heed to the laws of elision than 
to quantity "qui eras", "mundi in primordio", 
"plasmasti hominem", "tuse imagini", etc. The 
second strophe illustrates this well: 

Qui mundi in primordio 

Adam plasmasti hominem, 

Qui tua3 imagini 

Vultum dedisti similem. 
Following the law of binary movement (the alter- 
nation of arsis and thesis), the accent is made to 
shorten long syllables and to lengthen short ones, in 
such wise that the verses, while using the external 
form of iambic dimeters, are purely rhythmic. 
Under LTrban VIII, the correctors of the hymns 
omitted the fourth stanza and, in their zeal to turn 
the rhythm into Classical iambic dimeter, altered 
every line except one. Hymnologists, Catholic and 
non-Catholic alike, are usually severe in their judg- 
ment of the work of the correctors; but in this in- 
stance, Pimont, who thinks the hymn needed no 
alteration at their hands, nevertheless hastens to 
add that "never, perhaps, were they better in- 
spired". And it is only just to say that, as found 
now in the Roman Breviary, the hymn is no lesa 
vigorous than elegant. 

Pimont, Les hymncs du hriviaire romain, III (Paris, 1884), 
9:{-100, gives the old and the revised text, supplementary 
stanzas, and much comment. Complete old text with various 
MS. readings in Hymnarium Sarisburiense (London, 1851), 95, 
and in Daniel, Thesaurus hymnoL, I (Halle, 1841), 85 (to- 
gother with Rom. Brev. text and notes). Text (8 strophes) with 
English version, notes, plainsong and other settings in Hymns, 
Ancient and Modern, Historical Edition (London, 1909), 205-7. 
Old text, with many MS. references and readings, and notes, in 
Blume, Der Cursus s. Benedicii Nursini (Leipzig, 1909), 111-13 
(of. also the alphabetical index). For first lines of translations 
etc., Julian, Diet, of Hymnology (London, 1907), a. vv. Rex 
aeterne Domine and Rex sempiteme ccelilum. To his list should 
be added Bagshawe, Breviary Hymns and Missal Sequences 
(London, 1900), 78, and Donahoe, Early Christian Hymns (New 
York, 1908), 22. The translation in Bute, The Roman Breviary 
(Edinburgh, 1879), is by Moultrie, an Anglican clergvman. 
H. T. Henry. 

Rey, Anthony, educator and Mexican War chap- 
lain, b. at Lyons, 19 March, 1807; d. near Ce- 
ralvo, Mexico, 19 Jan., 1847. He studied at the 
Jesuit college of Fribourg, entered the novitiate of 
that Society, 12 Nov., 1827, and subsequently taught 
at Fribourg and Sion in Valais. In 1840 he was sent 
to the United States, appointed professor of philos- 
ophy in Georgetown College, and in 1843 trans- 
ferred to St. Joseph's Church in Philadelphia. He 
became assistant to the Jesuit provincial of Mary- 
land, pastor of Trinity Church, Georgetown, and 
vice-president of the college (1845). Appointed chap- 
lain in the U. S. Army in 1846, he ministered to 
the wounded and dying at the siege of Monterey amid 
the greatest dangers; after the capture of the city, he 
remained with the army at Monterey and preached 
to the rancheros of the neighbourhood. Against the 
advice of the U. S. officers, he set out for Matamoras, 
preaching to a congregation of Americans and Mexi- 
cans at Ceralvo. It is conjectured that he was killed 
by a band under the leader Canales, as his body was 
discovered, pierced with lances, a few days later. He 
left letters dating from November, 1846, which were 
printed in the "Woodstock Letters" (XVII, 149-50, 
152-55, 157-59). 

Dk Backer-Som?«ervogel, Bibliothique, VI, 1689: .\ppleton8' 
Cyclopedia of American Biography (New York, 1888), s. v. 

N. A. Weber. 
Reynolds (Greene), Thomas, Venerable. See 
Roe, Bartholomew, Venerable. 



REYNOLDS 



18 



RHESANA 



Reynolds (Raixolds, Rayxolds, Reginaldus), 
William, b. at Pinliorn near Exeter, about 1544; d. 
at Antwerp, 24 August, 1594, the second son of Rich- 
ard Rainolds, and elder brother of John Rainolds, one 
of the chief AngUcan scholars engaged on the "Au- 
thorized Version" of the Bible. Educated at Win- 
chester School, he became fellow of New College, 
Oxford (1560-1572). He was converted partly by 
the controversy between Jewel and Harding, and 
partly by the personal influence of Dr. Allen. In 1575 
he made" a public recantation in Rome, and two years 
later went to Douai to study for the priesthood. He 
removed with the other collegians from Douai to 
Reims in 157S and was ordained priest at Chalons in 
April, 1580. He then remained at the college, lec- 
turing on Scripture and Hebrew, and helping Gregory 
Martin in translating the Reims Testament. Some 
years before his death he had left the college to become 
chaplain to the Beguines at Antwerp. He translated 
several of the wTitings of Allen and Harding into Latin 
and wrote a "Refutation" of Whitaker's attack on 
the Reims version (Paris, 1583); "De justa reipu- 
blicae christianse in reges impios et hsereticos autho- 
ritate" (Paris, 1590), under the name of Rossseus; 
a treatise on the Blessed Sacrament (Antwerp, 1593); 
"Calvino-Turcismus" (Antwerp, 1597). 

KiBBT, Annals of WincheMer College (London, 1892); Foster, 
Alumni Oxonienses (Oxford, 1891); Douay Diaries (London, 
1878); Wood, Athentr Oxonienses (London, 1813); Pitts, De 
illustribus AnnHce scriptoribus (Paris, 1619); Dodd, Church 
History, II (Brussels tere Wolverhampton, 1737-42); Gillow in 
Biog, Diet. Eng. Cath., b. v.; Rigq in Did. Nat. Biog., a. v. 
Rainolds. 

Edwin Burton. 

RhsBtia, Prefecttjre Apostolic of (Rh.etorum), 
in Switzerland, includes in general the district oc- 
cupied by the CathoUcs belonging to the Rhaeto- 
Romanic race in the canton of the Orisons (Grau- 
biinden). The prefecture is bounded on the north 
by the Prattigau, on the south by Lombardy, on the 
east by the Tyrol, on the west by the cantons of 
Tessin (Ticino), Uri, and Glarus. During the six- 
teenth centurj' the greater part of the inhabitants 
of the Grisons became Calvinists. In 1621 Paul V, 
at the entreaty of Bishop John Flugi of Coire (Chur) 
and Archduke Leopold of Austria, sent thither 
Capuchin missionaries from Brixen in the Tyrol; 
the first superior was P. Ignatius of Cosnigo, who re- 
sided in the mission (1621^5) and conducted it under 
the title of prefect Apostohc. The best known of 
the missionaries is St. Fidelis of Sigmaringen, who was 
martyred. After the death of P. Ignatius the mission 
was cared for by the Capuchin province of Brixen, 
represented in the mi.ssion by a sub-prefect. For a 
long time after the suppression of the religious orders 
by Napoleon, the mission was without an adminis- 
trator; upon the restoration of the order, Capuchins 
from vanous provinces were sent into the mission. 
At present it is under the care of Capuchins of the 
Roman province. It has 22 parishes, in three of 
which the majority of inhabitants speak Italian; 
52 churchfis and chapels; 40 schools for boys and 
girls; 7200 Catholics; 25 Capuchins. The prefect 
Arxistolic lives at Sagens. 

BCrifi, Die kalh. KircKe in der Schweiz (Munich, 1902), 89; 
Min'ione* Calholir/t (Ilome, 1907). 103; Mateb, Gesdi. des Bi$- 
tunu Chur (Stans, 1907), not yet completed. 

Joseph Lins. 

Rtxaphansea, a titular see in Syria Secunda, suffra- 
gan of Apam<a. Hhaphana;a is mentioned in ancient 
timfifionly by Josejjlius (Bel. Jud., VII, 5, 1), who says 
that in that vicinity there was a river which flowed six 
days and cesiw^l on the seventh, probably an inter- 
mittent spring now called Fououar ed-Deir, near 
Rafanieh, a village of the vilayet of Alep in the valley 
of the <^)ronte. The ancient name was preserved At 
the time of Ptolemy (V, 14, 12), the Third Legion 
(Gallics) was stationed there. Ilierocles (Synecdemus, 



712,8) and Georgius Cyprius, 870 (Gelzer, "Georgu 
Cyprii descriptio orbis romani", 44) mention it among 
the towms of Syria Secunda. The crusaders passed 
through it at the end of 1099; it was taken by 
Baldwin and was given to the Count of Tripoli 
("Historiens des croisades", passim; Rej^ in "Bul- 
letin de la Socidte des antiquaires de France", Paris, 
1885, 266). The only bishops of Rhaphansea known 
are (Le Quien, "Oriens christianus", II, 921): Bas- 
sianus, present at the Council of Nica^a, 325; Geron- 
tius at Philippopolis, 344; Basil at Constantinople, 
381; Lampadius at Chalcedon, 451; Zoilus about 
518; Nonnus, 536. The see is mentioned as late as 
the tenth century in the "Notitia episcopatuum" of 
Antioch (Vailh^, "Echos d'Orient", X, 94). 

Smith, Diet, of Gr. and Rom. geogr.,a.v.; Muller, notes on 
Ptolemy, ed. Didot, I, 973. 

S. P^TRIDfes. 

Rheims. See Reims. 

Rheinberger, Joseph Gabriel, composer and 
organist, b. at Vaduz, in the Principality of Lich- 
tenstein, Bavaria, 17 March, 1839; d. at Munich, 
25 Nov., 1901. When seven years old, he already 
served as organist in his parish church, and at the 
age of eight composed a mass for three voices. After 
enjoying for a short time the instruction of Choir- 
master Schmutzer in Feldkirch, he attended the con- 
servatory at Munich from 1851 to 1854, and finished 
his musical education with a course under Franz 
Lachner. In 1859 he was appointed professor of 
the theory of music and organ at the conservatory, 
a position which he held until a few months before 
his death. Besides his duties as teacher he acted 
successively as organist at the court Church of St. 
Michael, conductor of the Munich Oratorio Society, 
and instructor of the solo artists at the royal opera. 
In 1867 he received the title of royal professor, and be- 
came inspector of the newly established royal school 
for music, now called the Royal Academy of Music. 
In 1877 he was promoted to the rank of royal court 
conductor, which position carried with it the direction 
of the music in the royal chapel. Honoured by his 
prince with the title of nobility and accorded the 
honorary degree of Doctor of Philosophy by the 
Munich University, Rheinberger for more than 
forty years wielded, as teacher of many of the most 
gifted young musicians of Europe and America, per- 
haps more influence than any of his contemporaries. 
As a composer he was remarkable for his power of 
invention, masterful technique, and a noble, solid 
style. Among his two hundred compositions are 
oratorios (notably " Christoforus " and "Monfort"); 
two operas; cantatas for soli, chorus, and orches- 
tra ("The Star of Bethlehem", " Toggenburg ", 
"Klarchen auf Eberstein" etc.); smaller works for 
chorus and orchestra; symphonies ("Wallenstein"), 
overtures, and chamber music for various combina- 
tions of instruments. Most important of all his 
instrumental works are his twenty sonatas for organ, 
the most notable productions in this form since 
Mendelssohn. Rheinberger wrote many works to 
liturgical texts, namely, twelve masses (one for 
double chorus, three for four voices a cappella, three 
for women's voices and organ, two for men's voices, 
and one with orchestra), a requiem, Slabat Mater, and 
a large number of motets, and smaller pieces. 
Rheinberger's masses rank high as works of art, 
but some of them are defective in the treatment of 
the text. Joseph Renner, Jr., has recently remedied 
most of these defects, and made the masses available 
for liturgical purposes. 

Krayer. Joseph Rheinberger (Ratisbon, 1911); Renner, 
Rheinberger's Messen in Kirchen-musikaliachea Jahrbuch (Ratis- 
bon, 1909). 

Joseph Ottbn. 

RhessBna, titular see in Osrhoene, suffragan of 
Edessa. Rhesaena (numerous variations of the name 



RHINOCOLURA 



19 



BHO 



appear in ancient authors) was an important town 
at the northern extremity of Mesopotamia near the 
sources of the Chaboras (now Khabour), on the way 
from Carrhai to Nicephorium about eighty miles 
from Nisibis and forty from Dara. Near by Gordian 
III fought the Persians in 243. Its coins show that 
it was a Roman colony from the time of Septimus 
Severus. The "Notitia dignitatum" (ed. Boecking, 
I, 400) represents it as under the jurisdiction of the 
governor or Dux of Osrhoene. Hierocles (Synec- 
demus, 714, 3) also locates it in this province but 
under the name of Theodosiopolis; it had in fact 
obtained the favour of Theodosius the Great and taken 
his name. It was fortified by Justinian. In 1393 it 
was nearly destroyed by Tamerlane's troops. To-day 
under the name of Rds-el-'Ain, it is the capital of a 
caza in the vilayet of Diarbekir and has only 1500 
inhabitants. Le Quien (Oriens christianus, II, 979) 
mentions nine bishops of Rhesajna: Antiochus, pres- 
ent at the Council of Nica;a (325); Eunomius, who 
(about 420) forced the Persians to raise the siege of the 
town; John, at the Council of Antioch (444); Olym- 
pius at Chalcedon (451); Andrew (about 490); 
Peter, exiled with Severian (518) ; Ascholius, his suc- 
cessor, a Monophysite; Daniel (550); Sebastianus 
(about 600), a correspondent of St. Gregory the Great. 
The see is again mentioned in the tenth century in a 
Greek "Notitiae episcopatuum" of the Patriarchate 
of Antioch (Vailh6, in "Echos d'Orient", X, 94). 
Le Quien (ibid., 1329 and 1513) mentions two Jacobite 
bishops: Scalita, author of a hymn and of homilies, 
and Theodosius (1035). About a dozen others are 
known. 

Revue de V Orient chrit. VI (1901), 203; D'Herbelot, Bibl. 
orientate, I, 140; III, 112; Ritter, Erdkunde, XI, 375; Smith, 
Diet. Greek and Roman Geogr., 8. v., with bibliography of ancient 
authors; MOller, notes on Ptolemy, ed. Didot, I, 1008; Chapot, 
La frontihre de I'Euphrate de Pompie d la conqukte arabe (Paris, 
1907), 302. 

S. P^TRIDfcs. 

Rhinocolura, titular see in Augustamnica Prima, 
suffragan of Pelusium. Rhinocolura or Rhinocorura 
was a maritime town so situated on the boundary of 
Egypt and Palestine that ancient geographers attrib- 
uted it sometimes to one country and sometimes to 
the other. Its history is unknown. Diodorus Siculus 
(I, 60, 5) relates that it must have been founded by 
Actisanes, King of Ethiopia, who established there 
convicts whose noses had been cut off; this novel 
legend was invented to give a Greek meaning to the 
name of the town. Strabo (XVI, 781) says that it 
was formerly the great emporium of the merchandise 
of India and Arabia, which was unloaded at Leuce 
Come, on the eastern shore of the Red Sea, whence it 
was transported via Petra to Rhinocolura. It is 
identified usually with the present fortified village El 
Arish, which has 400 inhabitants, excluding the gar- 
rison, situated half a mile from the sea, and has some 
ruins of the Roman period. It was taken by the 
French in 1799, who signed there in 1800 the treaty 
by which they evacuated Egypt. To-day it and its 
vicinity are occupied by Egypt, after having been for 
a long period claimed by Turkey. The village is 
near a stream which bears its name (Wadi el-Arish), 
and receives its waters from central Sinai; it does not 
flow in winter, but is torrential after heavy rain. It 
is the "nahal Misraim", or stream of Egypt, fre- 
quently mentioned in the Bible (Gen., xv, 18, etc.), 
as marking on the south-west the frontier of the 
Promised Land. Instead of the ordinary translation 
of the Hebrew name, the Septuagint in Is., xxvii, 12, 
render it by 'FivoKdpovpa; see St. Jerome (In Isaiam, 
XXVII, 12 in P. L., XXIV, 313). 

Le Quien (Oriens Christianus, II, 541) gives a 
list of thirteen bishops of Rhinocolura: the first does 
not belong to it. A Coptic manuscript also wrongly 
names a bishop said to have assisted in 325 at the 



Council of Nice. The first authentic titular known is 
St. Melas, who suffered exile under Valens and is men- 
tioned on 16 January in the Roman Martyrology. 
He was succeeded by his brother Solon. Polybius 
was the disciple of St. Epiphanius of Cyprus, whose 
life he wrote. Hermogenes assisted at the Council of 
Ephesus (431), was sent to Rome by St. Cyril, and 
received many letters from his suffragan St. Isidore. 
His successor Zeno defended Eutyches at the Second 
Council of Ephesus (451). Other bishops were: 
Alphius, the Massalian heretic; Ptolemy, about 460, 
Gregory, 610. Of the other bishops on the list one 
did not belong to Rhinocolura; the other three are 
Coptic heretics. 

Reland, PalfBstina, 285, 969 sq.; Smith, Diet. Greek and Roman 
Geogr., s. v.; MtJLLER, notes on Ptolemy, ed. Didot, 1, 683; 
ViGOUROux, Did. de la Bible, a. v. Egypte (torrent ou ruisseau 
d'); AmiSlineau, Geographie de I'Egypte d Vepoque copte, 404: 
Ritter, Erdkunde, XVI, 143; XVI, 39, 41. 

S. PflTRID^S. 

Rhithymna (Rhethymna), a titular see of Crete, 
suffragan of Gortyna, mentioned by Ptolemy, III, 
15, PHny, IV, 59, and Stephen of Byzantium. Noth- 
ing is known of its ancient history but some of its 
coins are extant. It still exists under the Greek name 
of Rhethymnon (Turkish, Resmo, It. and Fr. Retimo). 
It is a small port on the north side of the island thirty- 
seven miles south-west of Candia; it has about 
10,000 inhabitants (half Greeks, half Mussulmans), 
and some Catholics who have a church and school. 
Rhithymna exports oil and soap. During the occupa- 
tion of Crete by the Venetians it became a Latin see. 
According to Corner (Creta sacra, II, 138 sq.), this 
see is identical with Calamona. P'or a list of twenty- 
four bishops (1287 to 1592) see Eubel (Hier. cath. 
med. a;vi, I, 161; II, 128; III, 161). Three other 
names are mentioned by Corner from 1611 to 1641. 
The Turks who had already ravaged the city in 1572, 
captured it again in 1646. At present the Greeks have 
a bishop there who bears the combined titles of 
Rhethymnon and Aulopotamos. The date of the 
foundation of the see is unknown. It is not men- 
tioned in the Middle Ages in any of the Greek 
"Notitiai episcopatuum". 

Smith, Diet, of Greek and Roman Geogr., a. v. 

S. P^TRIofes. 

Rhizus, 'PtfoOj, a titular see of Pontus Pole- 
moniacus suffragan of Neocaesarea, mentioned by 
Ptolemy (V, 6) as a port on the Black Sea (Euxine) ; 
it is referred to also in other ancient geographical 
documents, but its history is unknown. Procopius 
(" De bello gothico", IV, 2), tells us that the town was 
of some importance and that it was fortified by 
Justinian. He calls it Rhizaion, and it is so styled 
in the "Notitia; Episcopatuum". It was originally 
a suffragan of Neocaesarea, then an " autocephalous " 
archdiocese, finally a metropolitan sec; the dates of 
these changes are uncertain. With the decrease of 
the Christian element the suffragan has become a 
simple exarchate. To-day there are no more than 
400 Greeks among the 2000 inhabitants of Rizeh, as 
the Turks call the town. It is the capital of the 
Sanjak of Lazistan in the Vilayet of Trebizond, and 
exports oranges and lemons. Le Quien (Oriens 
christianus, I, 517), mentions three bishops; Necta- 
rius, present at the Council of Nice, 787; John, at the 
Council of Constantinople, 879, and Joachim (met- 
ropolitan) in 1565. 

Smith, Diet. Greek and Roman Geogr., a. v.; Mulleb, Notes 
on Ptolemy, ed. Didot, I, 868. 

S. P^TRIDfcs. 

Rho, GiACOMO, missionary, b. at Milan, 1593; d. 
at Peking 27 April, 1638. He was the son of a noble 
and learned jurist, and at the age of twenty entered 
the Society of Jesus. While poor success attended 
his early studies, he was later very proficient in 



RHODE 



20 



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mathematics. After his ordination at Rome by- 
Cardinal BeUarniine, he sailed in 1617 for the Far 
Eaiit with forty-four eoniixinions. After a brief 
stay at Goa he proceeded to Mae;io where, during the 
siege of that city by the Dutch, lie taught the in- 
habitants the use of artillery antl thus brought about 
its deliverance. This service opened China to him. 
He rapidly acquired the knowledge of the native 
language and was summoned in 1031 by the emperor 
to Peking for the reform of the Chinese calendar. 
With Father Schall he worked to the end of his life 
at this difficult ttijsk. When he died, amidst cir- 
cumstances exceptionally favourable to the Catholic 
mission, numerous Chinese officials attended his 
funeral. He left works relative to the correction of 
the Chinese calendar, to astronomical and theological 
questions. 

De B^cker-Sommebvogel, Biblioth. de la Comp. de Jesus, VI 
(9 vols., Brussels and Paris. 1890-1900), 1709-11; Hue, Chris- 
iinnitu in China, Tarlary and Thibet, II (tr. New York, 1884), 

N. A. Weber. 

Rhode Island.— The State of Rhode Island and 
Providence Plantations, one of the thirteen original 
colonics, is in extent of territory (land area, 10.54 
square miles'), the smallest state in the American 
union. It includes the Island of Rhode Island, Block 
Island, and the 
lands adjacent to 
Narragansett 
Bay, bounded on 
the north and east 
by Massachu- 
setts, on the south 
bj^ the Atlantic 
Ocean, and on the 
west by Connec- 
ticut. The popu- 
xtion, according 
to the United 
States Census of 
1910, numbers 
542,674. Provi- 

„ ^ dence, the capi- 

Seal of Rhode Isl.nd ^^j^ ^-^^^^^^ ^^ 

the head of Narragansett Bay, and having a population 
of 224, .326, is the industrial centre of an extremely 
woidthy andden.sely populateddistrict. Rhode Island 
has long since ranked as chiefly a manufacturing state, 
although the agricultural interests in certain sections 
are still considerable. That agriculture in Rhode 
Island has not kept pace with manufactures is illus- 
trated by instances of rural population. Two country 
t<jwn8 have fewer inhabitants than in 1748; two 
others, but a few more than at that date; one town, 
h!KH than in 1782; two, less than in 1790, and another, 
le«H than in 18.'i0. Coal exists and has been mined, 
but it in of graphitic nature, (iranite of high grade 
ifl extf^riBively quarried. The value of stone quarried 
in 1902 was $734,62."}; the value of all other minerals 
profluced, $.39,998. The power supplied by the rivers 
gave early impetus to manufacturing. Rhode Island- 
ers were the first in this country to apply the factory 
gystem to cotton manufacturing. At present the 
prrxJucts of manufar-turing are general, including cot- 
ton, woolfn, and rubb(;r goods, jewelry, silverware, 
ma<'hinery and tools. In 190.5 there were 1617 manu- 
facturing frstablishrnentH with a total capitalization of 
$21.5,901, .37.5; employing 97,.'il8 workers with a pay- 
roll of .?4.3, 112,637, and an output of the value of 
t202,HX<,.583. The total -jmivXh of banks and trust 
comnanies in June, HK)9, were $2.52,612,122. The 
bond(5fi State debt, 1 Jan., 1910, w:ih $4,8fK),fKKJwith a 
sinking fund of $f)54,999. TIk; flirc;f;t foreign com- 
merce is small, imports in 1908 being $1,499,116 and 
expfjrts $21,281. The i>opulation of Rhode Islanrl in 
1708 was 7181. In 1774 it ha<i increawed to .59,707, 




subsequently decreasing until in 1782 it was 52,391. 
Thereafter until 1S40 the average annual increase was 
973; and from 1S40 to 1S60, 3289. During the latter 
period and for several 3'ears afterward came a heavy 
immigration from Ireland, followed by a large influx 
from Canada. For the last twenty-five years, the 
increase from European countries, especially Italy, 
has been great. According to the State census of 
1905, the number of foreign-born in Rhode Island is 
as follows: born in Canada, 38,,500; in Ireland, 32,- 
629; In England, 24,431; In Italy, 18,014; In 
Sweden, 7201; In Scotland, .5649; in Portugal, 5293; 
In Russia, 4505; in Germany, 4463; in Poland, 4104. 
This classification does not distinguish the Jews, who 
are rapidly increasing, and who in 1905 numbered 
14,570. 

History. — A. Political. — It is probable that Verra- 
zano, sailing under the French flag, visited Rhode 
Island waters in 1.524. A Dutch navigator, Adrian 
Block, in 1614 explored Narragansett Bay and gave 
to Block Island the name it bears. The sentence of 
banishment of Roger Williams from Plymouth Colony 
was passed in 1635, and in the following year he 
settled on the site of Providence, acquiring land by 
purchase from the Indians. One cause of Williams's 
banishment was his protest against the interference 
of civil authorities in religious matters. In Novem- 
ber, 1637, William Coddington was notified to leave 
Massachusetts. With the help of Williams, he settled 
on the site of Portsmouth, in the northerly part of the 
island of Rhode Island, which was then called Aquid- 
neck. Disagreements arising at Portsmouth, Cod- 
dington, with a minority of his townsmen, in 1639 
moved southward on the island and began the settle- 
ment of Newport. Samuel Gorton, another refugee 
from Massachusetts, in 1638 came first to Portsmouth, 
and later to Providence, creating discord at both 
places by denying all power in the magistrates. 
Gorton finally, in 1643, purchased from the Indiana 
a tract of land in what is now the town of Warwick, 
and settled there. The four towns. Providence, War- 
wick, Portsmouth, and Newport, lying in a broken 
line about thirty miles in length, for many years con- 
stituted the municipal divisions of the colony. In 
1644 Roger Williams secured from the English Parlia- 
ment the first charter, which was accepted by an 
assembly of delegates from the four towns; and a 
bill of rights, and a brief code of laws, declaring the 
government to be "held by the common consent of 
all the free inhabitants", were enacted thereunder. 
In 1663 was granted the charter of Charles II, the 
most liberal of all the colonial charters. It ordained 
that no person should be in any way molested on 
account of religion; and created the General Assem- 
bly, with power to enact all laws necessary for the 
government of the colony, such laws being not re- 
pugnant to but agreeabh; as near as might be to the 
laws of England, "considering the nature and con- 
stitution of the place and people there". 

The separate existence; of the little colony was long 
precarious. Coddington in 1651 secured for him- 
.self a commission as gov(!morof the islands of Rhode 
Island and Conanicut, but his authority was vigor- 
ously a.ssailed, and his commission finally revoked. 
The Puritans in Massachu.setts were no friends of the 
people of Rhod(! Island, and ])ortions of the meagre 
t(;rritory wcn^ claimed by Massachusc^tts and Con- 
necticut. Rhode Island, like llu- otluir colonies was 
threatened both in England and in America by those 
who favoured direct control by the; English Govern- 
mcmt. Und(!r the regime of Andros, Colonial Gov- 
ernor at Boston, the charter government was sus- 
pended for two years; and had the recommendations 
of the English commissioner. Lord Bellemont, been 
adopt(;d, th(! (ihartcsr government would have; been 
abolished. In 1710 the colony first issued "bills 
of credit", pajier mon(!y, which continued increasing 



RHODE 



21 



RHODE 



in volume and with great depreciation in value, until 
after the close of the Revolution, causing and in- 
citing bitter partisan and sectional strife, and at 
times leading to the verge of civil war. The ad- 
vocates of this currency defended it on the ground 
of necessity, lack of specie, and the demand for some 
medium to pay the expenses of successive wars. In 
1787 the State owed £150,047, English money, on 
interest-bearing notes, which in 1789 the Assembly 
voted to retire by paying them in paper money then 
passing at the ratio of twelve to one. By the early 
part of the eighteenth century the people? were ex- 
tensively engaged in shii)-building, and it is said that 
in the wars in America between Great Britain and 
France, Rhode Island fitted out more ships for service 
than any other colony. 

The extraordinary measure of self-government 
granted to the colonists by the charter fostered in 
them a spirit of loyalty toward the mother country, 
substantially and energetically manifested on every 
occasion; but which, nevertheless, when the danger 
from the foreign foe was no longer imminent, was su])- 
planted by a feeling of jealous apprehension of the 
encroachments on what the colonists had now learned 
to regard as their natural rights. Rhode Island 
heartily joined the other colonies in making the 
Revolution her cause. In 1768 the Assembly rati- 
fied the Massachusetts remonstrance against the 
British principle of taxation, in spite of Lord Hills- 
borough's advice to treat it with "the contempt it 
deserves". The first overt act of the Revolution, 
the scuttling of the revenue sloop "Liberty", took 
place in Newport harbour, 19 July, 1769; followed 
three years later by the burning of the British ship 
of war "Gaspee" at Providence. A strong loyahst 
party in the colony for social and commercial reasons 
was anxious to avoid an open breach with the mother 
country, but the enthusiasm with which the news 
of Lexington was received showed that the majority 
of the people welcomed the impending struggle. 
On 4 May, 1776, the Rhode Island Assembly by 
formal act renounced its allegiance to Great Britain, 
and in the following July voted its approval of the 
Declaration of Independence. The colony bore its 
burden, too, of the actual conflict. From 1776 until 
1779, the British occupied Newport as their head- 
quarters, ruining the commerce of the town and wast- 
ing the neighbouring country. The evident strategic 
importance of the possession of Newport by the 
British, and the possibility of the place's becoming 
the centre of a protracted and disastrous war, created 
great alarm not only in the colony but throughout 
New England. Two attempts were made to dis- 
lodge the enemy, the second with the co-operation 
of the French fleet, but both failed. The levies of 
men and money were promptly met by the people 
of the colony in spite of the widespread privation 
and actual suffering. At last the British headquar- 
ters were shifted to the south, and the French allies 
occupied Newport until the end of the war. 

The same consideration, the instinct for local self- 
government, which prompted Rhode Island to resist 
the mother country, made her slow to join with the 
other colonies in establishing a strong centralized 
government. "We have not seen our way clear to 
do it consistent with our idea of the principles upon 
which we are all embarked together", wrote the As- 
sembly to the President of Congress. The proposed 
federal organization seemed scarcely less objectionable 
than the former British rule. Rhode Island took no 
part in the Convention of 1787, and long refused even 
to submit the question of the adoption of the Con- 
stitution to a state convention. Eight times the 
motion to submit was lost in the Assembly, and it 
was only when it became evident that the other 
states did not regard Rhode Island's condition of 
single independence as an "eligible" one, and were 



quite ready to act in support of their opinion even 
to the extent of parcelling her territory among them- 
selves, that the Constitution was submitted to a 
convention and adopted by a majority of two votes, 
29 May, 1790. Admitted to the Union, Rhode Is- 
land did not follow the example of most of the other 
states in framing a constitution adapted to the new 
national life, but continued under the old charter. 
This fact underlies her political history for the next 
fifty years. The charter of Charles II, though suit- 
able to its time, was bound to become oppressive. 
First, it fixed the representation of the several towns 
without providing for a readjustment to accord with 
the relative changes therein. Hence, the natural 
and social forces, necessarily operating in the course 
of two hundred years to enlarge some communities 
and to reduce others, failed to find a corresponding 
political expression. Again, the charter had con- 
ferred the franchise upon the "freemen" of the towns, 
leaving to the Assembly the task of defining the term. 
From early colonial days the qualification had 
fluctuated until in 1798 it was fixed at the ownership 
of real estate to the value of .$134, or of $7 annual 
rental (the eldest sons of freeholders being also eli- 
gible). Agitation for a constitution began as soon 
as Rhode Island had entered the Union, and con- 
tinued for many years with little result. It came 
to a head ultimately in 1841 in the Dorr Rebellion, 
the name given to that movement whereby a large 
party in the state, under the leadership of Thomas 
W. Dorr of Providence, proceeded to frame a con- 
stitution, independently of the existing government 
and to elect officers thereunder. The movement was 
readily put down by the authorities after some dis- 
play of force, and Dorr was obliged to flee the state. 
Returning later, he was indicted for treason, convicted 
and sentenced to imprisonment for life. He was par- 
doned and set at liberty within a year. His work was 
not a failure, however, for in 1842 a constitution was 
adopted incorporating his proposed reforms. A per- 
sonal property qualification was instituted, prac- 
tically equivalent to the real estate qualification; 
and neither was required, except in voting upon any 
proposition to impose a tax or to expend money, or for 
the election of the City Council of Providence. The 
personal property qualification was not available, 
however, to foreign-born citizens, and this discrimina- 
tion persisted until 1888, when it was abolished by 
constitutional amendment. Each town and city 
was entitled to one member in the Senate; and the 
membership of the Lower House, limited to seventy- 
two, was apportioned among the towns and cities on 
the basis of population, with the proviso that no town 
or city should have more than one-sixth of the total 
membership. In 1909, an amendment was adopted 
increasing the membership of the Lower House to 
one hundred, apportioned as before among the towns 
and cities on the basis of population, with the proviso 
that no town or city should have more than one- 
fourth of the total membership. It is significant that 
under this amendment the City of Providence has 
twenty-five representatives whereas its population 
warrants forty-one. In the same year, the veto 
power was for the first time bestowed upon the gov- 
ernor. Notwithstanding these approaches toward a 
republican form of government, there is a strong de- 
mand for a thorough revision of the Constitution. 
According to an opinion of the Supreme Court a 
constitutional convention is out of the question, 
inasmuch as the Constitution itself contains no pro- 
vision therefor (In re The Constitutional Conven- 
tion, XIV R. I., 469), and the only hope of reform 
seems to be in the slow and difficult process of amend- 
ment. 

B. Religious. — The earliest settlers in this state 
were criticized by their enemies for lack of religion. 
Cotton Mather described them as a "colluvies" of 



RHODE 



22 



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ever>'thing but Roman Catholics and real Christians. 
In Providence Roger Wilhams was made pastor of 
the first church, the beginning of the i^reseut First 
Baptist Church. In 1739 theie were thu-t3^-tliree 
churches in the colony; twelve Baptist, ten Quaker, 
six Congregational or Presbj-terian, and five Epis- 
copahan. It is said that in IGSO there was not one 
Catholic in the colony, and for a long period their 
number must have been small. In 1S2S there were 
probably less than 1000 Catholics in the state. In 
that year Bishop Fenwick of Boston assigned Rev. 
Robert Woodlej- to a "parish" which included all 
of Rhode Island and territory to the east in Mas- 
sachusetts. A church was built in Pa^\lucket in 
1829. Father Woodley in 1828 acquired in Newport 
a lot and building which was used for a church and 
school. In 1830 Rev. John Corry was assigned to 
Taunton and Pro\ndence, and built a church in Taun- 
ton in that year. The first Catholic church in Provi- 
dence was built in 1837 on the site of the present 
cathedral. At that time Father Corry was placed 
in charge of Providence alone. From 1844 to 1846, 
the mission of Rev. James Fitton included Woon- 
socket, Pawtucket, Crompton, and Newport, a 
series of districts extending the length of the state. 
In 1846, Ne^vport was made a parish by itself. 
Woonsocket received a pastor at about the same time; 
Pawtucket in 1847; Warren in 1851; Pascoag in 
1851; East Greenwich in 1853; Georgiaville in 1855. 
These parishes were not confined to the limits of the 
towns or villages named, but included the surround- 
ing territory. In 1844 the Diocese of Hartford was 
created, including Rhode Island and Connecticut, 
with the episcopal residence at Providence. At this 
time there were only six priests in the two states. 
In 1872 the Diocese of Hartford was divided and the 
Diocese of Providence created, including all Rhode 
Island, and in Massachusetts, the counties of Bristol, 
Barnstable, Dukes and Nantucket, also the towns of 
Mat tape i.s.set, Marion, and Wareham in the County 
of Plymouth. In 1904 the Diocese of Fall River was 
created, leaving the Diocese of Providence coexten- 
sive with the state. After 1840, and especially 
following the famine in Ireland, the Irish increased 
with great rapidity and long formed the bulk of the 
Catholic population. The growth of cotton manu- 
factures after the Civil War drew great numbers of 
Canadian Catholics. In more recent years Itahans 
have settled in Rhode Island in great numbers, and 
many Polish Catholics. Included in the Catholic 
population are approximately 65,000 Canadians and 
French, 40,000 Italiaas, 10,000 Portuguese, 8000 
Poles, and 1000 Armenians and Syrians. According 
to a special government report on the census of re- 
ligious bodies of the United States, 76.5 per cent, of 
the ptjpulation of the City of Providence are Catho- 
lics. There are 199 priests in the diocese, including 
about 47 Cana^lian and French priest s, 8 Italian, and 
5 Polish priests. Thirty parishes support parocliial 
Bchfxjls. Under Catholic auspices are two orphan 
asylums, one infant asylum, two hospitals, one home 
for the Jiged p<K>r, one industrial school, one house 
for working bovs, and two hou.ses for working girls. 

The first Catliolic governor of the State was James 
H. Higginw, a Democrat, who was elected for two 
terms, 1907, 1908. He was succeeded by Aram J. 
Pothier, a Catholic, and a liepublican. 

The Stat« census of 1905 giv(» the following 
statistica of religious denominations: 
^ , .. Mkmberb Chuiicheh 

Catholic 200,000 76 

Protestant Episcopal 15,441 68 

Baptist 14,761 75 

Methodiflt Episcopal 5,725 45 

Ojngregationalist 9,738 42 

Lutheran 2,21 7 12 

Free Baptiat 3,300 30 



Members Churches 

Presbj^erian 993 4 

Universalist 1,166 9 

Unitarian 1,000 4 

Seventh Day Baptist 1,040 5 

Friends 915 7 

Value of property owned b.y certain denomina- 
tions is stated as follows: Protestant Episcopal, 
$1,957,518; Congregational, $1,417,089; Baptist, 
$1,124,348; Methodist Episcopal, $624,900; Uni- 
tarian, $280,000; Universalist, $259,000; Free 
Baptist, $242,000. 

Education. — Provision was made for a public 
school in Ne^-port in 1640. State supervision of 
public schools was not inaugurated until 1828. The 
number of pupils enrolled in public schools in 1907 
was 74,065, and the number of teachers employed, 
2198. The State maintains an agricultural college, 
a normal school, a school for the deaf, a home and 
school for dependent children not criminal or vicious, 
and makes provision for teaching the blind. Schools 
are supported mainly by the towns wherein they are 
located. The State appropriates annually $120,000, 
to be used only for teachers' salaries, and to be divided 
among the towns and cities in proportion to school 
population, but no town may receive its allotment 
without appropriating at least an equal amount for 
the same purpose. Another appropriation is paid 
to towns maintaining graded high schools. This 
appropriation in 1910 was $26,500. The total amount 
expended on public schools in 1907, exclusive of per- 
manent improvements, was $1,800,325, the number 
of school buildings was 528; and the valuation of 
school property, $6,550,172. The number of paro- 
chial school pupils in 1907 was 16,254; the total 
attendance of Catholic parochial schools and acade- 
mies in 1910 was 17,440. These schools cost about 
$1,500,000, and their annual maintenance about 
$150,000. The average monthly expense per pupil 
in the public schools in 1907 was stated as $3.14. 
Allowing ten months for the school year, on the basis 
of that cost, the 10,254 parochial school pupils, if 
attending the public schools, would have cost the 
State and towns $510,375. Providence is the seat 
of Brown University, a Baptist institution founded in 
1764. The corporation consists of a Board of Trus- 
tees and a Board of Fellows. A majority of the 
trustees must be Baptists and the rest of the trustees 
must be chosen from three other prescribed Prot- 
estant denominations. A majority of the fellows, 
including the president, must be Baptists; "the rest 
indifferently of any or all denominations". It is 
provided that the places of professons, tutors and all 
officers, the president alone excepted, shall be free 
and open to all denominations of Protestants. The 
total enrollment of the university for the academic 
year 1909-10 was 967, including the graduate depart- 
ment and the W^omen's College. 

Legislation Affecting Religion. — In 1657 the 
Assembly denied the demand of the commissioners of 
the United Colonies that Quakers should be banished 
from Rhode Island, and later passed a law that mili- 
tary service should not be exacted from those whose 
niligious belief forbade the bearing of arms. The 
Charter of 1663 guaranteed freedom of conscience, 
and the colonial laws prohibited compulsory support 
of any form of worship. In 1663, Charles II wrote to 
the Assembly declaring that all men of civil conversa- 
tion, obedient to magistrates though of differing 
judgments, might be admitted as freemen, with 
liberty to choose and be chosen to offic(>, civil and 
military. On this communication it was voted that 
all those who should take an oath of allegiance to 
Charles II and were of competent estate, should be 
admitted as freemen; but none should vote or 
hold office until admitt(;d by vote of the assembly. 
In the volume of laws printed in 1719, appeared a 



RHODE 



23 



RHODE 



provision that all men professing Christianity, obedi- 
ent to magistrates, and of civil conversation, though 
of differing judgments in religious matters, Roman 
Catholics alone excepted, should have hberty to choose 
and be chosen to offices both civil and miUtary. The 
date of the original enactment of this exception is not 
known. It was repealed in 1783. The State Constitu- 
tion of 1842 guarantees freedom of conscience, and 
provides that no man's civil capacity shall be in- 
creased or diminished on account of his religious 
belief. 

The Sunday law of Rhode Island, following the 
original English statute (Charles II, c. VII, § 1) 
differs from the law of most other states in that it 
forbids simply the exercise of one's ordinary calling 
upon the Lord's day; excepting of course works of 
charity and necessity. Hence a release given on 
Sunday has been held good (Allen v. Gardiner, VII, 
R. I. 22) ; and probably many contracts not in pursu- 
ance of one's ordinary calling would be sustained 
though made on Sunday. A characteristic exception 
exists in favour of Jews and Sabbatarians, who are 
permitted with certain restrictions, to pursue their 
ordinary calling on the first day of the week. Fishing 
and fowling, except on one's own property, and all 
games, sports, plays, and recreations on Sunday arc 
forbidden. The penalty for the first violation of the 
statute is $5, and $10 for subsequent violations. 
Service of civil process on Sunday is void. 

Witnesses are sworn with the simple formality of 
raising the right hand; or they make affirmation 
upon peril of the penalty for perjury. Judges, assem- 
blymen, and all State officers, civil and military, 
must take an oath of office. The substance of the 
oath is to support the Constitution of the United 
States, and the Constitution and laws of this State, 
and faithfully and impartially to discharge the duties 
of the office. The judges of the Supreme and Superior 
Courts also swear to administer justice without 
respect of persons, and to do equal right to the poor 
and to the rich. Lawyers, auditors, and almost every 
city and town official take an oath of office. Blas- 
phemy is punished by imprisonment not exceeding 
two months or fine not exceeding S200; profane 
cursing and swearing by fine not exceeding $5. New 
State and municipal governments are generally in- 
augurated with prayer. 

Legal holidays include New Year's Day, Columbus 
Day, and Christmas. Good Friday is a Court holi- 
day by rule of Court and a school holiday in Provi- 
dence by vote of the school committee. 

There is no statute or reported decision regarding 
e\ndence of statements made under the seal of con- 
fession. Should a question arise concerning this, it 
would have to be decided on precedent and on 
grounds of public policy. The sole statutory privilege 
is that accorded to communications between husband 
and wife; although the common law privilege of 
offers of compromise and settlement and of com- 
munications between attorney and client are recog- 
nized. Physicians may be compelled to disclose 
statements made to them by patients regarding 
physical condition. 

Incorporation- and Taxation. — In 1869 an act was 
passed enabling the bishop of the Diocese of Hartford, 
with the vicar-general, the pastor, and two lay mem- 
bers of any Cathohc congregation in this State, to 
incorporate, and to hold the Church property of such 
congregation, by fiUng with the secretary of State an 
agreement to incorporate. This act was amended 
upon the creation of the Diocese of Providence. The 
property of all the organized and self-sustaining Cath- 
olic parishes is held by corporations so formed. The 
system furnishes a convenient means of continuing 
the ownership of the property of the respective par- 
ishes. In 1900 the bishop of the Diocese of Provi- 
dence and his successors were created a corporation 



sole with power to hold property for the religious and 
charitable purposes of the Roman Catholic Church. 
Since 1883 there has existed an act enabhng Episco- 
palian parishes to incorporate. Special charters are 
freely granted when desired. There is a general law 
allowing libraries, lyceums and societies for religious, 
charitable, literary, scientific, artistic, musical or social 
purposes to incorporate by filing an agreement stating 
the names of the promoters and the object of the cor- 
poration, and by paying a nominal charge. Such cor- 
porations may hold property up to $100,000 in value. 

By general law, buildings for religious worship, and 
the land on which they stand, not exceeding one acre, 
so far as such land and buikUngs are occupied and 
used exclusively for refigious or educational purposes, 
are exempt from taxation. The exemption does not 
apply to pastors' houses. The buildings and personal 
property of any corporation used for schools, acad- 
emies, or seminaries of learning, and of any incor- 
porated public charity, and the land, not exceeding 
one acre, on which such buildings stand, are exempt. 
School property is exempt only so far as it is used 
exclusively for educational purposes. Property used 
exclusively for burial purposes, hospitals, public 
fibraries, and property used for the aid of the poor, 
are exempt. Any church property other than that 
specified is taxed, unless it is in a form exempted by 
national law. Clergymen are exempt from jury and 
military duty. 

Marriage and Divorce. — Marriage between 
grandparent and grandchild, or uncle and niece, and 
between persons more closely related by blood, is void; 
as is marriage with a step-parent, with the child or 
grandchild of one's husband or wife, with the husband 
or wife of one's child or grandchild, and with the parent 
or grandparent of one's wife or husband. The statute 
contains no express requirement regarding the age of 
the parties contracting marriage, but it is a defence 
to an indictment for bigamy that the prior marriage 
was contracted when the man was under fourteen 
years of age, and the woman under twelve. Marriages 
among Jews are valid in law if they are valitl under 
the Jewish religion. Marriages may be performed by 
licensed clergymen and by the judges of the Supreme 
and Superior Courts. Before marriage, parties must 
obtain a licence by personal application from the 
town clerk, or city clerk, or registrar; and a non- 
resident woman must obtain such licence at least five 
days previous to the marriage. The licence must be 
presented to the clergyman or judge officiating, who 
must make return of the marriage. Two witnesses 
are required to the marriage ceremony. P'ailure to 
ob.serve the licence regulations will not invalidate the 
marriage provided either of the contracting parties 
supposes they have been complied with ; but the non- 
compliance is punished by fine or imprisonment. 
Causes for divorce include adultery, extreme cruelty, 
wilful desertion for five years, or for a shorter time 
in the discretion of the Court, continued drunkenness, 
excessive use of opium, morphine, or chloral, neglect 
of husband to provide necessaries for his wife, and 
any other gross misbehaviour and wickedness repug- 
nant to the marriage covenant. If the parties have 
been separated for ten years, the Court may in its 
discretion decree a divorce. Under the law of Rhode 
Island marriage is regarded as a status, pertaining to 
the citizen, which the State may regulate or alter. 
Hence a Court having jurisdiction over one of the 
parties to a marriage as a bona fide domiciled citizen 
of the State, may dissolve the marriage although the 
other party is beyond the judisdiction; and such dis- 
solution will be recognized by other states by virtue 
of the comity provision of the Federal Constitution 
(Ditson vs. Ditson, IV R. I. 87). 

Liquor Laws, Corrections, etc. — A Constitu- 
tional amendment prohibiting the manufacture and 
sale of intoxicating liquor was adopted in 1886, and re- 



RHODES 



24 



RHODES 



poalcd in 1SS9. At prosont Rhode Island is a local op- 
tion state, the question of licenee or no-licence being 
euhniitted annually to the voters of the several cities 
and towns. The licensing boards may in their discretion 
refuse any application. The number of licences in any 
town may not exceed the proportion of one licence to 
each 500 "inhabitants. The owners of the greater part 
of the land within two hundred feet of any location 
may bar its licence. No licence can be granted for a 
location within two hundred feet, measured on the 
street, of any public or parochial school. Maximum 
and minimum licence fees are fixed by statute, and the 
exact sum is determined by the hcensing boards. For 
retail licences the minimum fee is $300, and the 
maximum, $1000. 

In the City of Cranston are located the ' State 
institutions"," so-called, including the State prison, 
the county jail, the State workhouse, a reform school 
for girls, "and another for boys. The probation sys- 
tem is extensively employed, and in the case of juven- 
ile offenders especially, the State makes every effort 
to prevent their becoming hardened criminals. Pro- 
bation officers have the power of bail over persons 
committed to them. In proper cases, probation offi- 
cers may provide for the maintenance of girls and 
women apart from their families. Capital punish- 
ment does not exist in the State except in cases where 
a life convict commits murder. 

Wills disposing of personal property may be made 
by persons eighteen years of age or over; wills dis- 
posing of real estate, by persons twenty-one years of 
age or over. Probate clerks are required to notify 
corporations and voluntary associations of all gifts 
made to them by will. If a gift for charity is made by 
will to a corporation and the acceptance thereof would 
be ultra vires, the corporation may at once receive the 
gift, and may retain it on condition of securing the 
con.sent of the legislature within one year. It has 
been held that a legacj' for Ma.sses should be paid in 
full even if the estate were insufficient to pay general 
pecuniarj'^ legacies in full, on the ground that the gift 
for Ma.s.ses is for services to be rendered and is not 
gratuitous, furthermore that a gift for Masses is legal 
and is not void as being a superstitious use (Sherman 
V. Baker, XX R. I., 446, 613). 

Cemeteries are regulated to the extent that town 
councils may prevent their location in thickly popu- 
lated di.'^tricte, and for the protection of health may 
pass ordinances regarding burials and the use of the 
grounds. Desecration of graves is punished. Towns 
may receive land for burial purpo.ses, and town coun- 
cils may hold funds for the perpetual care of burial lots. 
Ceineterics are generally owned by corporations spe- 
ciall}' chartered, by churches and families. 

Field, St/Ue of li. I. and Proritlence Plantations (Boston, 1902); 
Ar.nold, Hiyt. of R. I. (New York, 1860); Staples, Annals of 
Pror\dence f Providence, 1843); DowuNG, Hist, of the Catholic 
Church in New Enijland (Boston, 1899) ; R. I. Colonial Records. 

Albert B. West. 

Rhodes, Alexandre de, missionary and author, 
b. at Avignon, 15 March, 1.591; d. at Ispahan, 
Persia, 5 Nov., IftW. He entered the novitiate of 
the Society of Jesus at Rome, 24 April, 1612, with the 
intention of devoting his life to the conversion of the 
infidels. He waw assigned to the missions of the East 
Indies, and inaugurat^rd his missionary labours in 
1624 with great success in Cochin China. In 1627 
he proceeded to Tongking where, within the space of 
three years, he converted 6fKK) pf-rsons, inclutling 
several bonzes. When in 1630 p(rsecntif)n forced 
him to leave the country, the nrwly-mjule conv<Ttfl 
continued the work of evangelization. Rhodes was 
lat-er recalled to Rome where he obtaineri permission 
from his Kuperiors to undertake missionary work in 
Persia. Amifist the numerous a^itivities of a mis- 
sionary career, he found time for literary productions: 
"Tunchineneie hist^^^ria; libri duo" (Lyons, 1652); 



"La glorieuse mort d' Andre, Catechistc . . ." 
(Paris, 1653); "Catechismus", published in Latin 
and in Tongkingcse at Rome in 1658. 

De Backer-Sommervogel, Bibliolh. de la Comp. de Jesus, VI 
(9 vols., Brussels and Paris, 1890-1900), 1718-21; Carayon, 
Voyages el Missions du P. Rhodes (Paris and Lc Mans, IS.'il). 

N. A. Weber. 

Rhodes, Knights of. See Hospitallers of St. 
John of Jerusalem. 

Rhodes (Rhodus), titular metropolitan of the 
Cyclades (q. v.). It is an island opposite to Lycia 
and Caria, from which it is separated by a narrow 
arm of the sea. It has an area of about 564 sq. 
miles, is well watered by many streams and th*^ 
river Candura, and is very rich in fruits of all kinds. 
The climate is so genial that the sun shines ever there, 
as recorded in a proverb already known to Pliny 
(Hist, natur., II, 62). The island, inhabited first 
b}^ the Carians and then by the Phoenicians (about 
1300 B.C.) who settled several colonies there, was 
occupied about 800 b.c. by the Dorian Greeks. In 
408 B.C. the inhabitants of the three chief towns, 
Lindus, lalysus, and Camirus founded the city of 
Rhodes, from which the island took its name. This 
town, built on the side of a hill, had a very fine port. 
On the breakwater, which separated the interior 
from the exterior port, was the famous bronze statue, 
the Colossus of Rhodes, 105 feet high, which cost 300 
talents. Constructed (280) from the machines of 
war which Demetrius Poliorcetes had to abandon 
after his defeat before the town, it was thrown down 
by an earthquake in 203 B.C.; its ruins were sold 
in the seventh century by Caliph Moaviah to a Jew 
from Emesus, who loaded them on 900 camels. 
After the death of Alexander the Great and the ex- 
j)ulsion of the Macedonian garrison (323 B.C.) the 
island, owing to its navy manned by the best mariners 
in the world, became the rival of Carthage and 
Alexandria. Allied with the Romans, and more or 
less under their protectorate, Rhodes became a 
centre of art and science; its school of rhetoric was 
frequented by many Romans, including Cato, 
Cicero, Caesar, and Pompey. Ravaged by Cassius 
in 43 B.C., it remained nominally independent till 
A.D. 44, when it was incorporated with the Roman 
Empire by Claudius, becoming under Diocletian the 
capital of the Isles or of the Cyclades, which it long 
remained. 

The First Book of Machabees (xv, 23) records 
that Rome sent the Rhodians a decree in favour 
of the Jews. St. Paul stopped there on his way from 
Miletus to Jerusalem (Acts, xxi, 1) ; he may even have 
made converts there. In three other passages of 
Holy Writ (Gen., x, 4; I Par., i, 7; Ezech., xxvii, 
15) the Septuagint renders by Rhodians what the 
Hebrew and the Vulgate rightly call Dodanim and 
Dedan. If we except some ancient inscriptions 
supposed to be Christian, there is no trace of Chris- 
tianity until the third century, when Bishop Euphra- 
non is said to have opposed the Encratites. Euphro- 
synus assisted at the Council of Nica^a (325). As 
the religious metropolitan of the Cyclades, Rhodes 
had eleven sufTragan sees towards the middle of the 
seventh century (Gelzer, " Ungedruckte. . . . Texte 
(ler Notitia? episcopal uum", 542); at the beginning 
of the tenth century, it had only ten (op. cit., 558); 
at the close of the fifteenth, only one, Lerne (op. cit., 
(J35), which has since disappeared. Rhodes is still 
a Greek metropolitan depending on the Patriarchate 
of Constantinople. On 15 Atigust, 1310, under the 
leadership of Grand Master Foulques de Villaret, 
the Knights of St. John captured the i.sland in spite 
of the Greek emperor, Andronicus II, and for more 
than two centuries, thanks to their fleet, were a solid 
bulwark between Christendom and Islam. In 1480 
Rhodes, under the orders of Pierre d'Aubusson, un- 
derwent a memorable siege by the lieutenants of 



RHODESIA 



25 



RHODESIA 



Mahomet II; on 24 October, 1522, Villiers de I'lsle 
Adam had to make an honorable capituhition to 
Solyman II and deUver the island dcfinitivelv to the 
Turks. From 1328 to 1546 Rhodes was a Latin 
metropolitan, having for suffragans the sees of Melos, 
Nicaria, Carpathos, Chios, Tinos, and Mycone; 
the list of its bishops is to be found in Le Quien 
(Oriens christ., Ill, 1049) and Eubel (Hierarehia 
eatholica medii a!vi, I, 205; II, 148; III, 188). The 
most distinguished bishop is Andreas Colossensis 
(the archdiocese was called Rhodes or Colossi) who, 
in 1416 at Constance and 1439 at Florence, defended 
the rights of the Roman Church against the Greeks, 
and especially against Marcus Eugenicus. After the 
death of Marco Cattaneo, the last residential arch- 
bishop, Rhodes became a mere titular bishopric, while 
Naxos inherited its metropolitan rights. On 3 
March, 1797 it became again a titular archbishopric 
but the title was thenceforth attached to the See of 
Malta. Its suffragans are Carpathos, Leros, Melos, 
Samos, and Tenedos. By a decree of the Congrega- 
tion of the Propaganda, 14 August, 1897, a prefecture 
Apostolic, entrusted to the Franciscans, was es- 
tablished in the Island of Rhodes; it has in addition 
jurisdiction over a score of neighbouring islands, of 
which the principal are Carj)athos, Leros, and 
Calymnos. There are in all 320 Catholics, while 
the island, the capital of the vilayet of the archipelago, 
contains 30,000 inhabitants. The Franciscans have 
three priests; the Brothers of the Christian Schools 
have established there a scholasticate for the Orient 
as well as a school; the Franciscan Sisters of Gcmona 
have a girls' school. The most striking feature of 
the city, in addition to a series of medieval towers 
and fortifications, is the Street of the Knights, which 
still preserves their blason (Order of St. John) and 
the date of the erection of each house or palace; 
several of the mosques are former churches. 

MEUR8IUS, Creta, Cyprus, Rhodus (Amsterdam, 167.5) ; Coro- 
NELLi, Isola di Rodi geographica, storica (Venice, 1702) ; Le 
Quien, Oriens christ., I, 923-30; Paulsen, CommerUatio exhibens 
Rhodi descriptionem macedonica cetate (Gottingen, 1818) ; Menge, 
Ueber die Vorgesch. der Insel Rhodus (Cologne, 1827) ; Rottiers, 
Description des monuments de Rhodes (Brussels, 1828); Ross, 
Reisen auf den griech. Inseln, III, 70-113; Idem, Reisen nach Kos, 
Halikarnassos, Rhodos (Stuttgart, 1840); Berg, Die Insel Rhodos 
(Brunswick, 1860); Schneiderwirth, Gesch. der Insel Rhodos 
(Heiligenstadt, 1868); Gu^rin, L'ile de Rhodes (Paris, 1880); 
BiLLiOTi AND Cotteret, L'tle de Rhodes (Paris, 1891); Becker, 
De Rhodiorum primordiis (Leipzig, 1882) ; Torr, Rhodes in Ancient 
Times (Cambridge, 1885) ; Idem, Rhodes in Modern Times (Cam- 
bridge, 1887); Schumacher, De Republica Rhodiorum commentatio 
(Heidelberg, 1886); Von Gelder, Gesch. der alien Rhodier (La 
Haye, 1900); Smith, Did. of Greek and Roman Geogr., s. v.; 
FiLLiON in VioouRoux, Diet, de la Bible, a. v.; Missiones catholicce 
(Rome, 1907). 

S. Vailh6. 

Rhodesia, a British possession in South Africa, 
bounded on the north and north-west by the Congo 
Free State and German East Africa; on the east by 
German East Africa, Nyassaland, and Portuguese 
East Africa; on the south by the Transvaal and 
Bechuanaland ; on the west by Bechuanaland and 
Portuguese West Africa. Cecil John Rhodes, to 
whom the colony owes its name, desired to promote 
the expansion of the British Empire in South Africa. 
The Dutch South African Republic and Germany 
were contemplating annexations in the neighbour- 
hood of the Zambesi River. To thwart these enemies 
of unity without delay and without the aid of the 
British Parliament was the task to which Mr. Rhodes 
and his colleagues set themselves. Early in 1S88 
Lobengula, King of Matabeleland, entered into a 
treaty with Great Britain and on 30 October of the 
same year he granted to Rhodes's agents "the 
complete and exclusive charge over all metals and 
minerals" in his dominions. On 28 October, 1889, 
the British South Africa Company was formed under 
a royal charter. The company, on Lobengula's 
advice, first decided to open up Mashonaland, which 



lies north and west of Matabeleland and south of the 
Zambesi. In Sejitember, 1890, an expeditionary 
column occupied that country and, in the next four 
years, much was done to develop its resources. In 
1893 the company, who questioned the right of the 
Matabele to make annual raids among their neigh- 
bours the Mashonas, came to blows with King 
Lobengula. Five weeks of active operations and the 
death of the king, i)robably by self-administered 
poi.son, brought the whole of Southern Rhodesia 
under the absolute control of the company. 

After the war, the settlement and opening up of 
the country was carried on under the direction of 
Mr. Rhodes who, on the ruins of Lobengula's royal 
kraal at Bulawayo, built Government House, and in 
the vicinity, laid out the streets and avenues of what 
was intended soon to become a great city. At one 
time Bulawayo had a population of some 7000 white 
inhabitants and seemed to be fulfilling the dreams of 
its founder when its progress and that of the whole 
country was cut short by the cattle pest, the native 
rebellion of 1896, and by years of stagnation and 
inactivity consequent upon the Boer War. Its white 
population (1911) is 5200. Besides Southern Rho- 
desia the chartered company own the extensive ter- 
ritories of North-western and North-eastern Rhodesia 
which lie north of the Zambesi and which, with the 
more populous southern province, cover an area of 
some 450,000 square miles and form a country larger 
than France, Germany, and the Low Countries 
combined. The black population is less than 1,500,- 
000, while the whites hardly exceed 16,000. All 
the native tribes of Rhodesia belong to the great 
Bantu family of the negro race. Before the arrival 
of the pioneer columns the dominant race south of 
the Zambesi were the Matabele, an off-shoot of 
the Zulus, who conquered the country north of the 
Limpopo River in the middle of the last century. 
They formed a military caste which lived by 
war and periodical raids upon their weaker neigh- 
bours. The destruction of this military despotism 
was a necessary step to the evangelizing of the coun- 
try. Before the arrival of the Matabele warriors the 
principal inhabitants of Southern Rhodesia were the 
Makaranga whose ancestors had formed the once 
powerful emjiire of Monomotapa. North-western 
Rhodesia or Barotseland is ruled partly by an ad- 
ministrator residing at Livingstone, near the Vic- 
toria Falls of the Zambesi an(l partly by its native 
King Lewanika, the chief of the Barotse, who has 
been heavily subsidised by the company. The pre- 
dominant people in North-eastern Rhodesia are the 
Awemba and the Angoni whose raiding propensities 
and cooperation with the Arab slave drivers caused 
much trouble and expense until their definitive an- 
nexation by the company in 1894. 

The earliest attempt to evangelize Matabeleland 
was made in 1879 when three Jesuit Fathers, travel- 
ling by ox-wagon, accomplished the journey of some 
twelve hundred miles between Grahamstown and 
Bulawayo. They were hospitably received by King 
Lobengula who had been assured by some resident 
traders that the missionaries had come for his people's 
good. He granted them a free passage through his 
dominions and allowed them to train his subjects in 
habits of industry but not to preach the Gospel 
of Christ which, as he well knew, would lead to 
drastic changes, not only in the domestic life of his 
people, but in his whole system of government. 
For some fourteen years the missionaries held their 
ground awaiting events and it was only through the 
conquest of the country by the company that free 
missionary work was rendered possible. It was dur- 
ing this period that Baron von Hubner, who was not 
without personal experience of South Africa, declared 
that he would never contribute a penny to the 
Zambesi Mission, since he thought it contrary to his 



RHODIOPOLIS 



26 



RHYMED 



duty to foster an enterprise doomed to failure and 
disaster. Events seemed to justify his prognostica- 
tions, for the mission, owing to fever and the hard- 
ships of travel, seemed to be losing more workers than 
it made converts. In 1S93, however, the power of 
Lobengula was broken and mission stations began 
to grow up in the neighbourhood of Salisbury, the 
capital, and of Bulawayo. In Matabeleland there 
are two mission stations, one at Bulawayo and the 
second at Empandeni, some sixty miles away. This 
last station owns a property of about one hundred 
square miles most of which formed the original grant 
of Lobengula and the title to which was confirmed 
by the company. The principal station among the 
^iashonas or Makaranga is Chishawasha, fourteen 
miles from Salisbury- (founded in 1892). There are 
other stations of more recent date at Salisbury'", 
Driefontein, Hama's Ivraal, and IMzondo, near 
Victoria, all under the charge of the Jesuit Fathers. 
The Missionaries of IMarianhill, recently separated 
from the Trappists, have two missions in Mashona- 
land at Macheke and St. Trias Hill. The Makaranga 
who are thus being evangelized from seven mission 
stations are the descendants of the predominant tribe 
who received the faith from the Ven. Father Gon^alo 
de Silveira in 1561. Among the Batongas, who owe 
a somewhat doubtful allegiance to King Lewanika 
in North-western Rhodesia, there are two Jesuit 
mission stations on the Chikuni and Nguerere Rivers. 
These missions are under the jurisdiction of the 
Jesuit Prefect Apostolic of the Zambesi, resident in 
Bulawayo. There are 35 priests, 30 lay brothers, 
and 83 nuns in charge of the missions. The Catholic 
native population is about 3000. For the missions 
of North-eastern Rhodesia see Nyassa, Vicariate, 
Apcstolic of. The land of the mission stations in 
Rhodesia is usually a grant from the Government 
made on condition of doing missionary work and is 
therefore inalienable without a special order in 
Council. Native schools, in some cases, are in 
receipt of a small grant from the Government. The 
Jesuit Fathers have one school for white boys (120) 
at Bulawayo, while the Sisters of the Third Order of 
St. Dominic have three: at Bulawayo (210), Salis- 
bury (130), and Gwelo (40). These schools are un- 
denominational and receive grants from the Govern- 
ment. Hence Catholics, who were first in the field, 
have a very considerable share in the education of 
the countr>'. New Government schools have been 
built recently in Salisbury, Bulawayo, and Gwelo 
and other places in order to meet the growing de- 
mand for education and they have, so far, succeeded 
in filling their school-rooms without taking many 
piipils from the schools managed by Catholics. 

The chief sfjurre of information about the Zambesi Mission is 
the Zamheni Mixnon Record, issued quarterly (Roehampton, 
Englandj; Hensman, A Hixtm-y of Rhodesia (London, 1900); 
Hone, Soulfiern Rhodenia (London. 1909); Hall, Prehistoric 
RhodeHa (lyfjndon, 1909); Michell, Life of C. J. Rhodes (2 vols 
London, 1910). 

James EjE>fDAL. 

Rhodiopolis, titular see of Lycia, suffragan of 
Myra, fulled Rhodia by Ptolemy (V, 3) and Stcphanus 
Byzantiufj; Rhodiapolis on its coins and inscriptions; 
Rhodioprjlis by Pliny (V, 28), who locates it in the 
mountains to the north of Corydalla. Its history is 
unknown. Its ruins may be seen on a hill in the heart 
of a forest at F^ski Hissar, vilayet of Koniah. They 
consist of the remains of an aqueduct, a small theatre, 
a temple of Escalapius, sarcophagi, and churches. 
Only one bishop is known, Nicholas, present in 518 
at a Qjuncil of Cfjnstantinople. The "Notitiaj 
episcopatuum " continue to m«!ntion the see as late 
as the twelfth or thirteenth century. 

Le Qpiev, Orient rhriniinnuK, I. 991; Spratt and Forbes, 
TrateU »n Lycia. I, 166, 181; Hmitu, Did. of Greek nnd Roman 
gtoffr-. B. V. 

S. P^TKIDfcs. 



Rhode, a Christian writer who flourished in the 
time of Commodus (180-92); he was a native of 
Asia who camo to Rome where he was a pupil of 
Tatian's. He wrote several books, two of which are 
mentioned by Eusobius (Hist, eccl., V, xiii), viz., 
a treatise on "The Six Days of Creation" and a work 
against the Marcionitcs in which he dwelled upon the 
various opinions which divided them. Eusebius, 
upon whom we depend exchisivclj'- for our knowledge 
of Rhodo, quotes some passages from the latter work, 
in one of which an account is given of the Marcionite 
Apelles. St. Jerome (De vir. ill.) amplifies Euse- 
bius's account somewhat by making Rhodo the author 
of a work against the Cataphrygians — probably he 
had in mind an anonymous work quoted by Eusebius 
a httle later (op. cit., V, xvi). 

Harnack, Altchrist Lit., p. H^Q; Bardenhewer, Patrology 
(tr. Shahan, St. Louis, 1908), 117. 

F. J. Bacchus. 

Rhosus, a titular see in Cilicia Secunda, suffragan 
to Anazarba. Rhosus or Rhossus was a seaport 
situated on the Gulf of Issus, nowAlexandretta, south- 
west of Alexandria (Iskenderoun or Alexandretta). 
It is mentioned by Strabo (XIV, 5; XVI, 2), Ptolemy 
(V, 14), Pliny (V, xviii, 2), who place it in Syria, and 
by Stephanus Byzantius; later by Hierocles (Synecd. 
705, 7), and George of Cyprus (Descriptio orbis 
romani, 827), who locate it in Cilicia Secunda. To- 
wards 200, Serapion of Antioch composed a treatise on 
the Gospel of Peter for the faithful of Rhosus who had 
become heterodox on account of that book (Eusebius, 
"Hist, eccl.", VI, xii, 2). Theodoret (Philoth. Hist., 
X, XI), who places it in Cilicia, relates the history of 
the hermit Theodosius of Antioch, founder of a 
monastery in the mountain near Rhosus, who was 
forced by the inroads of barbarians to retire to 
Antioch, where he died and was succeeded by his 
disciple Romanus, a native of Rhosus; these two 
religious are honoured by the Greek Church on 5 and 
9 February. Six bishops of Rhosus are known (Le 
Quien, "Or. Christ.", II, 905): Antipatros, at the 
Council of Antioch, 363; Porphyrins, a correspondent 
of St. John Chrj'sostom; Julian, at the Council of 
Chalcedon, 451; a little later a bishop (name un- 
known), who separated from his metropolitan to 
approve of the reconciliation effected between John 
of Antioch and St. Cyril; Antoninus, at the Council 
of Mopsuestra, 550; Theodore, about 600. The see 
is mentioned among the suffragans of Anazarba in 
"Notitise episcopatuum" of the Patriarchate of 
Antioch, of the sixth century (Vailh6 in "Echos 
d'Orient", X, 145) and one dating from about 840 
(Parthey, "Hieroclis synecd. ct notit. gr. episcopat.", 
not. la, 827). In another of the tenth century 
Rhosus is included among the exempt sees (Vailh6, 
ibid., 93 seq.). In the twelfth century the town and 
neighbouring fortress fell into the hands of the Ar- 
menians; in 1268 this castle was captured from the 
Templars by Sultan Bibars (Alishan, "Sissouan", 
Venice, 1899, 515). Rhosus is near the village of 
Arsous in the vilayet of Adana. 

S. P^TRIDfeS. 

Rhsrmed Bibles. — The rhymed versions of the 
Bihk; are almost entirely collections of the psalms. 
The oldest English rhymed psalter is a pre-Roforma- 
tion translation of the Vulgate psalms, generally 
assigned to the reign of Henry II and still preserved 
in Corpus Christi College, Cambridge. The Bodle- 
ian Library, Oxford, has another Catholic rhyming 
psalter of much the same style, assigned epigraphic- 
ally to the time of Edward II. Thomas l^rampton 
did the Seven Penitential Psalms, from the Vulgate, 
into rhyming verse in 1414; the MS. is in the Cotton- 
ian collection, British Museum. The.se and other 
prf!-Reformafion rhyming psalters tell a story of 
popular use of the vernacular Scripture in England, 



RHYTHMICAL 



27 



RHYTHMICAL 



which they ignore who say that the singing of psalma 
in EngUsh began with the Reformation. Sir Thomas 
Wyat (d. 1521) is said to have done the whole psalter. 
We have only "Certayne Psalmes chosen out of the 
Psalter of David, commonlye called the VII Peni- 
tential Psalmes, Drawen into English metre ". Henry 
Howard, Earl of Surrey (d. 1547), translated Pss. 
Iv, Ixxiii, Ixxxviii into English verse. Miles Cover- 
dale (d. 1567) translated several psalms in "Goastly 
psalmes and spirituall songs drawen out of the Holy 
Scripture ". The old Version of the Anglican Church, 
printed at the end of the Prayer Book (1562) con- 
tains thirty-seven rhyming psalms translated by 
Thomas Sternhold, fifty-eight by John Hopkins, 
twenty-eight by Thomas Norton, and the remainder 
by Robert Wisdom (Ps. cxxv), William Whittingham 
(Ps. cxix of 700 lines) and others. Sternhold's 
psalms had been previously published (1549). 
Robert Crowley (1549) did the entire psalter into 
verse. The Seven Penitential Psalms were trans- 
lated by very many; William Hunnis (1583) entitles 
his translation, with quaint Elizabethan conceit, 
"Seven Sobs of a Sorrowful Soul for Sinne". During 
the reign of Edward VI, Sir Thomas Smith translated 
ninety-two of the psalms into English verse, while 
imprisoned in the Tower. A chaplain to Queen Mary, 
calling himself the "symple and unlearned Syr 
William Forrest, preeiste", did a poetical version of 
fifty psalms (1551). Matthew Parker (1557), later 
Archbishop of Canterbury, completed a metrical 
psalter. The Scotch had their Psalmes buickes from 
1564. One of the most renowned of Scotch versifiers 
of the Psalms was Robert Pont (1575). Zachary 
Boyd, another Scotchman, published the Psalms in 
verse early in the seventeenth century. Of English 
rhyming versifications of the Psalms, the most charm- 
ing are those of Sir Philip Sidney (d. 1586) together 
with his sister. Countess of Pembroke. This com- 
plete psalter was not published till 1823. The rich 
variety of the versification is worthy of note; almost 
all the usual varieties of lyric metres of that lyric age 
are called into requisition and handled with elegance. 
The stately and elegant style of Lord Bacon is 
distinctive of his poetical paraphrases of several 
psalms. Richard Vcrstegan, a Catholic, published 
a rhyming version of the Seven Penitential Psalms 
(1601). George Sandys (1636) published a volume 
containing a metrical version of other parts of the 
Bible together with "a Paraphrase upon the Psalmes 
of David, set to new Tunes for Private Devotion, 
and a Thorow Base for Voice and Instruments"; 
his work is touching in its simplicity and unction. 
The Psalm Books of the various Protestant churches 
are mostly rhyming versions and are numerous: 
New England Psalm Book (Boston, 1773); Psalm 
Book of the Reformed Dutch Church in North 
America (New York, 1792); The Bay Psalm Book 
(Cambridge, 1640). Noteworthy also, among the 
popular and more recent rhymed psalters are: 
Brady and Tate (poet laureate), "A new Version of 
the Psalms of David" (Boston, 1762); James Mer- 
rick, "The Psalms in English Verse" (Reading, 
England, 1765); I. Watts, "The Psalms of David" 
(27th ed., Boston, 1771); J. T. Barrett, "A Course 
of Psalms" (Lambeth, 1825); Abraham Coles, "A 
New Rendering of the Hebrew Psalms into English 
Verse" (New York, 1885); David S. Wrangham, 
"Lyra Regis" (Leeds, 1885); Arthur Trevor Jebb, 
"A Book of Psalms" (London, 1898). Such are the 
chief rhyming English psalters. Other parts of 
Holy Writ done into rhyming English verse are: 
Christopher Tye's "The Acts of the Apostles trans- 
lated into English Metre" (1553); Zachary Boyd's 
"St. Matthew" (early seventeenth cent.); Thomas 
Prince's "Canticles, parts of Isaias and Revelations" 
in New England Psalm Book (1758); Henry Ains- 
wort, "Solomon's Song of Songs" (1642); John 



Mason Good's "Song of Songs" (London, 1803); 
C. C. Price's "Acts of the Apostles" (New York, 
1845). The French have had rhyming psalters since 
the "Sainctes Chansonettes en Rime FranQaise" of 
Clement Marot (1540). Some Italian rhymed ver- 
sions of the Bible are: Abbate Francesco Rezzano, 
"II Libro di Giobbe" (Nice, 1781); Stefano Egidio 
Petroni, "Proverbi di Salomone" (London, 1815) j 
Abbate Pietro Rossi, " Lamentazioni di Geremia, i 
Sette Salmi Penitenziali e il Cantico di Mose" 
(Nizza, 1781); Evasio Leone, "II Cantico de' 
Cantici" (Venice, 1793); Francesco Campana, 
"Libro di Giuditta" (Nizza, 1782). 

Bibliotheca Sussexinna, II (London, 1839) ; Warton, History 
of English Poetry (1774-81); Holland, The Psalmists of Britain 
(London, 1843). WALTER DruM. 

Rhythmical OfUce. — I. Description, Develop- 
ment, AND Division. — By rhythmical office is meant 
a liturgical horary prayer, the canonical hours of the 
priest, or an office of the Breviary, in which not only 
the hymns are regulated by a certain rhythm, but 
where, with the exception of the psalms and lessons, 
practically all the other parts show metre, rhythm, 
or rhyme; such parts for instance as the antiphons 
to each psalm, to the Magnificat, Invitatorium, and 
Benedictus, likewise the responses and versicles to 
the prayers, and after each of the nine lessons; quite 
often also the benedictions before the lessons, and 
the antiphons to the minor Horce (Prime, Terce, Sext, 
and None). 

The old technical term for such an office was 
Historia, with or without an additional "rhytmata" 
or rimala, an expression that frequently caused mis- 
understanding on the part of later writers. The 
reason for the name lay in the fact that originally 
the antiphons or the responses, and sometimes the 
two together, served to amplify or comment upon 
the history of a saint, of which there was a brief 
sketch in the readings of the second nocturn. Grad- 
ually this name was transferred to offices in which 
no word was said about a "history", and thus we 
find the expression "Historia ss. Trinitatis". The 
structure of the ordinary office of the Breviary in 
which antiphons, psalms, hymns, lessons, and re- 
sponses followed one another in fixed order, was the 
natural form for the rhythmical office. It was not 
a question of inventing something new, as with the 
hymns, sequences, or other kinds of poetry, but of 
creating a text in poetic form in the place of a text 
in prose form, where the scheme existed, definitely 
arranged in all its parts. A development therefore 
which could eventually serve as a basis for the 
division of the rhythmical offices into distinct classes 
is of itself limited to a narrow field, namely the ex- 
ternal form of the parts of the office as they appear 
in poetic garb. Here we find in historical order the 
following characters: (1) a metrical, of hexameters 
intermixed with prose or rhymed prose; (2) a rhyth- 
mical, in the broadest sense, which will be explained 
below; (3) a form embellished by strict rhythm and 
rhyme. Consequently one may distinguish three 
classes of rhythmical offices: (1) metrical offices, in 
hexameters or distichs; (2) offices in rhymed prose, 
i. e., offices with very free and irregular rhythm, or 
with dissimilar assonant long lines; (3) rhymed of- 
fices with regular rhythm and harmonious artistic 
structure. The second class represents a state of 
transition, wherefore the groups may be called those 
of the first epoch, the groups of the transition period, 
and those of the third epoch, in the same way as 
with the sequences, although with the latter the 
characteristic difference is much more pronounced. 
If one desires a general name for all three groups, the 
expression "Rhymed Office", as suggested by ^'His- 
toria rimata" would be quite appropriate for the 
pars major et potior, which includes the best and most 
artistic offices ; this designation : ' 'gereimtes Officium " 



RHYTHMICAL 



28 



RHYTHMICAL 



{Reimofficium) has been adopted in Germany through 
the "Analecta Hymnica". The term does not give 
absolute satisfaction, because the first and oldest 
offices are without rhyme, and cannot very well be 
called rhymed offices. In the Middle Ages the word 
"rhj-thmical" was used as the general term for any 
kind of poetn.' to be distinguished from prose, no 
matter whether there was regular rhythm in those 
p>oems or not. And for that reason it is practical 
to comprise in the name "rh>-thmical offices" all 
those which are other than pure prose, a designation 
corresponding to the "Historia rhj-tmata". 

Apart from the predilection of the Middle Ages 
for the poetic form, the Vitcc melricce of the saints 
were the point of departure and motive for the 
rh\-thmical offices. Those Vitce were frequently 
composed in hexameters or distichs. From them 
various couples of hexameters or a distich were taken 
to be used as antiphon or response respectively. In 
case the hexameters of the VitoR mctriccE did not prove 
suitable enough, the lacking parts of the office were 
supplemented by simple prose or by means of verses 
in rhymed prose, i. e., by texi, lines of different length 
in which there was very little of rhythm, but simply 
assonance. Such offices are often a motley mixture 
of hexameters, rhythmical stanzas, stanzas in pure 
prose, and again in rhymed prose. An example of 
an old metrical office, intermixed with Prose Re- 
sponses, is that of St. Lambert. (Anal. Hymn., 
XXVII, no. 79), where all the antiphons are borrowed 
from that saint's Vitce melricae, presumably the work 
of Hucbald of St. Amand; the office itself was com- 
posed by Bishop Stephen of Liege about the end of 
the ninth century: 

Antiphona I : Orbita Solaris praesentia gaudia confert 
Prajsulis eximii Lantberti gesta revolvens. 
Antiphona II: Hie fuit ad tempus Hildrici regis in 

aula, 
Dilectus cunctis et vocis famine dulcis. 
A mixing of hexameters, of rhythmical stanzas, and 
of stanzas formed by unequal lines in rhymed prose 
is .shown in the old Office of Rictrudis, composed by 
Hucbald about 907 (Anal. Hymn., XIII, no. 87). 
By the side of regular hexameters, as in the Invita- 
torium: 

Rictrudis sponso sit laus et gloria, Christo, 
Pro cuius merito iubilemus ei vigilando. 
we find rhythmical stanzas, like the first antiphon (o 
Lauds: 

Beat a Dei famula 

Rictrudis, adhuc posita 

In terris, mente devota 

Christo hierebat in ajfhra; 
or KlanzaH in very fret; rhythm, as e. g., the second 
response to the first nocturn: 

Ha;c femina laudabilia 

Merit isque honorabilis 

Rictnidis egregia 

Divina i)rovidf'nf ia 

Pf-rvcnif in Galliam, 

Prajclaris orta natalibuH, 

Honf^tis alt a et instituta moribus. 
P'rcim (he metrical offices, from the pure as well as 
from thow! mixed with rhymed prose, the transition 
was wxm ma^le to such a« fonsistefi of rhymod prose 
m«Tely. An examt)le of this kind is in the Offices of 
Ulrich, c/>mpf>wd by AV>bot Bfrno of Reichenau (d. 
104S;; the antiphon to the Magnificat of the first 
VcHpera begins thus: 

Venerandi patris Wodalrici sollemnia 
Magna- jurunfJitatiH reprawnfant gaudia, 
Qiia; merito dcri KUKcii»ninf ur vfjto 
Ac populi fflflirantur tripudio. 
lifpfHur \f\\\\H tali fompla pra'sule, 
Kx«iil1c< iKiluK lanto <litatUH (u»mpare; 
Solus da-mori ingf-mat, f|iii w\ c-ius sepuhTUKi 
Suum asbidue ixjrdit dominium . . . etc. 



Much more perfectly developed on the other hand, is 
the rhythm in the Office which Leo IX composed in 
honour of Gregory the Great (Anal. Hj^mn., V, no. 
64). This office, the work of a pope, appeared in 
the eleventh century in the Roman breviaries, and 
soon enjoyed widespread circulation; all its verses 
are iambic dimeters, but the rhythm does not as yet 
coincide with the natural accent of the word, and 
many a verse has a syllable in excess or a syllable 
wanting. For example, the first antiphon of the 
first nocturn: 

Gregorius ortus Romse 
E senatorum sanguine 
Fulsit mundo velut gemma 
Auro superaddita, 
Dum prajclarior praeclaria 
Hie accessit atavis. 
This author does not yet make use of pure rhyme, 
but only of assonance, the precursor of rhyme. 
Hence we have before us an example of transition 
from offices of the first epoch to those of the second. 
With these latter the highest development of the 
rhythmical office is reached. It is marvellous how 
in many offices of this artistic period, in spite of all 
symmetry in rhythm and rhyme, the greatest variety 
exists in the structure of the stanzas, how a smooth 
and refined language matches the rich contents full 
of deep ideas, and how the individual parts are 
joined together in a complete and most striking pic- 
ture of the saint or of the mystery to be celebrated. 
A prominent example is the Office of the Trinity by 
Archbishop Pecham of Canterbury. 
The first Vespers begins with the antiphons: 

(1) Sedenti super solium 
Congratulans trishagium 

Seraphici clamoris 
Cum patre laudat filium 
Indiflferens principium 

Reciproci amoris. 

(2) Sequamur per suspirium, 
Quod geritur et gaudium 

In Sanctis cajli choris; 
Levemus cordis studium 
In trinum lucis radium 
Splendoris et amoris. 
It. is interesting to compare with the prec^eding the 
antiphons to the first nocturn, which have quite a 
different structure; the third of them exhibits the 
profound thought: 

Leventur cordis ostia: 
Memoria Giqnenli 
Nnlo intelligontia. 
Voluntas Proccdcnli. 
again the first response to the tliird nocturn: 
Candor lucis, perpurum speculum 
Patris splendor, perlustrans sa;culum, 
Nubis levis intrans umbraculum 
In ^]gypti venit ergasfulum. 
Virgo (lircumdedit virum 
Mel mandentem et butyrum. 
upon which follows as second response the beautiful 
picture of the Trinity in tlie following form: 

A Vctcrani facie manavit aniens fluvius: 
Antiqwus est ingenitus, et facies est Filius, 
Ardoris fluxus Spiritus, duorum amor medius. 
Sic olim multifarie 
Prophetis luxit Trinitas, 
Quam post pandit ecclcsia; 
In came fulgens Veritas. 

n . 1 1 ISTORY AND SiGNIFICANCK. — It CaHHOt be dcfl- 

iiit(!ly stated which of the three old abbeys: Priim, 
Laiifievennec, or Saint-Amand can claim priority in 
eomf)osing a rhythmical office. There is no doubt 
liowever thai Saint-Amand and the monasteries in 
Hairiault, Flanders, and Brabant, was the nuil start- 
ing-point of this style of poetry, as long ago as the 



RIBADENEIRA 



29 



RIBADENEIRA 



ninth century. The pioneer in music, the Monk 
Hucbald of Saint-Amand, composed at least two, 
probably four, rhythmical offices; and the larger num- 
ber of the older offices were used liturgically in those 
monasteries and cities which had some connexion 
with Saint-Amand. From there this new branch of 
hymnody very soon found its way to France, and in 
the tenth and eleventh, and particularly in the 
twelfth and thirteenth centuries, showed fine, if not the 
finest results, both in quality and quantity. Worthy 
of especial mention as poets of this order are: the 
Abbots Odo (927-42) and Odilo (994-1049) of 
Cluny, Bishop Fulbert of Chartres (1017-28), the 
Benedictine Monk Odorannus of Sens (d. 1045), Pope 
Leo IX (d. 1054); Bishop Stephen of Tournay (1192- 
1203); Archdeacon Rainald of St. Maurice in Angers 
(d. about 1074); Bi.shop Richard de Gerberoy of 
Amiens (1204-10); Prior Arnaud du Pre of Toulouse 
(d. 1306), and the General of the Dominican Order, 
Martialis Auribelli, who in 1456 wrote a rhymed office 
for the purpose of glorifying St. Vincent Ferrer. The 
most eminent poet and composer of offices belongs to 
Germany by birth, but more so to France by reason 
of his activity; he is Julian von Speyer, director of the 
orchestra at the Frankish royal court, afterwards 
Franciscan friar and choir master in the Paris con- 
vent, where about 1240 he composed words and music 
for the two well-known offices in honour of St. Francis 
of Assisi and of St. Anthony of Padua (Anal. Hymn., 
V, nos. 61 and 42). The.se two productions, the musi- 
cal value of which has in many ways been overesti- 
mated, served as a prototjT^- f"r ^ goodly number of 
successive offices in honour of saints of the Franciscan 
Order as well as of others. In Germany the rhym(!d 
offices were just as popular as in France. As early y~s 
in the ninth century an office, in honour of St. Chry- 
santus and Daria, had its origin probably in Priim, 
perhaps through Friar Wandalbert (.\nal. Hymn., 
XXV, no. 73) ; perhaps not much later through Abbot 
Gurdestin of LandevennKc a similar poem in honour 
of St. Winwaloeus (Anal. Hymn., XVIII, no. 100). 
As hailing from Germany two other composers of 
rhythmical offices in the earlier period have become 
known: Abbot Berno of Reichenau (d. 1048) and 
Abbot Udalschalc of Maischach at Augsburg (d. 
1150). 

The other German poets whose names can be given 
belong to a period as late as the fifteenth century, as 
e. g. Provost Lippold of Stcinbergund Bisho]) .lohann 
Hofmann of Meissen. England took an early ])art 
in this style of poetry, but unfortunately most of the 
offices wiiich originated then; hav(! been lost. Bril- 
liant among the English jjoets is .Vrchbishop Pecham 
whose office of the Trinity lias been discussed above. 
Next to him are worthy of esi)ecial mention Cardinal 
AdamEa,ston ((11397) and the; Carmelite John Horneby 
of Lincoln, who about 1370 compo.sed a rhymed office 
in honour of the Holy Name of Jesus, and of the Visita- 
tion of Our Lady. Italy seems to have a relatively 
small representation; Rome itself, i. e. the Roman 
Breviary, as we know, did not favour innovations, 
and consequently was reluctant to adopt rhj'thmical 
offices. The famous Archbishop Alfons of Salerno 
(1058-85) is presumably the oldest Italian poet of 
this kind. Besides him we can name only Abbot 
Reinaldus de CoUe di Mezzo (twelfth century), and 
the General of the Dominicans, Raymundus de Vineis 
from Capua (fourteenth century). In Sicily and in 
Spain the rhymed offices were popular and quite 
numerous, but with the exception of the Franciscan 
Fra Gil de Zamora, who about the middle of the fif- 
teenth century composed an office in honovir of the 
Blessed Virgin (Anal. Hymn., XVII, no. 8) it has been 
impossible to cite by name from those two countries 
any other poet who took part in composing rhythmical 
offices. Towards the close of the thirteenth century, 
Scandinavia also comes to the fore with rhymed 



offices, in a most dignified manner. Special atten- 
tion should be called to Bishop Brynolphua of Skara 
(1278-1317), Archbishop Birgerus Gregorii of Upsala 
(d. 1383), Bishop Nicolaus of Linkoping (1374-91), 
and Johannes Benechini of Oeland (about 1440). 
The number of offices where the composer's name ia 
known is insignificantly small. No less than seven 
hundred anonymous rhythmical offices have been 
brought to light during the last twenty years through 
the "Analecta Hymnica". It is true not all of them 
are works of art; particularly during the fifteenth 
century many offices with tasteless rhyming and 
shallow contents reflect the general decadence of 
hymnody. Many, however, belong to the best prod- 
ucts- of rehgious lyric poetry. For six centuries in all 
countries of the West, men of different ranks and sta- 
tions in life, among them the highest dignitaries of 
the Church, took part in this style of poetry, which 
enjoyed absolute popularity in all dioceses. Hence 
one may surmise the significance of the rhythmical 
offices with reference to the history of civilization, 
their importance in history and development of 
liturgy, and above all their influence on other poetry 
and literature. 

Blcme and Dreve.s, Analecta Hymnica medii cevi, V, XIII, 
X VII. X VIII-XX VI, XX VIII, XL Va, LII, appendix (Leipzig, 
1SS9-1909): Raumf.r, Reimofficien, 356-64, in Ge.vcft. des Breviers 
(Freiburg, 1S95); Blume, Zur Poexie des kirchlichen Stunden- 
gebetes, 1:32-45, in Stimmen aus Maria-Loach (1898); Felder, 
Liturgische Reimofficien auf die hlL Franziskus und Antonius 
(Fribourg, 1901). 

Clemens Blume. 

Ribadeneira (or Ribadeneyra and among 
Spaniards often Riv.\deneira), Pedro de, b. at 
Toledo, of a noble Castilian family, 1 Nov., 1526 
(Astrain, 1,206); d. 22 Sept., 1611. His father, Alvaro 
Ortiz de Cisneros, was the son of Pedro Gonzalea 
Ccdillo and grand- 
son of Hernando 
Ortiz de Cisneros 
whom Ferdinand 
IV had honoured 
with the governor- 
ship of Toledo and 
important mis- 
sions. His mother, 
of the illustrious 
house of \'illalobo8, 
wius still more dis- 
tinguished for her 
virtue than for her 
birth. Already the 
mother of three 
daughters, she 
promised to con- 
secrate her fourth 
child to the Blessed 
Virgin if it .should 
be a son. Thus 
vowed to Mary be- 
fore his birth, Riba- 
deneira received in 
baptism the name 
of Pedro which had 
been borne by his 
paternal grandfather and that of Ribadeneira in mem- 
ory of his maternal grandmother, of one of the first 
families of Galicia. In the capacity of page he followed 
Cardinal Alexander Farnese to Italy, and at Rome 
entered the Society of Jesus at the age of fourteen, 
on IS Sept., 1540, eight days before the approval of 
the order by Paul III. 

After having attended the Universities of Paris, 
Louvain, and Padua, where, besifles the moral crises 
which asssailed him, h(> often had to encounter 
great hardships and habitually confined himself to 
very meagre fare [he wrote to St. Ignatius (Epp. 
mixta), V, 649): "Quanto al nostro magnare or- 




Pedro de Ribadeneira 



BIBAS 



30 



RIBAS 



dinariamente 6, a disnare un poco de menestra et 
un p>oco de came, et con questo e finite "]. He was 
ordered in November, 1549, to go to Palermo, to 
profess rhetoric at the new college which the Society 
had just opened in that city. He filled this chair 
for two years and a half, devoting his leisure time to 
visiting and consoling the sick in the hospitals. 
Meanwhile St. Ignatius was negotiating the creation 
of the German College which was to give Germany a 
chosen clergy as remarkable for virtue and orthodoxy 
as for learning: his eflforts were soon successful, and 
during the autumn of 1552 he called on the talent 
and eloquence of the young professor of rhetoric at 
Palermo. Ribadeneira amply fulfilled the expecta- 
tions of his master and delivered the inaugural ad- 
dress amid the applause of an august assembly of 
prelates and Roman nobles. He was ordained priest 
8 December, 1553 (Epp. mixta;, HI, 179); during the 
twenty-one years which followed he constantly filled 
the most important posts in the government of his 
order. From 1556 to 1560 he devoted his activity 
to securing the official recognition of the Society of 
Jesus in the Low Countries. At the same time he was 
charged by his general with the duty of promulgating 
and causing to be accepted in the Belgian houses the 
Constitutions, which St. Ignatius had just completed 
at the cost of much labour. 

But these diplomatic and administrative missions 
did not exhaust Ribadeneira's zeal. He still applied 
himself ardently to preaching. In December, 1555, 
he preached at Louvain with wonderful success, and 
likewise in January, 1556, at Brussels. On 25 
November of the same year he left Belgium and 
reached Rome 3 February, 1557, setting out again, 
17 October for Flanders. His sojourn in the Low 
Countries was interrupted for five months (Novem- 
ber, 1558, to March, 15.59); this period he spent in 
London, having been summoned thither on account 
of the sickness of Mary Tudor, Queen of England, 
which ended in her death. In the summer of 1559 
he was once more with his general, Lainez, whose 
right hand he truly was. On 3 November, 1560, he 
made hLs solemn profession, and from then until 
the death of St. Francis Borgia (1572) he continued 
to reside in Italj', filling in turn the posts of provincial 
of Tuscany, of commissary-general of the Society in 
Sicily, visitor of Lombardy, and assistant for Spain 
and Portugal. The accession of Father Everard 
Mercurian as general of the order brought a great 
change to Ribadeneira. His health being much im- 

Eaircii, he was ordered to Spain, preferably to Toledo, 
is native town, to recuperate. This was a dreadful 
blow to the poor invalid, a remedy worse than the 
disease. He obeyed, but had been scarcely a year 
in his native land when he began to importune his 
general by lett<'r to permit him to return to Italy. 
These solicitations continued for several years. At 
the same lime his superiors saw that he was as sick in 
mind a.s in body, and that his religious spirit was some- 
what shaken. Not only was he lax in his religious 
observances, but he did not hesitate to criticize the 
pcjrsons and affairs of the Society, so much so that he 
was strongly suspected of being the author of the 
memoirs then circulated through Spain against the 
Jesuits (Astrain, III, 106-lOj. This, however, was 
a mistake, and his innocence was recognized in 1578. 
He it was who tfX)k upon himself the task of refuting 
the calumnies which mischief-makers, apparently 
Jesuits, went about dissfiminating against the Con- 
stitutions of the Socif'ty, nor did he show less ardour 
and filial piety in making known the life of St. 
Ignatius Iy«^jyola and promoting his canonization. 

Outside of the Society of Jchuh, liibadeneira is 
chiefly known for his literary works. From the day 
of his arrival in Spain to repair his failing health 
until the day of his death his career was that of a 
brilliant writer. His compatriots regard him as a 



master of Castilian and rank him among the classic 
authors of their tongue. All lines were familiar to 
him, but he preferred history and ascetical literature. 
His chief claim to glory is his Life of St. Ignatius 
Loyola, in which he speaks as an eye-witness, ad- 
mirably supported by documents. Perhaps the work 
abounds too much in anecdotal details which tend 
to obscure the grand aspect of the saint's character 
and genius (Analecta Bolland., XXIII, 513). It ap- 
peared for the first time in Latin at Naples in 1572 
(ibid., XXI, 230). The first Spanish edition, re- 
vised and considerably augmented by the author, 
dates from 1583. Other editions followed, all of 
them revised by the author; that of 1594 seems to 
contain the final text. It was soon tran.slated into 
most of the European languages. Among his other 
works must be mentioned his "Historia eclesidstica 
del Cisma del reino de Inglaterra" and the "Flos 
sanctorum", which has been very popular in many 
countries. Some unpublished works of his deserve 
publication, notably his History of the persecution 
of the Society of Jesus and his History of the Spanish 
Assistancy. 

Astrain, Historia de la CompaMa de Jesus en la Asistencia de 
Espafia (Madrid, 1902-09) ; Prat, Hisloire du Pire Rihadeneyra, 
disciple de S. Ignace (Paris, 1862) ; Sommervogel, Bibliothique 
de la C. de J., VI, 1724-58; de la Fuente, Obras escojidas del 
Padre Pedro de Rivadeneira, con tma noticia de su vida y juicio 
crltico de sus escritos in Biblioteca de aulores Espafioles, LX (1868) ; 
Monumenta historica S.J.; Ignatiana, ser. I, Epistolce, II; ser. 
IV, I; PoLANCO, Chronicon Soc. Jesu, VI; Epistolce mixtoe, V. 

Francis Van Ortroy. 

Ribas, Andres P£rez de, pioneer missionary, 
historian of north-western Mexico; b. at Cordova, 
Spain, 1576; d. in Mexico, 26 March, 1655. He joined 
the Society of Jesus in 1602, coming at once to 
America, and finishing his novitiate in Mexico in 1604. 
In the same year he was sent to undertake the Chris- 
tianization of the Ahome and Suaqui of northern 
Sinaloa, of whom the former were friendly and anxious 
for teachers, while the latter had just been brought 
to submission after a hard campaign. He succeeded 
so well that within a year he had both tribes gathered 
into regular towns, each with a well-built church, 
while all of the Ahome and a large part of the Suaqui 
had been baptized. The two tribes together num- 
bered about 10,000 souls. In 1613, being then 
superior of the Sinaloa district, he was instrumental 
in procuring the submission of a hostile mountain 
tribe. In 1617, in company with other Jesuit mission- 
aries whom he had brought from Mexico City, he 
began the conversion of the powerful and largely 
hostile Yaqui tribe (q. v.) of Sonora, estimated at 
30,000 souls, with such success that within a few years 
most of them had been gathered into orderly town 
communities. In 1620 he was recalled to Mexico 
to assist in the college, being ultimately appointed 
provincial, which j)Ost he held for .several years. 
After a visit to Rome in 1613 to take part in the elec- 
tion of a general of the order, he devoted himself 
chiefly to study and writing until his death. 

He left numerous works, religious and historical, 
most of which are still in manusorijjt, but his reputa- 
tion as an historian rests secure upon his history of the 
Jesuit missions of Mexico published at Madrid in 1645, 
one year after its completion, under the title: "His- 
toria de los Triunfos de Nuestra Santa Fe entre 
gentes las mds bdrbaras . . . conseguidos por los 
soldados de la milicia de la Compania de Jesus en las 
misiones de la Provincia de Nueva- Espafia". Of 
this work Bancroft says: "It is a complete history of 
Jesuit work in Nueva Vizcaya, practically the only 
history the country had from 1590 to 1644, written 
not only by a contemporary author but by a promi- 
n(!nt actor in the events narrated, who had access to 
all the voluminous correspondence' of his order, com- 
paratively few of which documents have been pre- 
served. In short, Ribas wrote under the most 



RIBEIRAO 



31 



RIBERA 



favourable circumstances and made good use of his 
opportunities." 

Alegre, I/istoria de In CompaAia de Jesus (Mexico, 1841); 
Bancroft, Hist. North Mexican States and Texas, I (San Fran- 
cisco, 1886); BERf STAIN r Sodza, Biblioteca Hispano- Americana 
Setentrional, III (Amecemeca, 1883). 

James Mooney. 

Ribeirao Preto, Diocese of (de Riberao 
Preto), suffragan see of the Archdiocese of Sao Paulo, 
Brazil, established 7 June, 1908, with a Cathohc popu- 
lation of 500,000 souls. The first and present bishop, 
Rt. Rev. Alberto Jose Gongalves, was bom 20 July, 
1859, elevated 5 December, 1908, and consecrated 
29 April, 1909. The district of Ribeirao Preto is at 
present the most important one of the State of Sao 
Paulo, both on account of the richness of its soil and 
the great number of agricultural, industrial, and com- 
mercial establishments therein. Its principal prod- 
uct is coffee, the shipments of which are so consider- 
able as to necessitate the constant running of an 
extraordinary number of trains. 

The seat of the diocese is the city of Ribeirao Preto, 
situated on the shores of Ribeirao Preto and Ribeirao 
Retiro, 264 miles from the capital of the state. The 
municipaUty, created by law of 1 April, 1889, is di- 
vided into four wards, viz.: Villa Tibeiro, Barracao, 
Morro do Cip6, and RepubUca. It is, like most of 
the interior towns of Sao Paulo, of modem constmc- 
tion. The city is lighted by electric light and has ex- 
cellent sewer and water-supply systems. The streets 
are well laid, straight, and intersecting at right angles, 
with many parks and squares. The cathedral, now 
Hearing completion, will be one of the finest buildings 
of its kind in Brazil. It is well provided with schools 
and colleges, prominent among which are those main- 
tained by the Church. 

Julian Morexo-Lacalle. 

Ribera, Jusepe de, called also Spagnoletto, 
L'Espagnolet (the little Spaniard), painter, b. 
at Jativa, 12 Jan., 1588; d. at Naples, 1656. Fan- 
tastic accounts have been given of his early history; 
his father was said to be a noble, captain of the fortress 
of Naples, etc. All this is pure romance. A pupil 
of Ribalta, the author of many beautiful pictures 
in the churches of Valencia, the young man desired 
to know Italy. He was a very determined character. 
At eighteen, alone and without resources, he begged 
in the streets of Rome in order to live, and performed 
the services of a lackey. A picture by Caravaggio 
aroused his admiration, and he set out for Naples in 
search of the artist, but the latter had just died 
(1609). Ribera was then only twenty. For fifteen 
years the artist is entirely lost sight of; it is thought 
that he travelled in upper Italy. He is again found 
at Naples in 1626, at which time he was married, 
living like a nobleman, keeping his carriage and a 
train of followers, received by viceroys, the accom- 
plished host of all travelling artists, and very proud 
of his title of Roman Academician. Velasquez 
paid him a visit on each of his journeys (1630,1649). 
A sorrow clouded the end of his life; his daughter 
was seduced by Don Juan of Austria. Her father 
seems to have died of grief, but the story of his suicide 
is a fiction. 

Ribera' s name is synonymous with a terrifying art 
of wild-beast fighters and executioners. Not that 
he did not paint charming figures. No artist of his 
time, not excepting Rubens or Guido Reni, was more 
sensitive to a certain ideal of Correggio-like grace. 
But Ribera did not love either ugliness or beauty for 
themselves, seeking them in tum only to arouse emo- 
tion. His fixed idea, which recurs in every form in 
his art, is the pursuit and cultivation of sensation. In 
fact the whole of Ribera's work must be understood 
as that of a man who made the pathetic the condition 
of art and the reason of the beautiful. It is the nega- 



tion of the art of the Renaissance, the reaction of as- 
ceticism and the Catholic Reformation on the volupt- 
uous paganism of the sixteenth century. Hence 
the preference for the popular types, the weather- 
beaten and wrinkled beggar, and especially the old 
man. This "aging" of art about 1600 is a sign of the 
century. Heroic youth and pure beauty were dead 
for a long time. The anchorites and wasted ceno- 
bites, the parchment-hke St. Jeromes, these singular 
methods of depicting the mystical life seem Ribera's 
personal creation; to show the ruins of the human 
body, the drama of a long existence written in fur- 
rows and wrinkles, all engraved by a pencil which 
digs and scrutinizes, using the sunhght as a kind of 
acid which bites and makes dark shadows, was one 
of the artist's most cherished formulas. 

No one demonstrates so well the profound change 
which took place in men's minds after the Reforma- 
tion and the Council of Trent. Thenceforth concern 
for character and accent forestalled every other 
consideration. Leanness, weariness, and abasement 
became the pictorial signs of the spiritual Ufe. A 
sombre energ>' breathes in these figures of Apostles, 
prophets, saints, and philosophers. Search for 
character became that of ugliness and monstrosity. 
Nothing is so personal to Ribera as this love of de- 
formity. Paintings like the portrait of "Cambazo", 
the blind sculptor, the "Bearded Woman" (Prado, 
1630), and the "Club Foot" of the Lou\Te (1651) 
inaugurate curiosities which had happily been foreign 
to the spirit of the Renaissance. They show a 
gloomy pleasure in humiliating human nature. 
Art, which formerly used to glorify life, now violently 
empha.sized its vices and defects. The artist seized 
upon the most ghastly aspects even of antiquity. 
Cato of Utica, howling and distending his wound, 
Ixion on his wheel, Sisyphus beneath his rock. This 
artistic terrorism won for Ribera his sinister reputa- 
tion, and it must be admitted that it had depraved 
and perverted qualities. The sight of blood and 
torture as the source of pleasure is more pagan than 
the joy of life and the laughing sensuality of the 
Renaissance. At times Ribera's art seems a dan- 
gerous return to the dehghts of the amphitheatre. 
His "Apollo and Marsyas" (Naples), his "Duel" 
or "Match of Women" (Prado) recall the programme 
of some spectacle manager of the decadence. In 
nothing is Ribera more "Latin" than in this san- 
guinary tradition of the* games of the circus. 

However, it would be unjust wholly to condemn this 
singular taste in accordance with our modern ideas. 
At least we cannot deny extraordinary merit to the 
scenes of martyrdom painted by Ribera. This 
great master has never been surpassed as a practical 
artist. For plastic realism, clearness of drawing, and 
evidence of composition the "Martyrdom of St. 
Bartholomew" (there are in Europe a dozen copies, 
of which the most beautiful is at the Prado) is one 
of the masterpieces of Spanish genius. It is impos- 
sible to imagine a more novel and striking idea. No 
one has spoken a language more simple and direct. 
In this class of subjects Rubens usually avoids 
atrocity by an oratorical turn, by the splendour of 
his discourse, the lyric brilliancy of the colouring. 
Ribera's point of view is scarcely less powerful with 
much less artifice. It is less transformed and de- 
veloped. The action is collected in fewer persons. 
The gestures are less redundant, with a more spon- 
taneous quality. The tone is more sober and at the 
same time stronger. Everything seems more severe 
and of a more concentrated violence. The art also, 
while perhaps not the most elevated of all, is at least 
one of the most original and convincing. Few artists 
have given us, if not serene enjoyment, more serious 
thoughts. The "St. Lawrence" of the Vatican is 
scarcely less beautiful than the "St. Bartholomew". 

Moreover it must not be thought that these ideas 



RICARDUS 



32 



RICCARDI 



of violence exhaust Ribera's art. They are supple- 
nu'iited by sweet ideas, and in his work horrible pictures 
alternate with tender ones. There is a type of young 
woman or rather young girl, still almost a child, of 
deUcate beauty with candid oval features and rather 
thin arms, with streaming hair and an air of ignorance, 
a t\-pe of parado.vical grace, which is found in his 
"Rapture of St. Miigdalen" (Madrid, Academy of 
S. Fernando), or the "St. Agnes" of the Dresden 
Museum. This virginal figure is truly the "eternal 
feminine" of a countrj' which more than any other 
dreamed of love and sought to deify its object, 
summarizing in it the most irreconcilable desires and 
virtues. No painter has endowed the subject of the 
Immaculate Conception with such grandeur as Ribera 
in his picture for the Ursuhnes of Salamanca (1636). 
Even a certain familiar turn of imagination, a certain 
intimate and domestic piety, a sweetness, an amicable 
and popular cordiality which would seem unknown 
to this savage spirit were not foreign to him. In 
more than one instance he reminds us of Murillo. 
He painted .several "Holy Families", "Housekeeping 
in the Carpenter Shop" (Gallery of the Duke of 
Norfolk). All that is inspired by tender reverie 
about cradles and chaste alcoves, all the distracting 
dehghts in which modern rehgion rejoices and which 
sometimes result in affectation, are found in more 
than germ in the art of this painter, who is regarded 
by many as cruel and uniformly inhuman. Thus 
throughout his work scenes of carnage are succeeded 
bj- scenes of love, atrocious visions by visions of 
beaut}'. They complete each other or rather the 
impression they convey is heightened by contrast. 
And under both forms the artist incessantly sought 
one object, namely to obtain the maximum of emo- 
tion; his art expresses the most intense nervous 
life. 

This is the genius of antithesis. It forms the very 
basis of Ribera's art, the condition of his ideas, and 
even dictates the customar>' processes of his chiaro- 
scuro. For Ribera's chiaroscuro, scarcely less per- 
sonal than that of Rembrandt, is, no less than the 
latter's, inseparable from a certain manner of feeling. 
Less supple than the latter, less enveloping, less 
penetrating, less permeable by the fight, twihght, 
and penumbra, it proceeds more roughly by clearer 
oppositions and sharp intersections of light and dark- 
ness. Contrary to Rembrandt, Ribera does not de- 
compose or discolour, his palette does not dissolve 
under the influence of shadows, and nothing is so 
peculiar to him as certain superexcited notes of 
furious red. Nevertheless, compared to Caravaggio, 
hi.4 chiaroscuro is much more than a mere means of 
relief. The canvas assumes a vulcanized, car- 
bonized appearance. Large wan shapes stand out 
from the a.sphalt of the background, and the shadows 
about them deepen and accumulate a kind of obscure 
tragic capacity. There Ls always the same twofold 
rhythm, the same pathetic formula of a dramatized 
universf* regarded fis a duel between sorrow and joy, 
day and night. This striking formula, infinitely less 
subtile than that of Rembrandt, nevertheless had an 
immense success. For all the schools of the south 
Caravaggio's chiaroscuro perfected by Ilibera had the 
force of law, such as it is found throughout the Near 
politan Kchfxjl, in Htanzioni, Salvator Rosa, Luca 
(iiordano. In rriod(;m times Honnat and Ribot 
painted as though they knew no master but Ribera. 

R<«t came to tliis violr-nt nature Upwards tin; end 
of his life; from thr- idea of contrast he rf)S(' U) that of 
harmony. His last works, the "Club Foot" and 
the "Adoration of the Shepherds" (IG.'jO), both in 
the I>juvre, are painted in a silvery t<^jne which seems 
to forcwha/iow the light of \'claHquez. His hand had 
not lost its vigour, its care for truth; he always dis- 
played the same implacable and, as it were, in- 
flexible realism. The objects of still life in the 



"Adoration of the Shepherds" have not been equalled 
by any specialist, but these works are marked by a 
new serenit}'. This impassioned genius leaves us 
under a tran(}uil impression; we catch a ray — or 
should it rather be called a reflection? — of the Ol3Tn- 
pian genius of the author of "The Maids of Honour". 
Ribera was long the only Spanish painter who en- 
joyed a European fame; this he owed to the fact 
that he had lived at Naples and has often been classed 
with the European school. Because of this he is 
now denied the glory which was formerly his. He is 
regarded more or less as a deserter, at any rate as 
the least national of Spanish painters. But in the 
seventeenth century Naples was still Spanish, and 
by living there a man did not cease to be a Spanish 
subject. By removing the centre of the school to 
Naples, Ribera did Spain a great service. Spanish 
art, hitherto little known, almost lost at Valencia and 
Seville, thanks to Ribera was put into wider circula- 
tion. Through the authority of a master recognized 
even at Rome the school felt emboldened and en- 
couraged. It is true that his art, although more 
Spanish than any other, is also somewhat less special- 
ized; it is cosmopolitan. Like Seneca and Lucian, 
who came from Cordova, and St. Augustine, who 
came from Carthage, Ribera has expressed in a uni- 
versal language the ideal of the country where life 
has most savour. 

DoMiNici, Vite de' pittori . . . napoletani (Naples, 1742- 
1743; 2nd ed., Naples, 1844); P,\lomino, £< Museo Pictdrico, I 
(Madrid, 1715); II (Madrid, 1724); Noticias, Elogios y Vidas de 
los Pintores, at the end of vol. II, separate edition (London, 
1742), in (IJerman (Dresden, 1781); Bermudez, Diccionario 
historlco de los mdx ilustres profesores de las betlas artes en Espafla 
(Madrid, 1800); Stirling, Anyials of the artists of Spain (Lon- 
don, 1848); ViARDOT, Notices sur les principnux peintres de 
V Espagne (P&ris.lSSQ); Bla^c, Ecole Espagnole (1869); Meyer, 
Ribera (Strasburg, 1908); Lafond, Ribera el Zurbaran (Paris, 
1910). 

LOTJIS GiLLET. 

Ricardus Anglicus, Archdeacon of Bologna, was 
an English priest who was rector of the law school 
at the University of Bologna in 1226, and who, by 
new methods of explaining legal proceedings, became 
recognized as the pioneer of scientific judicial pro- 
cedure in the twelfth century. His long-lost work 
"Ordo Judiciarius" was discovered in MS. by 
Wunderlich in Douai and published by Witt in 1851. 
A more correct MS. was subsequently discovered at 
Brussels by Sir Travcrs Twiss, who, on evidence 
which seems insufficient, followed Panciroli in iden- 
tifying him with the celebrated Bishop Richard Poor 
(died 1237). Probably he graduated in Paris, as a 
Papal Bull of 1218 refers to "Ricardus Anglicus 
doctor Parisiensis", but there is no evidence to con- 
nect him with Oxford. He also wrote glosses on the 
papal decretals, and distinctions on the Decree of 
Oratian. He mu.st be distinguished from his con- 
temporary, Ricardus Anglicanus, a physician. 

Rashdall, Mediwval Utwersities, II, 750 (London, 1895); 
Twi89, Law Magazine and Review, May, 1894; Sarti and 
Fattorini, De claris Arcbigymnasii Bononiensis Professoribus; 
Blakiston in Diet. Nat. Biog., a. v. Poor, Richard. 

Edwin Burton. 

Riccardi, Nicholas, theologian, writer and preach- 
er; b. at Genoa, 1585; d. at Rome, 30 May, 1639. 
Physically he was unprepossessing, even slightly de- 
formed. His physical deficiencies, however, were 
abundantly compensated for by mentality of the 
highest order. His natural taste for study was en- 
couraged by his parents who sent him to Spain to 
pursue his studies in the Pirician Academy. While a 
student at this institution he cntcnMl the Dominican 
order and was invested with its habit in the Convent 
of St. Paul, where he studied philosophy and theology. 
So brilliant was his record that after completing his 
studies he was made a professor of Thomistic theology 
at Pincia. While discharging his academic duties, 
he acquired a reputation as a preacher second only to 




JUSEPE DE RIBERA 



THE RAPTURE OF THE MAGDALEN 

ACADEMY OF B. FERNANDO, MADRID 

ST. JEROME, THE BRERA, MILAN 



ST. SEBASTIAN, PRADO, MADRID 



THE BLIND SCULPTOR, PRADO, MADRID 



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33 



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hie fame as a theologian. As a preacher Phihp III 
of Spain named him "The Marvel", a sobriquet by 
which he was known in Spain and at Rome till the 
end of his life. On his removal to Rome in 1621, he 
acquired the confidence of Urban VIII. He was made 
regent of studies and professor of theology at the Col- 
lege of the Minerva. In 1629 Urban VIII appointed 
him Master of the Sacred Palace to succeed Niccold 
Ridolphi, recently elected Master General of the 
Dominicans. Shortly after this the same pontiff ap- 
pointed him pontifical preacher. These two offices 
he discharged with distinction. His extant works 
number twenty. Besides several volumes of sermons 
for Advent, Lent, and special occasions, his writings 
treat of Scripture, theology, and history. One of his 
best known works is the "History of the Council of 
Trent" (Rome, 1627). His commentaries treat of 
all the books of Scripture, and are notable for their 
originality, clearness, and profound learning. Two 
other commentaries treat of the Lord's Prayer and 
the Canticle of Canticles. 
Qu^TiF-EcHARD, SS. Otd. Proed., II, 503, 504. 

John B. O'Connor. 

Ricci, Lorenzo, General of the Society of Jesus, 
b. at Florence, 2 Aug., 1703; d. at the Castle of Sant' 
Angelo, Rome, 24 Nov., 1775. He belonged to one of 
the most ancient and illustrious families of Tuscany. 
He had two brothers, one of whom subsequently be- 
came canon of the cathedral and the other was raised 
by Francis I, Grand Duke of Tuscany, to the dignity 
of first syndic of the Grand duchy. Sent when very 
young to Prato to pursue his studies under the direc- 
tion of the Society of Jesus in the celebrated Cico- 
gnini college, he entered the society when he was 
scarcely fifteen, 16 Dec, 1718, at the novitiate of S. 
Andrea at Rome. Having made the usual course of 
philo.sophical and theological studies and twice de- 
fended with rare success public theses in these sub- 
jects, he was successively charged with teaching belles 
lettres and philosophy at Siena, and philosophy and 
theology at the Roman College, from which he was 
promoted to the foremost office of his order. Mean- 
while he was admitted to the profession of the four 
vows, 15 Aug., 1736. About 1751 his edifying and 
regular life, his discretion, gentleness, and simplicity 
caused him to be appointed to the important office of 
spiritual father, the duties of which he discharged to 
the satisfaction of all. In 1755 P'ather Luigi Centuri- 
one, who appreciated his eminent qualities, chose him 
as secretary of the society. Finally in the Nine- 
teenth Congregation he was elected general by unan- 
imous vote (21 Alay, 1758). It was at the most stormy 
and distressed period of its existence that the senate 
of the society placied its government and its destinies 
in the hands of a man, deeply virtuous and endowed 
with rare merit, but who was inexperienced in the art 
of governing and who had always lived apart from the 
world and diplomatic intrigues. The historiographer 
Julius Cordara, who lived near Ricci and seems to have 
known him intimately, deplored this choice: "Eun- 
dem tot inter iactationes ac fluctus cum aliquid 
prater morem audendum et malis inusitatis inusitata 
remedia adhibenda videbantur, propter ipsam nature 
placiditatem et nulla unquam causa incalescentem 
animum, minus aptum arbitrabar" (On account of 
his placid nature and too even temper, I regarded him 
as little suited for a time when disturbance and storm 
seem to require extraordinary application of unusual 
remedies to unusual evils). (Denkwiirdigkeiten der 
Jesuiten, p. 19.) On the other hand it must be ad- 
mitted that the new general did not have much leeway. 

In his first interview with Clement XIII, who had 
assumed the tiara 6 July, 1758, and always showed 
himself deeply attached to the Jesuits, the p)ope 
counselled him: "Silentium, patientiam et preces; 
cetera sibi curaj fore" (Cordara, op. cit., 22). "The 
XIII.— 3 




Lorenzo Ricci 



saintly superior followed this line of conduct to the 
letter and incessantly inculcated it in his subordinates. 
The seven encyclical letters which he addressed to 
them in the fifteen years of his generalship all breathe 
the sweetest and tenderest piety and zeal for their 
religious perfection. "Preces vestras", he says in the 
last, that of 21 Feb., 1773, "animate omni pietatis 
exercitio accurate fervideque obeundo, mutua inter 
vosmetipsos caritate, obedientia et observantia erga 
eos qui vobis Dei loco sunt, tolerantia laborum, 
serumnarum, paupertatis, contumeliarum, sec(>ssu et 
solitudine, prudentia et evangelica in agendo sim- 
plicitate, boni exempli operibus, piisque colloquiis" 

(Let your prayers 

be inspired by 
every practice 
of piety, with 
mutual charity 
among your- 
selves, obedience 
and respect for 
those who hold 
the place of God in 
your regard, en- 
durance of labour, 
of hardships, of 
poverty, of insult 
in retreat ami 
solitude, with pru- 
dence and evan- 
gelical simplicity 
of conduct, the 
example of good 
works, and pious 
conversation). 
(Epistola; pra>positorum generalium S.J., II, Ghent, 
1847, 306). This pious and profoundly upright man 
was nevertheless not wanting on occasion in courage 
and firmness. When it was suggested to save the 
French provinces of his order by giving them a 
superior entirely independent of the general of Rome, 
he refused thus to transgress the constitutions com- 
mitted to his care and uttered to the pope the ever 
famous saj'ing: "Sint ut sunt aut non sint" (Leave 
them Jis they are or not at all). (Cordara, op. cit., 35). 
Unfortunately he placed all his confidence in his 
assistant for Italy, Father Timoni, of Greek origin, 
"vir quippe pra'fidens sibi, iudiciique sui plus niniio 
tenax" (Idem, op. cit., 20), who, like many others 
expected the society to be saved by a miracle of Provi- 
dence. When, to the mass of pamphlets aimed 
against the Jesuits, the Portuguese episcopate brought 
the reinforcement of pastoral letters, a number of 
bishops wrote to the pope letters vyhich were very 
eulogistic of the Society of Jesus and its Institute, and 
Clement XIII hastened to send a copy to Father 
Ricci. It was a brilliant apologia for the ord(;r. 
Cordara and many of his brethren considered it ex- 
pedient to publish this correspondence in full with the 
sole title: "Indicium Ecclesise universa; de statu 
praesenti Societatis lesu" (op. cit., 26). Timoni, who 
fancied that no one would dare any thing against 
the Jesuits of Portugal, was of a contrary opinion, 
and the general was won over to his way of thinking. 

Disaster followed disaster, and Ricci experienced 
the. most serious material difficulties in assisting the 
members who were expelled from every country. 
At his instance, and perhaps even with his collabora- 
tion, Clement XIII, solicitous for the fate of the 
Society, published 7 January, 1765, the Bull "Apos- 
tolicam pascendi", which was a cogent defence of the 
Institute and its members (Masson, "Le cardinal de 
Bernis depuis son ministere", 80). But even the 
pontiff's intervention could not stay the devastating 
torrent. After the suppression of the Jesuits in 
Naples and the Duchy of Parma, the ambassadors 
of France, Spain, and Portugal went (Jan., 1769) 



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34 



RICCI 



to request officially of the pope the total suppression 
of the society. This was the death-blow of Clement 
XIII, who died some days later (2 Feb., 1769) of an 
apoplectic attack. His successor, the conventual 
Ganganelli, little resembled him. Whatever may 
have been his sympathies for the order prior to his 
elevation to the sovereign pontificate, and his in- 
debtedness to Ricci, who had used his powerful in- 
fluence to secure for him the cardinal's hat, it is 
indisputable that once he became pope he assumed 
at least in appearance a hostile attitude. "Sepalam 
Jesuitis infensum praebere atque ita quidem, ut ne 
generalem quidem prtepositum in conspectum ad- 
mitteret" (Cordara, 43). There is no necessity of 
repeating even briefly the histor>' of the pontificate 
of Clement XIV (18 May, 1769-22 Sept., 1774), 
which was absorbed by his measures to bring about 
the suppression of the Society of Jesus (see Clement 
XIV). Despite the exactions and outrageous in- 
justices which the Jesuit houses had to undergo even 
at Rome, the general did not give up hope of a speedy 
dehverance, as is testified by the letter he wTote to 
Cordara the day after the feast of St. Ignatius, 1773 
(Cordara, loc. cit., 53). Although the Brief of aboli- 
tion had been signed by the pope ten days previously, 
Father Ricci was suddenly notified on the evening 
of 16 August. The next day he was assigned the 
EngUsh College as residence, until 23 Sept., 1773, when 
he was removed to the Castle of Sant' Angelo, where 
he was held in strict captivity for the remaining two 
years of his life. The surveillance was so severe 
that he did not learn of the death of his secretary 
Cornolli, imprisoned with him and in his vicinity, 
until six months after the event. To satisfy the 
hatred of his enemies his trial and that of his com- 
panions was hastened, but the judge ended by recog- 
nizing "nunquam objectos sibi reos his innocen- 
tiores; Riccium etiam ut hominem vere sanctum di- 
laudabat" (Cordara, op. cit., 62); and Cardinal de 
Bemis dared to vsTite (5 July): "There are not, 
p>erhaps, sufficient proofs for judges, but there are 
enough for upright and reasonable men" (Masson, 
op. cit., 324). 

Justice required that the ex-general be at once set 
at hberty, but nothing was done, apparently through 
fear lest the scattered Jesuits should gather about 
their old head, to reconstruct their society at the 
centre of Catholicism. At the end of August, 1775, 
Ricci sent an appeal to the new pope, Pius VI, to 
obtain his rolease. But while his claims were being 
considered by the circle of the Sovereign Pontiff, 
death came to summon the venerable old man to the 
tribunal of the supreme Judge. Five days pre- 
viously, when about to receive Holy Viaticum, he 
mafle this double protest: (1) "I declare and protest 
that the suppressed Society of Jesus has not given 
any caase for its suppression; this I declare and pro- 
test with all that moral certainty that a superior 
well-informed of his order can have. (2) I declare and 
protest that I have not given any cause, even the 
slightest, for my imprisonment; this I declare and 
protept with that supreme certainty and evidence that 
each one has of his own actions. I make this second 
protest only becaase it is necessary for the reputation 
of the suppressed Society of Jesus, of which I was 
the general.'' (Murr, "Journal zur Kunstgeschichte", 
IX, 281.) To do honour to his memory thf pope 
cau.sed the celebration of elaborate funeral services in 
the church of St. John of the Florentines near the 
Castle of Sant' Angelo. As is customary with prol- 
atfjH, the body was placed on a bed of state. It was 
carried in the evenmg to the Church of the Gesd, 
where it was buried in the vault reserved for 
the burial of his predecessors in the government of 
the order. 

Cordara, DenkwHrdigkeiten in D6llinoer, BeilTOge zur 
polititchen, kirchlichen und Ctdturgeieh., Ill (1882), 1-74. 



These memoira carry much weight, inasmuch as Cordara speaks 
with severity of his former brothers in arms, and of the Society 
of Jesus. Carayon, Documents inedits concemant la Compagnie 
de JSsus, XVII, Le Pkre Ricci et la suppression de la Compagnie 
de Jisus en 1773, CLXXIV (Poitiers, 1869); Episloloe prceposi- 
torum generalium Societalis Jesu, H (Ghent, 1847) ; Smith, The 
Suppression of the Society of Jesus in The Month (1902-03); 
Murr, Journal zur Kunstgesch. u, zur allgemeinen Litleratur, 
IX (Nuremberg, 1780), 254-309; Masson, Le Cardinal de Bernis 
depuis son ministire, 1758-1794 (Paris, 1903), a good collection of 
documents, but the author does not know the historj' of the 
Jesuits; 'RAyionKS^CUmentXIII etClhnentXIV, supplementary 
volume, historical and critical documents (Paris, 1854); Boero, 
Osservazioni sopra I'istoria del pontificato di Clemente XIV 
scritta dal P. A. Theiner (2nd ed., Monza, 1854), useful for docu- 
ments. 

Francis Van Ortroy. 

Ricci, Matted, founder of the Catholic missions of 
China, b. at Macerata in the Papal States, 6 Oct., 
1552; d. at Peking, 11 May, 1610. Ricci made his 
classical studies in his native town, studied law at 
Rome for two years, and on 15 Aug., 1571, entered 
the Society of Jesus at the Roman College, where he 
made his novitiate, and philosophical and theological 
studies. While there he also devoted his attention 
to mathematics, cosmology, and astronomy under the 
direction of the celebrated Father Christopher Clavius. 
In 1577 he asked to be sent on the missions in Farthest 
Asia, and his request being granted he embarked at 
Lisbon, 24 March, 1578. Arriving at Goa, the capital 
of the Portuguese Indies, on 13 Sept. of this year, he 
was employed there and at Cochin in teaching and the 
ministry until the end of Lent, 1582, w^hen Father 
Alessandro Valignani (who had been his novice- 
master at Rome but who since August, 1573, was 
in charge of all the Jesuit missions in the East Indies) 
summoned him to Macao to prepare to enter China. 
Father Ricci arrived at Macao on 7 August, 1582. 

Beginning of the Mission. — In the sixteenth century 
nothing remained of the Christian communities 
founded in China by the Nestorian missionaries in the 
seventh century and by the Catholic monks in the 
thirteenth and fourteenth (see China). Moreover it 
is doubtful whether the native Chinese population 
was ever seriously affected by this ancient evangeliza- 
tion. For those desiring to resume the work every- 
thing therefore remained to be done, and the obstaclee 
were greater than formerly. After the death of St. 
Francis Xavier (27 November, 1552) many fruitless 
attempts had been made. The first missionary to 
whom Chinese barriers were temporarily lowered was 
the Jesuit, Melchior Nunez Barreto, who twice went 
as far as Canton, where he spent a month each time 
(1555). A Dominican, Father Caspar da Cruz, was 
also admitted to Canton for a month, but he also had 
to refrain from "forming a (Christian Christianity". 
Still others, Jesuits, Augustinians, and Franciscans in 
1568, 1575, 1579, and 1582 touched on Chinese soil, 
only to be forced, sometimes with ill treatment, to 
withdraw. To Father Valignani is due the credit of 
having seen what prevented all these undertakings 
from having lasting results. The attcmjjts had 
hitherto been made haphazard, with men insufficiently 
prepared and incapable of profiting by favourable 
circumstances had they encountered them. Father 
Valignani substituted the methodical attack with pre- 
vious careful selection of the missionaries w'ho, the 
field once open, would implant Christianity there. 
To this encf he first summoned to Macao Father 
Michele de Ruggieri, who had also come to India from 
Italy in 1578. Only twenty years had elapsed since 
the Portuguese had succeeded in establishing their 
colony at the portals of China, and the Chinese, at- 
tracted by opportunities for gain, were flocking 
thither. Ruggieri reached Macao in July, 1579, and, 
following the given orders applied himsc'lf wholly to 
the study of the Mandarin language, that is, Chinese 
as it is spoken throughout the empire by the officials 
and the educated. His progress, though very slow, 
permitted him to labour with more fruit than his 



RICCI 



35 



RICCI 



predecessors in two sojourns at Canton (1580-81) 
allowed him by an unwonted complacency of the 
mandarins. Finally, after many untoward events, 
he was authorized (10 Sept., 1583) to take up his 
residence with Father Ricci at Chao-k'ing, the ad- 
ministrative capital of Canton. 

Method of the Missionaries. — The exercise of great 
prudence alone enabled the missionaries to remain in 
the region which they had had such difficulty in 
entering. Omitting all mention at first of their in- 
tention to preach the Gospel, they declared to the 
mandarins who questioned them concerning their ob- 
ject "that they were religious who had left their 
country in the distant West because of the renown of 
the good government of China, where they desired to 
remain till their death, serving God, the Lord of 
Heaven". Had they immediately declared their in- 
tention to preach a new religion, thvy would inner 
have been received ; this would 
have clashed with Chinese 
pride, which would not admit 
that China had anything to 
learn from foreigners, and it 
would have especially alarmed 
their politics, which beheld a 
national danger in every in- 
novation. However, the mis- 
sionaries never hid their Faith 
nor the fact that they were 
Christian priests. As soon as 
they were established at Chao- 
k'ing they placed in a conspicu- 
ous part of their house a pic- 
ture of the Blessed Virgin with 
the Infant Jesus in her arms. 
Visitors seldom failed to in- 
quire the meaning of this, to 
them, novel rei)r('sentation, 
and the missionaries profited 
thereby to give them a first 
idea of Christianity. The mis- 
sionaries assumed the initia- 
tive in speaking of their re- 
ligion as soon as they had 
sufficiently overcome Chinese 
antipathy and distrust to see 
their instructions desired, or 
at least to be certain of making 
them understood without 
shocking their listeners. They achieved this result 
by appealing to the curiosity of the Chinese, by 
making them feel, without saying so, that the 
foreigners had something new and interesting to 
teach; to this end they made use of the European 
things they had brought with them. Such were large 
and small clocks, mathematical and astronomical 
instruments, prisms revealing the various colours, 
musical instruments, oil paintings and prints, cos- 
mographical, geographical, and architectural works 
with diagrams, maps, and views of towns and build- 
ings, large volumes, magnificently printed and splen- 
didly bound, etc. The Chinese, who had hitherto 
fancied that outside of their country only barbarism 
existed, were astounded. Rumours of the wonders 
displayed by the religious from the West soon spread 
on all sides, and thenceforth their house was always 
filled, especially with mandarins and the educated. 
It followed, says Father Ricci, that "all came by 
degrees to have with regard to our countries, our 
people, and especially of our educated men, an idea 
vastly different from that which they had hitherto 
entertained". This impression was intensified by the 
explanations of the missionaries concerning their little 
museum in reply to the numerous questions of their 
visitors. 

One of the articles which most aroused their curi- 
osity was a map of the world. The Chinese had al- 



scriptions in Chinese. 




ready had maps, called by their geographers "de- 
scriptions of the world", but almost the entire space 
was fiUed by the fifteen provinces of China, around 
which were painted a bit of sea and a few islands on 
which were mscribed the names of countries of which 
they had heard — all together was not as large as a 
small Chinese province. Naturally the learned men 
of Chao-k'ing immediately protested when Father 
Ricci pointed out the various parts of the world on 
the European map and when they saw how small a 
part China played. But after the missionaries had 
explained its construction and the care taken by the 
geographers of the West to assign to each country 
its actual position and boundaries, the wisest of them 
surrendered to the evidence, and, beginning with 
the Governor of Chao-k'ing, all urged the missionary 
to make a copy of his map with the names and in- 
Ricci drew a larger map of the 
world on which he wrote more 
detailed inscriptions, suited to 
the needs of the Chinese; when 
the work was completed the 
governor had it printed, giv- 
ing all the copies as presents 
to his friends in the province 
and at a distance. Father 
Kieri does not hesitate to say: 
"This was the most useful 
work that could be done at 
that time to dispose China to 
give credence to the things of 
our holy Faith. . . . Their 
conception of the greatness 
of their country and of the 
insignificance of all other 
lands made them so proud 
that the whole world sei-med 
to t hem savage and barbarous 
compared with tlu'insclvcs; it 
was scarcely to be expected 
that they, while entertaining 
this idea, would heed foreign 
masters." But now nuniljers 
were eager to learn of Euro- 
pean affairs from the mission- 
aries, who profited by these 
dispositions to introduce reli- 
1 , ii, ],:, gion more frequently with their 

explanations. For example, 
their beautiful Bibles and the paintings and prints de- 
picting religious subjects, monuments, churches, etc., 
gave them an opportunity of speaking of "the good 
customs in the countries of the Christians, of the false- 
ness of idolatry, of the conformity of the law of God 
with natural reason and similar teachings found in the 
writings of the ancient sages of China". This last 
instance shows that F'ather Ricci already knew how 
to draw from his Chinese studies testimony favourable 
to the religion which he was to preach. 

It was soon evident to the missionaries that their 
remarks regarding religion were no less interesting 
to many of their visitors than their Western curios- 
ities and learning, and, to satisfy those who wished 
to learn more, they distributed leaflets containing a 
Chinese translation of the Ten Commandments, an 
abbreviation of the moral code much appreciated 
by the Chinese. Next the missionaries, with the 
assistance of some educated Chinese, composed a 
small catechism in which the chief points of Christian 
doctrine were ex-plained in a dialogue between a pagan 
and a European priest. This work, printed about 
1584, was also well received, the highest mandarins of 
the province considering themselves honoured to re- 
ceive it as a present. The missionaries distributed 
himdreds and thousands of copies and thus "the good 
odour of our Faith began to be spread throughout 
China". Having begun their direct apostolate in 



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36 



RICCI 



this manner, they furthered it not a Uttle by their 
edifying regular ' life, their disinterestedness, their 
charity, and their patience under persecutions which 
often destroved the fruits of their labours. 

Developmait of the Missions. — Father Ricci played 
the chief part in these earlv attempts to make Chris- 
tianity know-n to the Chinese. In 1607 Father 
Ruggieri died in Europe, where he had been sent in 
15S8 by Father Valignani to interest the Holy See 
more particularly in the missions. Left alone with a 
young priest, a pupil rather than an assistant, Ricci 
was expelled from Chao-k'ing in 1589 by a viceroy of 
Canton who had found the house of the missionaries 
suited to his o\%-n needs; but the mission had taken 
root too deeply to be exterminated by the ruin of its 
first home. Thenceforth in whatever town Ricci 
sought a new field of a])ostolate he was preceded by 
his reputation and he found powerful friends to pro- 
tect him. He first went to Shao-chow, also in the 
province of Canton, where he dispensed with the 
services of interpreters and adopted the costume of 
the educated Chinese. In 1595 he made an attempt 
on Nan-king, the famous capital in the south of China, 
and, though unsuccessful, it furnished him with an 
opportunity of forming a Christian Church at Nan- 
ch'ang, capital of Kiang-si, which was so famous for 
the number and learning of its educated men. In 
159S he made a bold but equally fruitless attempt to 
establish himself at Peking. Forced to return to 
Nan-king on 6 Feb., 1599, he found Providential 
compensation there; the situation had changed com- 
pletely since the preceding year, and the highest 
mandarins were desirous of seeing the holy doctor 
from the West take up his abode in their city. Al- 
though his zeal was rewarded with much success in 
this wider field, he constantly longed to repair his 
repulse at Peking. He felt that the mission was not 
secure in the provinces until it was established and 
authorized in the capital. On 18 May, 1600, Ricci 
again set out for Peking and, when all human hope of 
success was lost, he entered on 24 January, 1601, 
summoned by Emperor Wan-li. 

Last Labours. — Ricci's last nine years were spent 
at Peking, strengthening his work with the same 
wisdom and tenacity of purpose which had conducted 
it so far. The imperial goodwill was gained by gifts 
of European curiosities, especially the map of the 
world, from which the Asiatic ruler learned for the 
first time the true situation of his empire and the 
existence of so many other different kingdoms and 
peoples; he required Father Ricci to make a copy 
of it for him in his palace. At Peking, as at Nan- 
king and elsewhere, the interest of the most intelligent 
Chinese was aroused chiefly by the revelations which 
the European teacher made to them in the domain 
of the sciences, even tho.se in which they considered 
themselves mo.st proficient. Mathematics and 
astronomy, for example, had from time immemorial 
formed a part of the institutions of the Chinese 
Government, but, when they listened to Father 
Ricci, even the men who knew most had to acknowl- 
edge how small and how mingled with errors was their 
knowk'dge. But this recognition of their ignorance 
and their eHt<'em for European learning, of which 
they had ju.st gr)t a glimp.se, impelled very few Chinese 
to make s<Tious clToris to acfjuin; this knowUnlge, 
their attax-hrnent to tradition or the routine of 
national t^-aching b«-ing too deep-rooUsd. However, 
the Chin«-w governors, who even at the present day 
have nia<Je no att^-mpt at reform in thi.s matter, flid 
not wish tfj deprive tru; country of all the advantages 
of Europr-an diHcoveries. To procure them recourse 
had to be ha<l to the missionaries, and thus the 
Chinf-M- mis.sion from Ricci's time until the end of 
the eighteenth century found its chief protection in 
the 8er\ncc8 performed with the asHistance of European 
learning. lather Ricci made use of profane science 



only to prepare the ground and open the way to the 
apostolate properly so called. With this object in 
\dew he employed other means, which made a deep 
impression on the majority of the educated class, and 
especially on those who held public offices. He com- 
posed under various forms adapted to the Chinese 
taste little moral treatises, e. g., that called by the 
Chinese "The Twenty-five Words", because in 
twenty-five short chapters it treated "of the mortifi- 
cation of the passions and the nobility of virtue". 
Still greater admiration was aroused by the "Para- 
doxes", a collection of practical sentences, useful 
to a moral life, familiar to Christians but new to the 
Chinese, which Ricci developed with accounts of 
examples, comparisons, and extracts from the Scrip- 
tures and from Christian philosophers and doctors. 
Not unreasonably proud of their rich moral literature, 
the Chinese were greatly surprised to see a stranger 
succeed so well; they could not refrain from praising 
his exalted doctrine, and the respect which they soon 
acquired for the Christian writings did much to 
dissipate their distrust of strangers and to render 
them kindly thsposed towards the Christian reUgion. 

But the book through which Ricci exercised the 
widest and most fortunate influence was his "T'ien- 
chu-she-i" (The True Doctrine of God). This was 
the little catechism of Chao-k'ing which had been 
delivered from day to day, corrected and improved 
as occasion offered, until it finally contained all the 
matter suggested by long years of experience in the 
apostolate. The truths which must be admitted as 
the necessary preliminary to faith — the existence and 
unity of God, the creation, the immortality of the 
soul, reward or punishment in a future life — are here 
demonstrated by the best arguments from reason, 
while the errors most widespread in China, especially 
the worship of idols and the belief in the transmigra- 
tion of souls, are successfully refuted. To the testi- 
mony furnished by Christian philosophy and theology 
Ricci added numerous proofs from the ancient Chinese 
books which did much to win credit for his work. A 
masterpiece of apologetics and controversy, the 
"T'ien-chu-she-i", rightfully became the manual of 
the missionaries and did most efficacious missionary 
work. Before its author's death it had been reprinted 
at least four times, and twice by the pagans. It led 
countless numbers to Christianity, and aroused 
esteem for our religion in those readers whom it did 
not convert. The perusal of it induced P^mperor 
K'ang-hi to issue his edict of 1692 granting liberty to 
preach the Gospel. The iMni^Tor Kien-long, al- 
though he persecuted the Christians, ordered the 
" T'ien-chu-shc-i " to be placed in his lil)rary with 
his collection of the most notable productions of the 
Chinese language. Even to the present time mission- 
aries have experienced its benefic(>nt influence, which 
was not confined to China, being felt also in Japan, 
Tong-king, and other countries tributary to Chinese 
literature. 

Besides the works intended especially for the in- 
fidels and the catechumens whose initiation was in 
progress, P'ather Ricci wrote others for the new 
Christians. As founder of the mis.sion he had to 
invent formula- capable of expressing clearly and un- 
equivocally our dogmas and rites in a language which 
had hitherto never been put to such use (except for 
the Nestorian use, with which Ricci was not ac- 
quainted). It was a delicate and (liflicuU, task, but 
it formed only a part of the heavy burdfii which the 
direction of the mission was for Father Ricci, par- 
ticularly during his last years. While advancing 
gradually on the capital Ricci did not abandon the 
territory already conquered; he trained in his meth- 
ods the fellow-workers who joined him and com- 
missioned them to continue his work in the cities he 
left. Thus in 1601 the mis.sion included, besides 
Peking, the three residences of Nan-king, Nan-ch'ang, 



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37 



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Shao-chow, to which was added in 1608 that of 
Shang-hai. In each of these there were two or three 
missionaries with "brothers", Chinese Christians 
from Macao who had been received into the Society 
of Jesus and who served the mission as catechists. 
Although as yet the number of Christians was not 
very great (2000 baptized in 1608), Father Ricci in 
his "Memoirs" has said well that considering the 
obstacles to the entrance of Christianity into China 
the result was "a very great miracle of Divine Om- 
nipotence". To preserve and increase the success 
already obtained, it was necessary that the means 
which had already proved efficacious should continue 
to he employed; everywhere and alwaj's the mission- 
aries, without neglecting the essential duties of the 
Christian apostolate, had to adapt their methods to 
the special conditions of the countrj', and avoid 
unnecessary attacks on traditional customs and 
habits. The application of this undeniably sound 
policy was often difficult. In answer to the doubts 
of his fellow-workers Father Ricci outlined rules, 
which received the approval of Father Valignano; 
these insured the unity and fruitful efficacy of the 
apostolic work throughout the mission. 

Question of the Divine Names and the Chinese Rites. 
— The most difficult problem in the evangelization of 
China had to do with the rites or ceremonies, in use 
from time immemorial, to do honour to ancestors or 
deceased relatives and the particular tokens of respect 
which the educated felt bound to pay to their master, 
Confucius. Ricci's solution of this problem caused a 
long and heated controversy in which the Holy See 
finally decided against him. The discussion also 
dealt with the use of the Chinese terms T'ieti (heaven) 
and Shang-ti (Sovereign Lord) to designate God; 
here also the custom established by Father Ricci 
had to be corrected. The following is a short his- 
tory of this famous controversy which was singularly 
compHcated and embittered by passion. With regard 
to the designations for God, Ricci always preferred, 
and employed from the first, the term T'ien chu (Lord 
of Heaven) for the God of Christians; as has been 
seen, he used it in the title of his catechism. But in 
studying the most ancient Chinese books he con- 
sidered it established that they said of T'ien (heaven) 
and Shang-ti (Sovereign Lord) what we say of the 
true God, that is, they described under these two 
names a sovereign lord of spirits and men who knows 
all that takes place in the world, the source of all 
power and all lawful authority, the supreme regu- 
lator and defender of the moral law, rewarding those 
who observe and punishing those who violate it. 
Hence he concluded that, in the most revered monu- 
ments of China, T'ien and Shang-ti designate nothing 
else than the true God whom he himself preached. 
Ricci maintained this opinion in several passages of 
his "T'ien-chu-she-i"; it will be readily understood 
of what assistance it was to destroy Chinese prej- 
udices against the Christian religion. It is true that, 
in drawing this conclusion, Ricci had to contradict 
the common interpretation of modern scholars who 
follow Chu-Hi in referring T'ien and Shang-ti to apply 
to the material heaven; but he showed that this 
material interpretation does not do justice to the 
texts and it is at least reasonable to see in them some- 
thing better. In fact he informs us that the educated 
Confucianists, who did not adore idols, were grateful 
to him for interpreting the words of their master with 
such goodwill. Indeed, Ricci's opinion has been 
adopted and confirmed by illustrious modern Sinol- 
ogists, amongst whom it suffices to mention James 
Legge ("The Notions of the Chinese concerning God 
and Spirits", 1852; "A Letter to Prof. Max Muller 
chiefly on the Translation of the Chinese terms Ti 
and Chang-ti", 1880). 

Therefore it was not without serious grounds that 
the founder of the Chinese mission and his successors 



believed themselves justified in employing the terms 
T'ien and Shang-ti as well as T'ien-chu to designate 
the true God. However, there were objections to 
this practice even among the Jesuits, the earliest 
arising shortly after the death of Father Ricci and 
being formulated by the Japanese Jesuits. In the 
ensuing discussion carried on in various writings for 
and against, which did not circulate beyond the 
circle of the missionaries only one of those working 
in China declared himself against the use of the name 
Shang-ti. This was Father Nicholas Longobardi, 
Ricci's successor as superior general of the mission, 
who, however, did not depart in anything from the 
lines laid down by its founder. After allowing the 
question to be discussed for some years, the superior 
ordered the missionaries to abide simply by the cus- 
tom of Father Ricci; later this custom together with 
the rites was submitted to the judgment of the Holy 
See. In 1704 and 1715 Clement XI, without pro- 
nouncing as to the meaning of T'ien and Shang-ti in 
the ancient Chinese books, forbade, as being open to 
misconstruction, the use of these names to indicate 
the true God, and permitted only the T'ien-chu. 
Regarding the rites and ceremonies in honour of 
ancestors and Confucius, Father Ricci was also of 
the opinion that a broad toleration was permissible 
without injury to the purity of the Christian rehgion. 
Moreover, the question was of the utmost impor- 
tance for the progress of the apostolate. To honour 
their ancestors and deceased parents by traditional 
prostrations and sacrifices was in the eyes of the 
Chinese the gravest duty of filial piety, and one who 
neglected it was treated by all his relatives as an 
unworthy member of his family and nation. Similar 
ceremonies in honour of Confucius were an indis- 
pensable obligation for scholars, so that they could 
not receive any literary degree nor claim any public 
oflice without having fulfilled it. This law still re- 
mains inviolable; Kiang-hi, the emperor who showed 
most goodwill towards the Christians, always refused 
to set it aside in their favour. In modern times the 
Chinese Government showed no more favour to the 
ministers of France, who, in the name of the treaties 
guaranteeing the liberty of Catholicism in China, 
claimed for the Christians who had passed the exam- 
inations, the titles and advantages of the corre- 
sponding degrees without the necessity of going 
through the ceremonies; the Court of Peking in- 
variably replied that this was a question of national 
tradition on which it was impossible to compromise. 
After having carefully studied what the Chinese 
classical books said regarding these rites, and after 
having observed for a long time the practice of them 
and questioned numerous scholars of every rank 
with whom he was associated during his eighteen 
years of apostolate, Ricci was convinced that these 
rites had no religious significance, either in their 
institution or in their practice by the enlightened 
classes. The Chinese, he said, recognized no divinity 
in Confucius any more than in their deceased ances- 
tors; they prayed to neither; they made no requests 
nor expected any extraordinary intervention from 
them. In fact they only did for them what they did 
for the living to whom they wished to show great 
respect. "The honour they pay to their parents con- 
sists in serving them dead as they did living. They 
do not for this reason think that the dead come to eat 
their offerings [the flesh, fruit, etc.] or need them. 
They declare that they act in this manner because 
they know no other way of showing their love and 
gratitude to their ancestors. . . . Likewise 
what they do [especially the educated], they do to 
thank Confucius for the excellent doctrine which he 
left them in his books, and through which they ob- 
tained their degi-ees and mandarinships. Thus in 
all this there is nothing suggestive of idolatry, and 
perhaps it may even be said that there is no super- 



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38 



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stition." The "perhaps" added t9 the last part of 
this conclusion shows the conscientiousness with 
which the founder acted in this matter. That the 
vulgar and indeed even most of the Chinese pagans 
mingled superstition with their national rites Ricci 
never denied; neither did he overlook the fact that 
the Chinese, like infidels in general, mixed super- 
stition with their most legitimate actions. In such 
cases superstition is only an accident which does not 
corrupt the substance of the just action itself, and 
Ricci thought this applied also to the rites. Con- 
sequent Iv he allowed the new Christians to continue 
the practice of them, avoiding everj-thing suggestive 
of superstition, and he gave them rules to assist 
them to discriminate. He believed, however, that 
this tolerance, though licit, should be limited by the 
necessitv of the case; whenever the Chinese Christian 
community should enjoy sufficient liberty, its customs, 
notably its manner of honouring the dead, must be 
brought into conformity with the customs of the rest 
of the Christian world. These principles of Father 
Ricci, controlled by his fellow-workers during his 
lifetime and after his death, served for fifty years as 
the guide of all the missionaries. 

In 1631 the first mission of the Dominicans was 
foimded at Fu-kien by two Spanish religious; in 
1633 two Franciscans, also Spanish, came to establish 
a mission of their order. The new missionaries were 
soon alarmed by the attacks on the purity of religion 
which they thought they discerned in the communi- 
ties founded by their predecessors. Without taking 
sufficient time perhaps to become acquainted with 
Chinese matters and to learn exactly what was done in 
the Jesuit missions they sent a denunciation to the 
bishops of the Philippines. The bishops referred 
it to Pope I'rban VIII (1635), and soon the public 
was informed. As early as 1638 a controversy began 
in the Philippines between the Jesuits in defence of 
their brethren on the one side and the Dominicans 
and Franciscans on the other. In 1643 one of the 
chief accu.sers, the Dominican, Jean-Baptiste Moralez, 
went to Rome to submit to the Holy See a series of 
"questions" or "doubts" which he said were con- 
troverted between the Jesuit missionaries and their 
rivals. Ten of the.se questions concerned the par- 
ticipation of Christians in the rites in honour of 
Confucius and the dead. Moralez's petition tended 
to show that the cases on which he requested the de- 
cision of the Holy See represented the practice au- 
thorized by the Society of Jesus; as soon as the 
Jesuits learned of this they declared that these cases 
were imaginary and that they had never allowed 
the Christians to take part in the rites as set forth by 
Moralez. In declaring the ceremonies illicit in 
its Decree of 12 Sept., 1645 (approved by Innocent 
X), the Congregation of the Propaganda gave the 
only possible reply to the questions referred to it. 

In 1651 Father Martin Martini (author of the 
"NovuB Atlas Sicnensis") was aent from China to 
Rome by his brethren to give a true account of the 
Jf«uit8 pra^itices and permLssions with regard to the 
Chinese rites. This d(!legatc reached the Eternal 
City in 1654, and in 165.5 submitted four questions 
to the Sacred Congregation of the Holy Office. 
This supreme tribunal, in its Decree of 23 March, 
1656, approved by Pope Alexander VII, sanctioned 
the practice of Ricci and his associates as set forth by 
Father Martini, declaring that the ceremonies in 
honour of Confucius and anccKtors ap7)eared to con- 
stitute "a purfly civil and political cult". Did this 
decrc* annul that of H>45? Conc<Tning this question, 
laid before the Holy Office by the Dominican, Father 
John de Poianco, tfie reply was (20 Nov., 1669) that 
\joih deereeH hhould remain "in their full force" 
and should be observed "a(;cording to the questions, 
circumstancr*, and everything contained in the 
proposed doubts". 



Meanwhile an understanding was reached by the 
hitherto divided missionaries. This reconciliation 
was hastened by the persecution of 1665 which as- 
sembled for nearly five years in the same house at 
Canton nineteen Jesuits, three Dominicans, and one 
Franciscan (then the sole member of his order in 
China). Profiting by their enforced leisure to agree 
on a uniform Apostolic method, the missionaries dis- 
cussed all the points on which the discipline of the 
Church should be adapted to the exigencies of the 
Chinese situation. After forty days of conferences, 
which terminated on 26 Jan., 1668, all (with the pos- 
sible exception of the Franciscan Antonio de Santa 
Maria, who was very zealous but extremely uncom- 
promising) subscribed to forty-two articles, the result 
of the deliberations, of which the forty-first was as 
follows: "As to the ceremonies by which the Chinese 
honour their master Confucius and the dead, the 
replies of the Sacred Congregation of the Inquisition 
approved by our Holy Father Alexander VII, in 
1656, must be followed absolutely because they are 
based on a very probable opinion, to which it is 
impossible to offset any evidence to the contrary, 
and, this probability assumed, the door of salvation 
must not be closed to the innumerable Chinese who 
would stray from the Christian religion if they were 
forbidden to do what they may do licitly and in good 
faith and which they cannot forego without serious 
injury." After the subscription, however, a new 
courteous discussion of this article in writing took 
place between Father Domingo Fernand(>z Navar- 
rete, superior of the Dominicans, and the most 
learned of the Jesuits at Canton. Navarrete 
finally appeared satisfied and on 29 Sept., 1669, 
submitted his written acceptance of the artic^le to the 
superior of the Jesuits. However, on 19 Dec. of 
this j^ear he secretly left Canton for Macao whence 
he went to Europe. There, and especially at Rome 
where he was in 1673, he sought from now on only 
to overthrow what had been attempted in the con- 
ferences of Canton. He published the "Tratados 
historicos, politicos, ethicos, y religiosos de la mo- 
narchia de China" (I, Madrid, 1673; of vol. II, 
printed in 1679 and incomplete, only two copies are 
known). This work is filled with impassioned accusa- 
tions against the Jesuit missionaries regarding their 
methods of apostolate and especially their tolera- 
tion of the rites. Nevertheless, Navarrete did not 
succeed in inducing the Holy See to resume the ques- 
tion, this being reserved for Charles Maigrot, a 
member of the new Soci6t6 des Missions fitrangeres. 
Maigrot went to China in 1()S3. He was Vicar 
Apostolic of Fu-kien, before being as yet a bishop, 
when, on 26 March, 1693, he addressed to the mis- 
sionaries of his vicariate a mandate proscribing the 
names T'ien and Shang-ti; forbidding that Christians 
be allowed to participate in or assist at "sacrifices or 
solemn oblations" in honour of Confucius or the dead; 
prescribing modifications of the inscriptions on the 
ancestral tablets; censuring and forbidding certain, 
according to him, too favourable ref(U-ences to the 
ancient Chinese philosophers; and, last but notleiistj 
declaring that the exposition made by Father Martini 
was not true and that consequently the approval 
which the latter had received from Rome was not 
to be relied on. 

By order of Innocent XII, the Holy Office resumed 
in 1697 the study of the question on the documents 
furnished by the procurators of Mgr Maigrot and on 
those showing the opposite sith; brought by the repre- 
Sfjntativr's of the Jesuit missionaries. It is worthy 
of note that at this period a number of the mi.ssionaries 
outside the Society of Jesus, especially all the Augu.s- 
tinians, nearly all the Franciscans, and some Domini- 
cans, were converted to the practice of Ricci and the 
Jesuit missionaries. The difficulty of grasping the 
truth amid such diffen^nt representations of facts and 



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39 



RICCI 



contradictory interpretations of texts prevented the 
Congregation from reaching a decision until towards 
the end of 1704 under the pontificate of Clement XI. 
Long before then the pope had chosen and sent to the 
Far East a legate to secure the execution of the 
Apostolic decrees and to regulate all other questions 
on the welfare of the missions. The prelate chosen 
was Charles-Thomas-Maillard de Tournon (b. at 
Turin) whom Clement XI had consecrated with his 
own hands on 27 Dec, 1701, and on whom he con- 
ferred the title of Patriarch of Antioch. Leaving 
Europe on 9 Feb., 1703, Mgr de Tournon stayed for a 
time in India (see Malabar Rites) reaching Macao 
on 2 April, 1705, and Peking on 4 December of the 
same year. Emperor K'ang-hi accorded him a warm 
welcome and treated him with much honour until he 
learned, perhaps through the imprudence of the legate 
himself, that one of the objects of his embassy, if not 
the chief, was to abolish the rites amongst the 
Christians. Mgr de Tournon was already aware that 
the decision against the rites had been given since 20 
Nov., 1704, but not yet published in Europe, as the 
pope wished that it should be publi-shed first in China. 
P'orced to leave Peking, the legate had returned to 
Nan-king when he learned that the emperor had 
ordered all missionaries, under penalty of expulsion, 
to come to him for a piao or diploma granting per- 
mission to preach the Gospel. This diploma was to 
be granted only to those who promi.sed not to oppose 
the national rites. On the receipt of this news the 
legate felt that he could no longer postpone the an- 
nouncement of the Roman decisions. By a mandate 
of 15 January, 1707, he required all missionaries under 
pain of excommunication to reply to Chinese author- 
ity, if it questioned them, that "several things" in 
Chinese doctrine and customs did not agree with 
Divine law and that these were chiefly "the sacri- 
fices to Confucius and ancestors" and "the use of 
ancestral tablets", moreover that Shang-ti and THen 
were not "the true God of the Christians". When the 
emperor learned of this Decree he ordered Mgr de 
Tournon to be brought to Macao and forbade him to 
leave there before the return of the envoys whom he 
himself sent to the pope to explain his objections to 
the interdiction of the rites, \\hile still subject to 
this restraint, the legate died in 1710. 

Meanwhile Mgr Maigrot and several other mis- 
sionaries having refused to ask for the piao had been 
expelled from China. But the majority (i. e. all the 
Jesuits, most of the Franciscans, and other missionary 
religious, having at their head the Bishop of Peking, a 
Franciscan, and the Bishop of Ascalon, Vicar Apos- 
tolic; of Kiang-si, an Augustinian) considered that, to 
prevent the total ruin of the mission, they might 
postpone obedience to the legate until the pope should 
have signified his will. Clement XI replied by pub- 
lishing (March, 1709) the answers of the Holy Office, 
which he had already approved on 20 November, 
1704, and then by causing the same Congregation to 
issue (25 Sept., 1710) a new Decree which approved 
the acts of the legate and ordered the observance of 
the mandate of Nan-king, but interpreted in the 
sense of the Roman replies of 1704. Finally, be- 
lieving that these measures were not meeting with 
a sufficiently simple and full submission, Clement 
issued (19 March, 1715) the Apostolic Constitution, 
"Ex ilia die". It reproduced all that was properly 
a decision in the replies of 1704, omitting all the 
questions and most of the preambles, and concluded 
with a form of oath which the pope enjoined on all 
the missionaries and which obliged them under the 
severest penalties to observe and have observed fully 
and without reserve the decisions inserted in the 
pontifical act. This Constitution, which reached 
China in 1716, found no rebels among the missionaries, 
but even those who sought most zealously failed to 
induce the majority of their flock to observe its pro- 



visions. At the same time the hate of the pagans was 
reawakened, enkindled by the old charge that 
Christianity was the enemy of the national rites, and 
the neophytes began to be the objects of persecutions 
to which K'ang-hi, hitherto so well-disposcMl, tiow gave 
almost entire liberty. Clement XI souglii to remedy 
this critical situation by sending to China a second 
legate, John-Ambrose Alezzabarba, whom he named 
Patriarch of Alexandria. This prelate sailed from 
Lisbon on 25 March, 1720, reaching Macao on 26 
September, and Canton on 12 October. Admitted, 
not without difficulty, to Peking and to an audience 
with the emperor, the legate could only prevent his 
inmiediate dismissal and the expulsion of all the mis- 
sionaries by making known some alleviations of the 
Constitution "Ex ilia die", which he was authorized 
to offer, and allowing K'ang-hi to hope that the pope 
would grant still others. Then he hastened to return 
to Macao, whence he addressed (4 November, 1721) 
a pa.storal letter to the missionaries of China, com- 
municating to them the authentic text of his eight 
"permissions" relating to the rites. He declared that 
he would permit nothing forbidden by the Constitu- 
tion; in practice, however, his concessions relaxed the 
rigour of the pontifical interdictions, although they 
did not produce harmony or unity of action among the 
apostolic workers. To bring about this highly de- 
sirable result the pope ordered a new investigation, 
the chief object of which was the legitimacy and op- 
portuneness of Mezzabarba's "permissions"; begun 
by the Holy Office under Clement XII a conclusion 
was reached only under Benedict XIV. On 11 July, 
1742, this pope, by the Bull "Ex quo singulari", con- 
firmed and reimposed in a most emphatic manner 
the Constitution "Ex ilia die", and condemned and 
annulled the "permissions" of Mezzabarba as author- 
izing the superstitions which that Constitution 
sought to destroy. This action terminated the con- 
troversy among Catholics. 

The Holy See did not touch on the purely theoreti- 
cal questions, as for instance what the Chinese rites 
were and signified according to their institution and 
in ancient times. In this Father Ricci may have 
been right; but he was mistaken in thinking that as 
practised in modern times they are not superstitious 
or can be made free from all superstition. The popes 
declared, after scrupulous investigations, that the 
ceremonies in honour of Confucius or ancestors and 
deceased relatives are tainted with superstition to such 
a degree that thej- cannot be purified. But the error 
of Ricci, as of his fellow- workers and successors, was 
but an error in judgment. The Holy See expressly 
forbade it to be said that they approved idolatry; it 
would indeed be an odious calumny to accuse such a 
man as Ricci, and so many other holy and zealous 
missionaries, of having approved and permitted to 
their neophytes practices which they knew to be super- 
stitions and contrary to the purity of religion. De- 
spite this error, Matteo Ricci remains a splendid type 
of missionary and founder, unsurpassed for his zealous 
intrepidity, the intelligence of the methods applied 
to each situation, and the unwearying tenacity with 
which he pursued the projects he undertook. To him 
belongs the glory not only of opening up a vast 
empire to the Gospel, but of simultaneously making 
the first breach in that distrust of strangers which 
excluded China from the general progress of the 
world. The establishment of the Catholic mission 
in the heart of this country also had its economic 
consequences : it laid the foundation of a better under- 
standing between the Far East and the West, which 
grew with the progress of the mission. It is super- 
fluous to detail the results from the standpoint of the 
material interests of the whole world. Lastly, science 
owes to Father Ricci the first exact scientific knowl- 
edge received in Europe concerning China, its true 
geographical situation, its ancient civihzation, its vast 



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40 



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and curious literature, its social organization so different 
from what existed elsewhere. Thenietliod instituted 
by Ricci necessitated a fundamental study of this new 
world, and if the missionaries who have since followed 
him have rendered scarcely less service to science than 
to rehgion, a great part of the credit is due to Ricci. 

[MaTTEO Ricci], DtW cntrata dclla Cunipagnia di Gicsu c 
cristia7)itd nclla Cina (MS. of Father Ricci, extant in the archives 
of the Societv of Jesus; cited in the foregoing article as the 
Memoirs of Father Ricci), a somewhat free tr. of this work is 
given in Trigaci.t, De Christiana eipeditione apiid Siiias sus- 
cepta ab Societate Jcsu. Ex P. Matlhcei Ricci commentariis Hbri, 
V (Augsburg, 16151; de Ursis, P. Matheus Ricci, S.J. Relagao 
e^icripta pelo seu companheiro (Rome. 1910); Bartoli, Dell' 
Historia delta Compagnia di Giesii. La Cina, I-II (Rome, 1663). 
Bartoli is the most accurate biographer of Ricci; d'Orli^ans, 
La Tie du Pire Matthieu Ricci (Paris, 1693) ; Natali, II .scco/ido 
Confucio (Rome, 1900); Vexturi, L'apostolato del P. M. Ricci 

d. C. d. G. in Cina secondo i suoi scritti inediti (Rome, 1910); 
Brccker, Le Pire Matthieu Ricci in Etudes, CXXIV (Paris, 
1910), 5-27; 1S5-20S; 751-79; De B.^cker-Sommervogel, 
Bibl. des icrivains de la C.de J., VI, 1792-95. Chinese Rites.— 
Brucker in Vacant, Diet, de Thiol, cath., a. v. Chinois {Rites) 
and works indicated; Cobdier, Bihl. Sinica, II, 2nd ed., 869- 
925; Idem, Hist, des relations de la Chine avec les puissances 
occideniales. III (Paris, 1902), xxv. Jqseph BrUCKER. 

Ricci, SciPio. See Pistoia, Synod of. 

Riccioli, Giovanni Battista, Italian astronomer, 
b. at Ferrara 17 April, 1598; d. at Bologna 25 June, 
1671. He entered the Society of Jesus 6 Oct., 1614. 
After teaching philosophy and theology for a number 
of years, chiefly at Parma and Bologna, he devoted 
hirnself, at the request of his superiors, entirely to the 
study of astronomy, which at that time, owing to the 
discoveries of Kepler and the new theories of Coperni- 
cus, was a subject of much discussion. Realizing 
the many defects of the traditional astronomy in- 
herited from the ancients, he conceived the bold 
idea of undertaking a reconstruction of the science 
with a view to bringing it into harmony with con- 
temporary progress. This led to his "Almagestum 
novum, astronomiam veterem novamque com- 
plectens" (2 vols., Bologna, 1651), considered by 
many the most important literary work of the Jesuits 
during the seventeenth century. The author in 
common with many scholars of the time, notably in 
Italy, rejected the Copernican theory, and in this 
work, admittedly of great erudition, gives an elab- 
orate refutation in justification of the Roman De- 
crees of 1616 and 1633. He praises, however, the 
genius of Copernicus and readily admits the value 
of his system as a simple hypothesis. His sincerity 
in this connexion has been called into question by some, 

e. g. Wolf, but a study of the work shows beyond 
doubt that he wrote from conviction and with the 
desire of making known the truth. Riccioli's proj- 
ect also included a comparison of the unit of length 
of various nations and a more exact determination 
of the dimensions of the earth. His topographical 
measurements occupied him at intervals between 
1644 and 1656, but defects of method have rendered 
his results of but little value. His most important 
contribution to astronomy was perhaps his detailed 
telescopic study of the moon, made in collaboration 
with P. Grimaldi. The latter's excellent lunar map 
was inserted in the "Almagestum novum", and the 
lunar nomenclature they adopted is still in use. He 
also ma^le observations on Saturn's rings, though it 
was reserved for Huyghens to determine the true 
ring-structure. He was an ardent defender of the 
new Gregorian calendar. Though of delicate health, 
Riccioli was an indefatigable worker and, in spite of 
his opposition to the Copernican theory, rendered 
valuable serv'iccs to astronomy and also to geography 
and chronology. His diief works are: "Geographia; 
et hydrographiif! reformata; libri XII" (Bologna, 
1661); "Afitronomia reformata" (2 vols., Bologna, 
1665j; "Vindicia; calenflarii gregoriani" (Bologna, 
1666); "Chronologia reformata" (1660); "Tabula 
latitudinurn et longitudirium" (Vienna, 1689). 



SoMMERVOGEL, Bihl. de la C. de J., VI (Paris, 1895), 1795; 
Delambre, Hist, de r Astronomic Moderne, II (Paris, 1821), 274; 
Wolf, Gesch. d. Astronomie (Munich, 1877), 434; Walsh, Catholic 
Churchmen in Science (2nd series, Philadelphia, 19(D9); Lins- 
meier, Natur. u. Offenharung, XLVII, 65 sqq. 

H. RI. Brock. 

Rice, Edmund Ignatius, founder of the Institute 
of the Brothers of the Christian Schools (better known 
as "Irish Christian Brothers"), b. at Callan, Co. Kil- 
kenny, 1762; d. at Waterford, 1844. He was edu- 
cated in a Catholic school which, despite the provi- 
sions of the iniquitous ])enal laws, the authorities 
suffered to exist in llio City of Kilkenny. In 1779 he 
entered the business house of his uncle, a largo export 
and import trader in the City of \^'aterford, and, after 
the latter's death, became .sole proprietor. As a 
citizen he was distinguished for his probity, charity, 
and piety; he was 
an active member 
of a society estab- 
lished in the city 
for the relief of the 
poor. About 1794 
he meditated en- 
tering a conti- 
nental convent, 
but his brother, 
an Augustinian 
who had but just 
returned from 
Rome, discoun- 
tenanced the idea. 
Rice, thereupon, 
devoted himself to 
the extension of 
his business. Some 
years lat(>r, how- 
ever, he again de- 
sired to become a 
religious. As he 
was discussing the 
matter with a 
friend of his, a sister of Bishop Power of Waterford, 
a band of ragged boys pa.s.sed by. Pointing to 
them Miss Power exclaimed: "What! would you 
bury yourself in a cell on the continent rather than 
devote your wealth and your life to the spiritual and 
material interests of these poor youths? " The words 
were an inspiration. Rice related the incident to Dr. 
Lanigan, bishop of his native Diocese of Ossory, and 
to others, all of whom advised him to undertake the 
mission to which God was evidently calling him. 
Rico settled his worldly affairs, his last year's bu.siness 
(1800) being the most lucrative one he had known, 
and commenced the work of the Christian schools. 

Assisted by two young men, whom he j)Hid for their 
services, he opened his first s(;hool in \\'aterford in 
1802. In June; of this year Hislioi) Ilussey of Waterford 
laid the foundation stone of a schoolhou.se on a site 
which he named Mount Sion. The building was soon 
ready for occui)ation, but Rice's assistants had fled 
and could not be induced to return even when offered 
higher salaries. In this extremity two young men 
from Callan offered themselves as fellow-labourers. 
Other work(;rs soon ga1her{>d round him, and by 1806 
Christian schools wen; establishetl in Waterford, 
Carrick-on-3uir, and Dungarvan. The communities 
adopted a modific-d form of the Rule of the Presenta- 
tion Order of nuns, and, in 1808, pronounced their 
vows before Bishoj) Power. Houses were established 
in Cork, Dublin, Limerick, and elsewhere. Though 
the brothers, as a rule, made their novitiate in Mount 
Sion and regard(!d Rice as their father and model, he 
was not their superior; they were subject to the 
bishops of their respective dioceses. In 1817, on the 
advice of Bisho)) Murray, coadjutor to the Arch- 
bishop of Dublin, and of Fat her Kenny, S.J., a special 




Edmund Ignatius Rice 



RICHARD 



41 



RICHARD 



friend, Rice applied to the Holy See for approbation 
and a constitution for his society. In 1820 Pius VII 
formally confirmed the new congregation of "Fratrea 
Monachi" by the Brief "Ad pastoralis dignitatis 
fastigium". This was the first confirmation by the 
Church of a congregation of religious men in Ireland. 
Brother Rice was unanimously elected superior gen- 
eral by the members. All the houses were united 
except the house in Cork, where Bishop Murphy re- 
fused his consent. Later, however, in 1826, the 
Brothers in Cork attained the object of their desire, 
but one of their number, preferring the old condition 
of things, offered his services to the bishop, who 
placed him in charge of a school on the south side of 
the city. This secession of Br. Austin Reardon was 
the origin of the teaching congregation of the Pres- 
entation Brothers. The confirmation of the new 
Institute attracted considerable attention, even out- 
side of Ireland, and many presented themselves for the 
novitiate. The founder removed the seat of govern- 
ment to Dublin. 

At this time the agitation for Catholic Emancipa- 
tion was at its height and the people were roused to 
indignation by the reports of the proselytizing prac- 
tices carried on in the Government schools. Brother 
Rice conceived the idea of establishing a "Catholic 
Model School". The "Liberator" entered warmlj'^ 
into his scheme, and procured a grant of £1500 from 
the Catholic Association in aid of the proposed build- 
ing. On St. Columba's day, 1828, Daniel O'Connell 
laid the foundation stone, in North Richmond Street, 
Dublin, of the famous school, since known as the 
"O'Connell Schools". In his speech on the occasion 
he referred to Brother Rice as "My old friend, Mr. 
Rice, the Patriarch of the Monks of the west". The 
founder resigned his office in 1838 and spent his re- 
maining years in Mount Sion. Before his death he 
saw eleven communities of his institute in Ireland, 
eleven in England, and one in Sydney, Australia, while 
applications for foundations had been received from 
the Archbi.shop of Baltimore and from bishops in 
Canada, Newfoundland, and other places. 

Patkick J. Hennessy. 

Richard, a Friar Minor and preacher, appearing in 
history between 1428 and 1431, whose origin and 
nationality are unknown. He is .sometimes called the 
disciple of St. Bernurdine of Sicitna and of St. Vincent 
Ferrer, but probably onlj^ becau.se, like the former, he 
promoted the veneration of the lloly Name of Jesus 
and, like the latter, announced the end of the world as 
near. In 1428 Richard came from the Holy Land to 
France, preached at Troja's, newt year in Paris dui'ing 
ten days (16-26 Ajjril) every morning from about five 
o'clock to ten or eleven. He had such a sway over 
his numerous auditors that after his sermons the men 
burned their dice, and the women their vanities. 
Having been threatened by the Faculty of Theology 
on account of his doctrine — perhaps, also, because he 
was believed to favour Charles VII, King of France, 
whilst Paris was then in the hands of the English- 
he left Paris suddenly and betook himself to Orleans 
and Troyes. In the latter town he first met Bl. Joan 
of Arc. Having contributed much to the submission 
of Troyes to Charles VII, Richard now followed the; 
French army and became confessor and chaplain to 
Bl. Joan. Some differences, however, arose between 
the two on account of Catherine de la Rochelle, who 
was protected by the friar, but scorned by Joan. 
Richard's name figures also in the i)roceedings against 
Bl. Joan of Arc in 1431 ; in the same year he preached 
the Lent in Orleans and shortly after was interdictecl 
from preaching by the inquisitor of Poitiers. No 
trace of him is found after this. 

DE Kerval, Jeanne d' Arc el lex Franciscains (Vanves, 1893); 
Debout, Jeanne d'Arc (Paris, 1905-07), 1, 694-97 and passim; 
Wallon, Jeanne d'Arc (Paris, 1883), 12.5, 200, 261. 

LiVARIUS OUGER. 



Richard I, King of England, b. at Oxford, 6 
Sept., 1157; d. at Chaluz, France, 6 April, 1199; was 
known to the minstrels of a later age, rather than to 
his contemporaries, as "Coeur-de-Lion". He was 
only the second son of Henry II, but it was part of 
his father's policy, holding, as he did, continental 
dominions of great extent and little mutual cohesion, 
to assign them to his children during his own life- 
time and even to have his sons brought up among 
the people they were destined to govern. To Richard 
were allotted the territories in the South of France 
belonging to his mother Eleanor of Aquitaine, and 
before he was sixteen he was inducted as Duke of 
that province. It was a weak point in the old King's 
management of his sons, that, while dazzling them 
with brilliant prospects, he invested them with very 
little of the substance of power. In 1173 the young 
Henry, who, following a German usage, had already 
been crowned king in the lifetime of his father, 
broke out into open revolt, being instigated thereto 
by his father-in-law, Louis VII, King of France. 
Xhider the influence of their mother Eleanor, who 
bitt(>rly resented her husband's infidelities, Geoffrey 
and Richard in 1173 also threw in their lot with the 
rebel and took up arms against their father. Allies 
gathered round them and the situation grew so 
threatening, that Henry II thought it well to propi- 
tiate heaven by doing penance at the tomb of the 
martyred Archbishop St. Thomas (11 July, 1174). 
By a remarkable coincidence, on the very next day, 
a victory in Northumberland over William, King of 
Scotland, disposed of Henry's most formidable op- 
ponent. Returning with a large force to France, the 
King swept all before him, and though Richard for a 
while held out alone he was compelled by 21 Sept. to 
sue for forgiveness at his father's feet. 

The King dealt leniently with his rebellious chil- 
dren, but this first outbreak was only the harbinger 
of an almost uninterrupted series of disloyal in- 
trigues, fomented by Louis VII and by his son and 
successor, Philip Augustus, in which Richard, who 
liv(Hl almost entirely in Guicnne and Poitou, was en- 
gag(>d down to the time of his father's death. He 
acquired for himself a great and deserved reputation 
for knightly prowess, and he was often concerned in 
chivalrous exploits, showing much energy in par- 
ticular in protecting the pilgrims who passed through 
his own and adjacent territories on their way to the 
shrine of St. James of Compostella. His elder brother 
Henry grew jealous of him and insisted that Richard 
should do him homage. On the latter's resistance 
war broke out between the brothers. Bertrand de 
Born, Count of Hautefort, who was Richard's rival 
in minstreLsy as well as in feats of arms, lent such 
powerful support to the younger Henry, that the old 
King had to intervene on Richard's side. The death 
of the younger Henry, 11 June, 1183, once more 
restored peace and made Richard heir to the throne. 
But other quarrels followed between Richard and 
his father, and it was in the heat of the most desperate 
of these, in which the astuteness of Philip Augustus 
had contrived to implicate Henry's favourite son 
John, that the old King died broken-hearted, 6 July, 
1189. Despite the constant hostilities of the last 
few years, Richard secured the succession without 
difficulty. He came quickly to England and was 
crowned at Westminster on 3 Sept. But his object 
in visiting his native land was less to provide for the 
government of the kingdom than to collect resources 
for the projected Crusade which now appealed to the 
strongest, if not the best, instincts of his adventurous 
nature, and by the success of which he hoped to 
startle the world. Already, towards the end of 1187, 
when the news had reached him of Saladin's conquest 
of Jerusalem, Richard had taken the cross. Philip 
Augustus and Henry II had subsequently followed 
his example, but the quarrels which had supervened 



RICHARD 



42 



RICHARD 



had so far prevented the reaUzation of this pious 
design. Now that he was more free the j-oung King 
seems to have been conscientiously in earnest in 
putting the recovery of the Holy Land before every- 
thing else. Though the expedients by which he set 
to work to gather every penny of ready money upon 
which he could lay hands were alike unscrupulous 
and impolitic, there is something which commands 
respect in the energy which he threw into the task. 
He sold sheriffdoms', justiceships, church lands, and 
appointments of all kinds, both lay and secular, prac- 
ticallv to the highest bidder. He was not ungenerous 
in providing for his brothers John and Geoffrey, and 
he showed a certain prudence in exacting a promise 
from them to remain out of England for three years, 
in order to leave a free hand to the new Chancellor 
William of Longchamp, who was to govern England 
in his absence. Unfortunately he took with him 
manv of the men, e. g. Archbishop Baldwin, Hubert 
Walter, and Ranulf Glanvill, whose statesmanship 
and experience would have been most useful in 
governing England, and left behind many restless 
spirits like John himself and Longchamp, whose 
energy might have been serviceable against the in- 
fidel. 

Already on 11 Dec, 1189, Richard was ready to 
cross to "Calais. He met Philip Augustus, who was 
also to start on the Crusade, and the two Kings swore 
to defend each other's dominions as they would their 
own. The storj^ of the third Crusade has already 
been told in some detail (see vol. IV, p. 549). It was 
September, 1190, before Richard reached Marseilles; 
he pushed on to Messina and waited for the spring. 
There miserable quarrels occurred with Philip, whose 
sister he now refused to marry, and this trouble was 
complicated by an interference in the affairs of Sicily, 
which the Emjperor Henry VI watched with a jealous 
eye, and which later on was to cost Richard dear. 
Setting sail in March, he was driven to Cyprus, where 
he quarrelled with Isaac Comnenus, seized the island, 
and married Berengaria of Navarre. He at last 
reached Acre in June and after prodigies of valour 
captured it. Phihp then returned to France but 
Richard made two desperate efforts to reach Jeru- 
salem, the first of which might have succeeded had 
he known the panic and weakness of the foe. Saladin 
was a worthy opponent, but terrible acts of cruelty 
as well as of chivalry took place, notably when 
Richard slew his Saracen prisoners in a fit of passion. 
In July, 1192, further effort seemed hopeless, and the 
King of England's presence was badly needed at home 
to secure his own dominions from the treacherous 
intrigues of John. Hiistening back Richard was 
wrecked in the Adriatic, and falling eventually into 
the hands of Leopold of Austria, he was sold to the 
Emperor Henry \'I, who kept him prisoner for over 
a year and extorted a portentous ransom which Eng- 
land was racked to pay. Recent investigation has 
shown that the motives of Henry's conduct wen; less 
vindictive than political. Richard was induced to 
surrender England to the Eiiii»(Tor (;is John a few 
years \'dUtr was to make over England to the Holy 
See;, and then Henrj' conferred tlie kiiigdoiri upon 
his captive as a fief at the Diet of Mainz, in Feb., 
1194 (see Bloch, "Forschungen", Apix-ndix IV'). 
Despite the intrigues of King Philip and John, 
Richard had loyal friends in England. Hubert 
Walter harl now reached home and worked energeti- 
cally with the Just ices to rai.se the ran.som, while 
Eleanor the (^ueen Mother obtained from the Holy 
See an exwjmmunication against his captcjrs. Eng- 
land responded nobly to the appeal for money and 
Itichard reached home in March, 1194. 

He hhowed little gratitude t<i his native land, and 
after t-pending lesw thnn two months there quitted 
it for hia foreign dominions never to return. Still, 
in Hubert Walter, who was now both Archbishop of 



Canterbury and Justiciar, he left it a capable gov- 
ernor. Hubert tried to wring unconstitutional sup- 
plies and service from the impoverished barons and 
clergy, but failed in at least one such demand before 
the resolute opposition of St. Hugh of Lincoln. 
Richard's diplomatic struggles and his campaigns 
against the wily King of France were very costly but 
fairly successful. He would probably have triumphed 
in the end, but a bolt from a cross-bow while he was 
besieging the castle of Chaluz inflicted a mortal 
injury. He died, after receiving the last sacraments 
with signs of sincere repentance. In spite of his 
greed, his lack of principle, and, on occasions, his 
ferocious savagery. Richard had many good instincts. 
He thoroughly respected a man of fearless integrity 
like St. Hugh of Lincoln, and Bishop Stubbs says of 
him with justice that he was perhaps the most sin- 
cerely religious prince of his family. "He heard 
Mass daily, and on three occasions did penance in a 
very remarkable way, simply on the impulse of his 
owTi distressed conscience. He never showed the 
brutal profanity of John." 

Lingard and all other standard Histories of England deal fully 
with the reign and personal character of Richard. Davis, A 
History of Ennhind in Sir Volumes, II (2nd ed., London, 1909), 
and Adams, The Political History of England, II (London, 1905), 
may be specially recommended. The Prefaces contributed by 
Bishop Stubbs to his editions of various Chronicles in the R. S. 
are also very valuable, notably those to Roger of Hoveden 
(London. lS6S-71);RalphdeDicelo (187.5); and Benedict of Peter- 
borough (1867). Besides these should be mentioned in the same se- 
ries the twoextremely important volumes of Chronicles and Memo- 
rials of the Reign of Richard I (London, 1864-65), also edited by 
Stubbs; the Magna Vita S. Hugonis, edited by Dimock, 1864; 
and Randulphi de Coggeshall Chronicon Anglicanum, ed. Steven- 
son, 1875. See also Norgate, Englnnd under the Angevin Kings 
(London, 1889); Luchaire and Lavisse, Histoire de France 
(Paris, 1902); Kneller, Des Richard Ldwenherz deutsche Ge- 
fangenshaft (Freiburg, 1893) ; Bloch, Forschungen zur Politik 
Kaisers Heinrich VI in den Jahren 1191-1194 (Berlin, 1892); 
Kindt, Griinde der Gefangenschaft Richard I von England (Halle, 
1892) ; and especially RQhricht, Gesch. d. Konigreich Jerusalem 
(Innsbruck, 1890). 

Herbert Thurston. 

Richard, Charles-Louis, theologian and publi- 
cist; b. at Blainville-sur-l'Eau, in Lorraine, April, 
1711; d. at Mons, Belgium, 16 Aug., 1794. His 
family, though of noble descent, was poor, and he 
received his education in the schools of his native 
town. At the age of sixteen he entered the Order of 
St. Dominic and, after his religious profession, was 
sent to study theology in Paris, where he received the 
Doctorate at the Sorbonne. lie next applied himself 
to preaching and the defence of religion against 
d'Alembert, Voltaire, and their confederates. The 
outbreak of the Revolution forced him to seek refuge 
at Mons, in Belgium. During the second invasion 
of that (!Oimtry by the French, in 1794, old age iire- 
vented him from fleeing, and, though he eluded 
his pursuers for some time, he was at la,st detected, 
tried by court martial, and shot, as the Mutlior of 
"Parall61e des Juifs qui ont crucifix Jesus-Christ, 
avec les Fran^ais qui ont ex6cut6 leur roi"(Mons, 
1794). Among his works may be mentioned " Biblio- 
th^que sacr6e, oti dictionnaire universelle des sciences 
eccldsiastiques" (5 vols., Paris, 1760) and "Sujjple- 
ment" (Paris, 1765), the last and enlarged edition 
being that of Paris, 1821-27, 29 vols., and "Analyses 
des conciles gdndraux ct particuliers ' (5 vols., Paris, 
1772-77). 

MouLAERT, Ch. L. Richard aus dem Predigerorden (Ratisbon, 
1870); Nomenclalor, III (3rd ed.). 433-35. 

H. J. SCHROEDER. 



Richard, Cabriei 



See Detroit, Diocese of. 

See Thomas Johnson, 



Richard Bere, Blessed. 
Blehsei). 

Richard de Bury, bi.shop and bibliophile, b. near 
Bury St. Eflmunil's, Suffolk, England, 24 Jan., 1286; 
d. at Auckland, Durham, England, 24 April, 1345. 
He was the son of Sir Richard Aungervillc, but was 



RICHARD 



43 



RICHARD 




Seal of Richard de Bury 



named after his birthplace. He studied at Oxford, 
and became a Benedictine. Having been appointed 
tutor to Prince Edward, son of Edward II and Isabella 
of France, he was exposed to some danger during the 
stormy scenes that led to the deposition of the king. 
On the accession of his pupil to the throne (1327), do 
Bury eventually rose to be Bishop of Durham (1333), 
High Chancellor (1334), and Treasurer of England 
(1336). He was sent on two embassies to John XXII 
at Avignon, and on one of his visits, probably in 1330, 
he made the acquaintance of the poet Petrarch. He 
continued to en- 
joy the favour of 
the king, and in 
his later years took 
a prominent part 
in the diplomatic 
negotiations with 
Scotland and 
France. He died 
at his manor of 
-Vuckland, and was 
buried in the ca- 
thedral of Dur- 
ham. He founded 
Durham College 
at Oxford, and ac- 
cording to tradi- 
tion bequeathed to 
its library most of 
the books which 
he had spent his 
life in collecting. 
There they re- 
mained until the 
dissolution of the 
College by Henry 
VIII. They were 
then scattered, some going to Balliol College, others to 
the university (Duke Humphrey's) library, and still 
others pa.ssing into the possession of Dr. George Owen, 
the purchaser of the site whereon the dissolved college 
had stood. These books were of course all in manu- 
script, for the art of printing had not yet been dis- 
covered. 

Bale mentions three of de Bury's works, namely: 
"Philobiblon"; " Epistola? Famiharium " ; and "Ora- 
tiones ad Principes " . It is by the ' ' Philobiblon ' ' that 
he is principally remembered. It was first printed at 
Cologne in 1473, then at Spires in 1483, in Paris in 
1500, and at Oxford in 1598-99. Subsequent editions 
were made in Germany in 1610, 1614, 1674, and 1703, 
and in Paris in 1856. It was translated into English 
in 1832 by J. B. Inglis, and of this translation a reprint 
was made at Albany, New York, in 1861. The stand- 
ard Latin text — the result of a collation of 28 manu- 
scripts and of the printed editions — was established by 
Ernest C. Thomas and edited by him, with English 
translation, in 1888. A reprint of Thomas's transla- 
tion appeared in the "Past and Present" Library in 
1905. 

Bishop Richard had a threefold object in writing the 
"Philobiblon": he wished to inculcate on the clergy 
the pursuit of learning and the cherishing of books as 
its receptacles; to vindicate to his contemporaries 
and to posterity his own action in devoting so much 
time, attention, and money to the acquisition of books; 
and to give directions for the management of the li- 
brary which he proposed to establish at Durham 
College, Oxford. The work is important for its side- 
lights on the state of learning and manners and on the 
habits of the clergy in fourteenth-century England. 
He is the true type of the book-lover. He had a 
library in each of his residences. Conspicuous in his 
legacy are Greek and Hebrew grammars. He did not 
despise the novelties of the moderns, but he preferred 
the well-tested labours of the ancients, and, while he 



did not neglect the poets, he had but little use for law- 
books. He kept copyists, scribes, binders, correctors, 
and illuminators, and he was particularly careful to 
restore defaced or battered texts. His directions for 
the lending and care of the books intended for his 
college at Oxford are minute, and evince considerable 
practical forethought. His humility and simple faith 
are shown in the concluding chapter, in which he 
acknowledges his sins and asks the future students of 
his college to pray for the repose of his soul. 

Bale, Scriptorum Illustrium majoris Britannia:, quam nunc 
Angliam el Scotiam vacant, Catalogus (Basle, 1557); Warton, 
History of English Poetry, I, 14G; IIallam, Introduction to the 
Literature of Europe in the Fifteenth, Sixteenth, and Seventeenth 
Centuries; Thomas, The Philobiblon newly translated, published 
under the title of The Love of Books in the Past and Present 
Library (1905); Surtees Society, edition of Scriptores Tres; 
Wharton, Anglia Sacra; Cambridge Modern History, I, xvii; 
The Cambridge History of English Literature, II, 410; Bladeb, 
The Enemies of Books; Clark, The Care of Books. 

P. J. Lennox. 

Richard de la Vergne, Fran5ois-Marie-Ben- 
JAMiN, Archbishop of Paris, b. at Nantes, 1 March, 
1819; d. in Paris, 28 January, 1908. Educated at the 
Seminary of Saint-Sulpice he became in 1849 secre- 
tary to Bishop Jacquemet at Nantes, then, from 1850 
to 1869, vicar-general. In 1871 he became Bishop 
of Bel ley where he began the process for the beatifi- 
cation of the Cure d'Ars. On 7 May, 1875, he became 
coadjutor of Cardinal Guibert, Archbishop of Paris, 
whom he succeeded 8 July, 1886, becoming cardinal 
with the title of Santa Maria in Via, 24 May, 1889. 
He devoted much energy to the completion of the 
Basilica of the Sacred Heart at Montmartre, which 
he consecrated. Politically, Cardinal Richard was 
attached by ties of esteem and svmpathy to the 
Monarchist Catholics. In 1892, when Leo XIII 
recommended the rallying of Catholics to the Repub- 
lic (see France, The Third Republic and the Church in 
France), the cardinal created the "Union of Christian 
France" (Union de la France Chretienne), to unite all 
Catholics on the sole basis of the defence of religion. 
The Monarchists opposed tliis "rallying" {Ralliement) 
with the policy which this union represented, and at 
last, at the pope's desire, the union was dissolved. 
On many occasions Cardinal Richard spoke in defence 
of the religious congregations, and Leo XIII addressed 
to him a letter (27 December, 1900) on the religious 
who were menaced by the then projected Law of As- 
sociations. In the domain of hagiography he earned 
distinction by his "Vie de la bienheureuse Fran^oise 
d'Amboise" (1865) and "Saints de I'^glise de Bre- 
tagne" (1872). 

L'ipiscopat fran(ais, 1802-190S, s. v. Belley, Paris; Leca- 
NUET, L'Eglise de France sous la troisikme republique, II (Paris, 

1910)- Georges Goyau. 

Richard de Wyche, Saint, bishop and confessor, 
b. about 1197 at Droitwich, Worcestershire, from which 
his surname is derived; d. 3 April, 12.53, at Dover. 
He was the second son of Richard and Alice de 
Wyche. His father died while he was still young and 
the family property fell into a state of great dilapida- 
tion. His elder brother offered to resign the inheri- 
tance to him, but Richard refused the offer, although 
he undertook the management of the estate and soon 
restored it to a good condition. He went to Oxford, 
where he and two companions lived in such poverty 
that they had only one tunic and hooded gown be- 
tween them, in which they attended lectures by turns. 
He then went to Paris and on his return proceeded 
Master of Arts. At Bologna he studied canon law, in 
which he acquired a great reputation and was elected 
Chancellor of the University of Oxford. 

His learning and sanctity were so famed that 
Edmund Rich, Archbishop of Canterbury, and Robert 
Grosseteste, Bishop of Lmcoln, both offered him the 
post of chancellor of their respective dioceses. Richard 
accepted the archbishop's offer and thenceforward 



RICHARD 



44 



RICHARD 



became St. Edmund's intimate friend and follower. 
He approved the archbishop's action in opposing the 
king on the question of the vacant sees, accompanied 
him in his exile to Pontigny, was present at Soissy 
when he died, and made him a model in life. Richard 
supplied Matthew Paris with material for his biogra- 
phy, and, after attending the translation of his relics 
to Pontignv in 1249, wrote an account of the incident 
in a letter published by Matthew Paris (Historia 
major, V, VI). Retiring to the house of the Domini- 
cans at Orleans, Richard studied theology, was or- 
dained priest, and, after founding a chapel in honour 
of St. Edmund, returned to England where he became 
Vicar of Deal and Rector of Charring. Soon afterwards 
he was induced by Boniface of Savoy, the new Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, to resume his former office of 
chancellor. 

In 1244 Ralph Neville, Bishop of Chichester, died; 
the election of Robert Passelewe, Archdeacon of Chi- 
chester, to the vacant see, was quashed b}^ Boniface at 
a synod of his suffragans, held 3 June, 1244, and on his 
recommendation the chapter elected Richard, their 
choice being immediately confirmed by the arch- 
bishop. Henrj' III was indignant, as Robert Passe- 
lewe was a favourite, and he refused to surrender to 
Richard the temporalities of his see. The Saint took 
his case to Innocent IV, w^ho consecrated him in per- 
son at Lyons, 5 March, 1245, and sent him back to 
England. But Henry was immovable. Thus home- 
less in his own diocese, Richard was dependent on the 
charity of his clergy, one of whom, Simon of Tarring, 
shared with him the little he possessed. At length, in 
1246, Henry was induced by the threats of the pope to 
deliver up the temporalities. As bishop, Richard lived 
in great austerity, giving away most of his revenues as 
alms. He compiled a number of statutes which regu- 
late in great detail the lives of the clergy, the celebra- 
tion of Divine service, the administration of the sacra- 
ments, church privileges, and other matters. Every 
priest in the diocese was bound to obtain a copy of 
these statutes and bring it to the diocesan synod (Wil- 
kins, "Concilia", I, 688-93); in this way the standard 
of life among the clergy was raised considerably. For 
the better maintenance of his cathedral Richard insti- 
tuted a yearly collection to be made in every parish of 
the diocese on Easter or Whit Sunday. The mendi- 
cant orders, particularly the Dominicans, received 
special encouragement from him. 

In 12.50 Richard was named as one of the collectors 
of the subsidy for the crusades (Bliss, "Calendar of 
Papal Letters", I, 263) and two years later the king 
appointed him to preach the crusade in London. He 
made strenuous efforts to rouse enthusiasm for the 
cause in the Dioceses of Chichester and Canterbury, 
and while journeying to Dover, where he was to conse- 
crate a new church dedicated to St. Edmund, he was 
taken ill. Upon reaching Dover, he went to a hospital 
called "Maison Dieu", performed the consecration 
ceremony on 2 April, but died the next morning. His 
body was taken back to Chichester and buried in the 
cathedral. He was solemnly canonized by Urban IV 
in the Franciscan church at Viterbo, 12G2, and on 20 
P'eb. a papal licence for the translation of his relics to 
a new shrine was given; but the unsettled state of the 
country prevented this until 16 .Junf, 1276, when the 
translation wa,s performed by Archbishop Kilwardby 
in the presence of lOdward I. This shrine, which stood 
in the feretory behind the high altar, was rifled and 
destroyed at the Reformation. The much-restored 
altar tomb in the south transept now commonly 
assigned to St. Richard has no evidence to support its 
claim, and no relics are known to exist. The feast is 
celebrated on 3 April. The most accurate v(;rsion of 
St. Richard's will, which has been frequently printed, 
is that given by Blaauw in "Sussex Archaeological 
Collections", I, 164-92, with a translation and valu- 
able notes. His life was written by his confessor 



Ralph Bocking shortly after his canonization and 
another short life, compiled in the fifteenth century, 
was printed by Capgrave. Both these are included in 
the notice of St. Richard in the Bollandist "Acta 
Sanctorum". 

H.vRDY, Descriplire catalogue of AfSS. relating to the history of 
Great Britain and Ireland, III (London, 1871), 136-9; Ada SS., 
April, I (Venice, 1768), 277-318; C.*.pgr\ve, Nave legenda Anglim 
(London, 1516), 269; Paris, Historia major, ed. Madden in R. S., 
II. Ill (London, 1866); Annales moiiaf!tici, ed. Luard in R. S. 
(London, 1864); Flares historiarum, ed. Idem in R. S., II (London, 
1890); Rishanger's Chronicle, ed. Riley in R. S. (London, 186.5); 
Trivet, ed. Hog, Annales sex regum Anglice (London, 1845); 
Calendar of Papal Letters, ed. Buss, I (London. 1893); Vita di S. 
Ricardo vescovo di Cicestria (Milan, 17()6); Stephens, Memorials 
of the See of Chichester (London, 1876), 83-98, contains the best 
modern life; Wallace, St. Edmund of Canterbury (London, 1893), 
196-205; Gasquet, Henry III and the Church (London, 190.5), 
222, 343; Challoner, Britannia sancta (London, 174.5), 206-13; 
Stanton, Menology of England and Wales (London, 1887), 141-3. 

G. Roger Hudleston. 

Richard Fetherston, Blessed, priest and martyr, 
d. at Smithfield, 30 July, 1.540. He was chaplain to 
Catharine of Aragon and schoolmaster to her daugh- 
ter. Princess Mary, afterwards queen. He is called 
sacrce theologice Doctor by Pits (Do illustribus Anglia; 
scriptoribus, 729). He was one of the theologians ap- 
pointed to defend Queen Catharine's cause in the 
divorce proceedings before the legates WoLsey and 
Campeggio, and is said to have written a treatise 
"Contra divortium Henrici et Catharina;, Liber 
unus". No co])y of this work is known to exi.st. He 
took part in the session of Convocation which began 
in April, 1529, and was one of the few members wlio 
refused to sign the Act declaring Henry's marriage 
with Catharine to be illegal ah initio, through the 
pope's inability to grant a dispensation in such a case. 
In 1534 he was called upon to take the Oath of Su- 
premacy and, on refusing to do so, was committed to 
the Tower, 13 Dec, 1534. He seems to have remained 
in prison till 30 July, 1540, when he was hanged, 
drawn, and quartered at Smithfield, together with the 
Catholic theologians, Thomas Abel and Edward 
Powell, who like himself had been councillors to Queen 
Catharine in the divorce proceedings, and three here- 
tics, Barnes, Garret, and Jerome, condemned for 
teaching Zwinglianism. All six were drawn through 
the streets u])on tlirce hurdles, a Catholic and a heretic 
on each hurdle. The Protestants were burned, and the 
three Catholics executed in the usual manner, their 
limbs being fixed over the gates of the city and their 
heads being placed upon poles on London Bridge. 
Richard was beatified by Leo XIII, 29 Dec, 1886. 

Pits, De illustribus Angliir scriptoribus (Paris, 1619), 729; 
Sander, tr. Lewis, Rise and Growth of the Anglican Schism (Lon- 
don, 1877), 65, 67, 150; Burnet, History of the Reformation. 
ed. PococK (Oxford, 1865), I, 260, 472, 566-67; IV, 555, 563; 
Tanner, Bibliotheca Brilannico-Hibernica (London, 1748), 278; 
Original Letters Relative to the English Reformation (Parker Society, 
Cambridge, 1846), I, 209; Calendar of Stale Papers, Henry VIII, 
ed. Gairdner (London. 1882. 1883, 1885), VI. 311, 1199; VII, 
5.30; VIII, 666, 1001. 

G. Roger Hudleston. 

Richard Kirkman, Blessed. See William 
Lacy, Blessed. 

Richard of Cirencester, chronicler, d. about 
1400. He was the coini)iler of a chronicle from 447 to 
1066, entitled "Speculum Historiale de Gestis Regum 
Anglia;". The work, which is in four books, is of little 
hi.storical value, but contains several charters granted 
to Westminster Abbey. Nothingisknownof Richard's 
life except that he was a monk of Westminster, who 
made a pilgrimage to Jerusalem in 1391, was still at 
Westminster in 1397, and that he lay sick in the in- 
firmary in 1400. Two other works are attributed to 
him: "De Officiis", and "Super Symbolum Majus et 
Minus", but neither is now extant. In the eighteenth 
century his name was used by Charles Bertram as the 
pretended author of his forgery "Richardus Copenen- 
sis de situ Britannise", which deceived Stukeley and 
many subsequent antiquarians and historians, includ- 



RICHARD 



45 



RICHARD 



ing Lingard, and which was only finally exposed by 
Woodward in 1866-67. This spurious chronicle, how- 
ever, still appears under Richard's name in Giles, "Six 
English Chronicles" (London, 1872). 

Ricardi Cicentrensis Speculum Historiale, ed. Mayor, Rolls 
Series (London, 1863-69); Stukeley, An Account of Richard of 
Cirencester and his works (London, 1757) ; Hardy, Descriptive 
Catalogue (London, 1871); Hunt in Did. Nat. Biog., s. v.; Bol- 
LANDI8T8, Catalogus cod. hagiog. Lot. B. N. (Paris, 1893). 

Edwin Burton. 

Richard of Cornwall (Richard Rufus, Ruys, 
Rosso, Rowse). — The dates of his birth and death 
are unknown, but he was still living in 1259. He was 
an Oxford Franciscan, possibly a Master of Arts of 
that university, who had studied for a time in Paris 
(1238), and then returned to Oxford. He was chosen 
with Haymo of Favcrsham to go to Rome to oppose 
the minister-general Elias. In 1250 he was lecturing 
at Oxford on the "Sentences", till he was driven away 
by the riots, w'hen he returned to Paris and continued 
lecturing there, gaining the title Philosophus Admira- 
bilis; but according to Roger Bacon his teaching was 
very mischievous, and produced evil results for the 
next forty years. He was again at Oxford in 1255 as 
regent-master of the friars. Several works, all still 
in MS., are attributed to him. These are: "Com- 
mentaries on the Master of the Sentences", a work 
formerly at Assisi; "Commentary on Bonaventure's 
third book of Sentences" (Assisi); and a similar com- 
mentary on the fourth book (Assisi). Pits ("De 
illustribus Angliai scriptoribus") denies his identity 
with Richard Rufus on the ground that Rufus was 
born at Cirencester in Gloucestershire, and not in 
Cornwall. 

Monumenta Franciscana, ed. Brewer and Howlett in R. S. 
(London, 18.58-82); Wadding, Annales Minorum, IV (Lyons and 
Rome, 1650); 2nd ed. (Rome, 1731-45); and supplement by 
Sbaralea (1800); Parkinson, Collectanea Anglo- Minoritica 
(London, 172C); Little, The Grey Friars in Oxford (Oxford, 
1892); tiEtiiFLi, Chartularium Universitatis Parisiensis (Paris, 
1889); see also tr. of Thomas of Eccleston by Fr. Cuthbert, 
The Friars and how they came to England (London, 1903), and 
The Chronicle of Thomas of Eccleston (London, 1909). 

Edwin Burton. 

Richard of Middletown (a Media Villa), flour- 
ished at the end of the thirteenth century, but the 
dates of his l)irth and death and most incidents of his 
life are unknown. Middlcton Stoncy in Oxford.shire 
and Middlcton Cheyney in Northamptonshire have 
both been suggested as his native place, and he has 
also been claimed as a Scotsman. He probably 
studied first at Oxford, but in 12S3 he was at the 
University of Paris and graduated Bachelor of Divinity 
in that year. He entered the Franciscan order. In 
1278 he had been appointed by the general of his order 
to examine the doctrines of Peter Olivus, and the same 
work was again engaging his attention in 1283. In 
1286 he was sent with two other Franciscans to Naples 
to undertake the education of two of the sons of 
Charles II, Ludwig, afterwards a Franciscan, and 
Robert. After the defeat of Charles by Peter of 
Arragon the two princes were carried as hostages to 
Barcelona and Richard accompanied them, sharing 
their captivity till their release in 1295. The rest of 
his life lies in obscurity. A new point of interest at 
the present day lies in the fact that, medieval scho- 
lastic though he was, he knew and studied the phe- 
nomena of hypnotism, and left the results of his 
investigations in his "Quodlibeta" (Paris, 1519, fol. 
90-8) where he treats of what would now be termed 
auto-suggestion and adduces some instances of tele- 
pathy. His works include "Super sententias Petri 
Lombardi", written between 1281 and 1285, and first 
printed at Venice, 1489; "QusestionesQuodlibetales" 
in MS. at Oxford and elsewhere; "Quodlibeta tria" 
printed with the Sentences at Venice, 1509; "De 
gradibus formarum" in MS. at Munich; and "Quse- 
stiqnes disputatae" in MS. at Assisi. Other works 
which have been attributed to him are: "Super 



epistolas Pauli"; "Super evangelia"; "Super distinc- 
tiones decreti"; "De ordine judiciorum"; "De cla- 
vium sacerdotalium potestate"; "Contra Patrem 
Joannem Olivum"; a poem, "De conceptione im- 
maculata Virginis Marise"; three MS. sermons now 
in the Bibliotheque Nationale (MS. 14947, nos. 47, 
69, 98), and a sermon on the Ascension, the MS. of 
which is at Erlangen. Works erroneously ascribed 
to him are a treatise on the rule of St. Francis; the 
"Quadragesimale" which was written by Francis of 
Asti; the completion of the "Summa" of Alexander 
of Hales, and an "Expositio super Ave Maria", 
probably by Richard of Saxony. His death is as- 
signed by some to 1307 or 1308, by Pits to 1300, by 
Parkinson to some earlier date on the ground that he 
was one of the "Four Masters", the expositors of the 
Rule of St. Francis. 

Wadding, Annales Minorum (2nd ed., Rome, 1731-45), and 
supplement by Sbaralea (1806) ; Papkinson, Collectanea Anglo- 
Minoritica (London, 172G); de Martigne, La Scolastigue et les 
traditions Franciscaines: Richard de Middletown in Revue, scien., 
eccles., II (1885); Portali^, L'hypnotisme au moyen Age: Avicenne 
el Richard Middletown in Etudes relig. hist, lilt., LV (1892); 
Chevalier, Repertoire des sources historiques du Moyen Age 
(Paris, 1905) ; Kingsford in Diet. Nat. Biog. s. v. Middleton. 

Edwin Burton. 

Richard of St. Victor, theologian, native of 
Scotland, but the date and place of his birth are un- 
known; d. 1173 and was commemorated on 10 March 
in the necrology of the abbey. He was professed at 
the monastery of St. Victor under the first Abbot 
Gilduin (d. 1155) and was a disciple of the great 
mystic Hugo whose principles and methods he adopted 
and elaborated. His career was strictly monastic, 
and his relations w-ith the outer world were few and 
slight. He was sub-prior of the monastery in 1159, 
and subsequently became prior. During his tenure 
of the latter office, serious trouble arose in the com- 
munity of St. Victor from the misconduct of the 
English Abbot Ervisius, whose irregular life brought 
upon him a personal admonition from Alexander III, 
and was subsequently referred by the pope to a com- 
mission of inquiry under the royal autliority; after 
some delay and resistance on the part of the abbot his 
resignation was obtained and he retired from the 
monastery. A letter of exhortation was addressed by 
the pope to "Richard, the prior" and the comuumity 
in 1170. Richard does not appear to have taken any 
active part in these proceedings, but the disturbed 
condition of his surroundings may well have accen- 
tuated his desire for the interior solace of mj'stical 
contemplation. Ervisius's resignation took place in 
1172. In 1165, St. Victor had been visited by St. 
Thomas of Canterbury, after his flight from North- 
ampton; and Richard was doubtless one of the 
auditors of the discourse delivered by the archbishop 
on that occasion. A letter to Alexander III, dealing 
with the affairs of the archbishop, and signed by 
Richard is extant and published by Migne. Like his 
master, Hugo, Richard may probably have had some 
acquaintance and intercourse with St. Bernard, who 
is thought to have been the Bernard to whom the 
treatise "De tribus appropriatis personis in Trini- 
tate" is addressed. His reputation as a theologian 
extended far beyond the precincts of his monastery, 
and copies of his writings were eagerly sought by 
other religious houses. Exclusively a theologian, 
unlike Hugo, he appears to have had no interest in 
philosophy, and took no part in the acute philosophi- 
cal controversies of his time; but, like all the School 
of St. Victor, he was willing to avail himself of the 
didactic and constructive methods in theology which 
had been introduced by Abelard. Nevertheless, he 
regarded merely secular learning with much suspicion, 
holding it to be worthless as an end in itself, and only 
an occasion of worldly pride and self-seeking when 
divorced from the knowledge of Divine things. Such 
learning he calls, in the antithetical style which char- 



RICHARD 



40 



RICHARD 



acterizes all his writing, " Sapientia insipida et doctrina 
indocta" ; and the professor of such learning is "Cap- 
tator famae, neglector conscientise". Such worldly- 
minded persons should stimulate the student of sacred 
things to greater efforts in his own higher sphere — 
"When we consider how much the philosophers of 
this world have laboured, we should be ashamed to be 
inferior to them"; "We should seek always to com- 
prehend bv reason what we hold by faith." 

His works fall into the three classes of dogmatic, 
mvstical, and exegetical. In the first, the most im- 
po'rtant is the treatise in six books on the Trinity, with 
the supplement on the attributes of the Three Persons, 
and the treatise on the Incarnate Word. But greater 
interest now belongs to his mystical theology, which is 
mainlv contained in the two books on mystical con- 
templation, entitled respectively "Benjamin Minor" 
and "Benjamin Major", and the allegorical treatise 
on the Tabernacle. He carries on the mystical doc- 
trine of Hugo, in a somewhat more detailed scheme, 
in which the successive stages of contemplation are 
described. These are six in number, divided equally 
among the three powers of the soul — the imagination, 
the reason, and the intelligence, and ascending from 
the contemplation of the visible things of creation to 
the rapture in which the soul is carried "beyond it- 
self" into the Divine Presence, by the three final 
stages of "Dilatio, sublevatio, alienatio". This 
schematic arrangement of contemplative soul-states is 
substantially adopted by Gerson in his more systema- 
tic treatise on mystical theology, who, however, makes 
the important reservation that the distinction between 
reason and intelligence is to be understood as func- 
tional and not real. Much use is made in the mystical 
treatises of the allegorical interpretation of Scripture 
for which the Victorine school had a special affection. 
Thus the titles " Benjamin Major" and " Minor" refer 
to Ps. Ixvii, "Benjamin in mentis excessu". Rachel 
represents the reason, Lia represents charity; the 
tabernacle is the type of the state of perfection, in 
which the soul is the dweUing-place of God. In like 
manner, the mystical or devotional point of view pre- 
dominates in the exegetical treatises; though the 
critical and doctrinal exposition of the text also re- 
ceives attention. The four books entitled "Tractatus 
exceptionum", and attributed to Richard, deal with 
matters of secular learning. Eight titles of works 
attributed to him by Trithemius (De Script. Eccl.) 
refer probably to MS. fragments of his known works. 
A "Liber Penitentialis" is mentioned by Montfau^on 
as attributed to a "Ricardus Secundus a Sancto 
Victore", and may probably be identical with the 
treatise "De potestate solvendi et ligandi" above 
mentioned. Nothing is otherwise known of a second 
Richard of St. Victor. Fifteen other IMSS. are said 
to exist of works attributed to Richard which have 
appeared in none of the published editions, and are 

Erobably spurious. Eight editions of his works have 
een published: Venice, 1506 (incomplete) and 1592; 
Paris, 1518 and 1550; Lyons, 1.534; Cologne, 1621; 
Rouen, 1650, by the Canons of St. Victor; and by 
Migne. 

HcooNiK, Notice sut R. de Si. Victor in P. L.. CXCVI; Enoel- 
HAKDT, H. ton St. Victor u. J. Ruyshroek (Erianeen, 1838); 
Vacohan, HouTt leilh the Mystics, V (London, 189.3); Inge, 
Christian Mysticism (London, 1898); De Wulf, Histoire de la 
phihsophie midiivale (Louvain, 1905); Bconamici, R. di San 
Vittore^saggi di studio suUa fdosofia mislica del gecoJoX 77 (Alatri, 
1898); VON HCoEL, The Mystical Element in Religion (London, 
1909; ; Underbill, Mysticism (Ix)ndon. 1911). 

A. B. Sharpe. 

Richard Reynolds, Blessed. Sec John Hough- 
ton, Blessed. 

Richardson ('alias Anderson), William, Vener- 
able, last martyr under Queen Elizabeth; b. accord- 
ing to Challoner, at Vales in Yorkshire (i. e. presu- 
mably Wales, near Sheffield), but, according to the 
Valladolid diary, a Lancashire man; executed at 



Tyburn, 17 Feb., 1603. He arrived at Reims 16 July, 
1592, and on 21 Aug. following was sent to Valladolid, 
where he arrived 23 Dec. Thence, 1 Oct., 1594, he was 
sent to Seville where he was ordained. According to 
one account ho was arrested at Clement's Inn on 12 
Feb., but another says he had been kept a close pris- 
oner in Newgate for a week before he was condemned 
at the Old Bailey on the 15 Feb., under stat. 27Eliz.,c. 
2, for being a priest and coming into the realm. He 
was betrayed by one of his trusted friends to the Lord 
Chief Justice, who expedited his trial and execution 
with unseemly haste, and seems to have acted more as 
a public prosecutor than as a judge. At his execution 
he showed great courage and constancy, dying most 
cheerfully, to the edification of all beholders. One of 
his last utterances was a prayer for the queen. 

GiLLOW, Bibl. Diet. Eng. Cath., V, 414; Challoner, Missionary 
Priests, I, n. 134; Calendar State Papers Domestic, 1601-3 (Lon- 
don, 1870), 292. 298, 300, 301, 302. 

John B. Wainewright. 

Richard Thirkeld, Blessed, martyr; b. at Conis- 
cliffe, Durham, England; d. at York, 29 May, 1583. 
From Queen's College, Oxford, where he was in 1564- 
5, he went to Reims, where he was ordained priest, 18 
April, 1579, and left 23 May for the mission, where he 
ministered in or about York, and acted as confessor to 
Ven. Margaret Clitheroe. On the eve of the Annuncia- 
tion, 1583, he was arrested while visiting one of the 
Catholic prisoners in the Ousebridge Kidcote, York, 
and at once confessed his priesthood, both to the 
pursuivants, who arrested him, and to the maj^or 
before whom he was brought, and for the night was 
lodged in the house of the high sheriff. The next day 
he was sent to the Ousebridge Kidcote. On 27 May 
his trial took place, at which he managed to appear in 
cassock and biretta. The charge was one of having 
reconciled the queen's subjects to the Church of Rome. 
He was found guilty on 27 May and condemned 28 
May. He spent the night in instructing his fellow- 
prisoners, and the morning of his condemnation in up- 
holding the faith and constancy of those who were 
brought to the bar. No details of his execution are 
extant: six of his letters still remain, and are summar- 
ized by Dom Bede Camm. 

Camm, Lives of the English Martyrs, II (London, 1904 — ), 
635-53; Challoner, Missionary Priests, I, no. 20; Surtees, His- 
tory of Durham, III (London, 1820-40), 381. 

John B. Wainewright. 

Richard Whiting, Blessed, last Abbot of Glaston- 
bury and martyr, parentage and date of birth un- 
known, executed 15 Nov., 1539; was probably edu- 
cated in the claustral school at Glastonbury, whence he 
proceeded to Cambridge, graduating as M.A. in 1483 
and D.D. in 1505. If, as is probable, he was already 
a monk when he went to Cambridge he must have 
received the habit from John Selwood, Abbot of 
Glastonbury from 1456 to 1493. He was ordained 
deacon in 1500 and priest in 1501, and held for some 
years the office of chamberlain of his monastery. In 
February, 1525, Richard Bere, Abbot of Glastonbury, 
died, and the community, after deciding to elect his 
8UCces.sor per formam compromi.'isi, which places the 
selection in the hands of some one person of note, 
agreed to request Cardinal Wolsey to make the choice 
of an abbot for them. After obtaining the king's per- 
mission to act and giving a fortnight's inquiry to the 
circumstances of the case Wolsey on 3 March, 1525, 
nominated Richard Whiting to the vacant post. The 
first ten years of Whiting's rule were prosperous and 
peaceful, and he appears in the State papers as a care- 
ful overseer of his abbey alike in spirituals and tem- 
porals. Then, in August, 1.535, came the first "visi- 
tation " of Glastonbury by Dr. Layton, who, however, 
found all in good order. In spite of this, however, the 
abbot's jurisdiction over the town of Glastonbury was 
suspended and minute "injunctions" were given to 
him about the management of the abbey property; 



RICHELIEU 



47 



RICHELIEU 



but then and more than once during the next few 
years he was assured ihat there was no intention of 
suppressing the abbey. 

By January, 1539, Glastonbury was the only mon- 
astery left in Somerset, and on 19 September in that 
year the royal commissioners, Layton, Pollard and 
Moyle, arrived there without warning. Whiting hap- 
pened to be at his manor of Sharpham. Thither the 
commissioners followed and examined him according 
to certain articles received from Cromwell, which ap- 
parently dealt with the question of the succession to 
the throne. The abbot was then taken back to 
Glastonbury and thence sent up to London to the 
Tower that Cromwell might examine him for himself, 
but the precise charge on which he was arrested, and 
subsequently executed, remains uncertain though his 
case is usually referred to as one of treason. On 2 
October, the commissioners wrote to Cromwell that 
they had now come to the knowledge of "divers and 
sundry treasons committed by the Abbot of Ghistoii- 
bury", and enclosed a "book" of evidoncos thereof 
with the accusers' names, which however is no longer 
forthcoming. In Cromwell's MS., " Kememl)rances", 
for the same month, are the entries: "Item, Certayn 
persons to be sent to the Towre for the further exam- 
enacyon of the Abbot of Glaston . . . Item. 
The Abbot of Glaston to (be) tryed at Glaston and 
also executyd there with his complj'cys. . . Item. 
Councillors to give evidence against the Abbot of 
Glaston, Rich. Pollard, Lewis Forstew (Forstell), 
Thos. Moyle." Marillac, the French Ambassador, 
on 25 October wrote: "The abbot of Glastonbury 
. . . has lately been put in the Tower, because, in 
taking the Abbey treasures, valued at 200,000 crowns, 
they found a written book of arguments in behalf of 
queen Katherine." If the cliarge was high treason, 
which appears mo.st ])robahlc, thiMi, ;is a lucinher of 
the House of Peers, Whiting should have lieeii at- 
tainted h>- an Act of Parliament passed for the pur- 
pose, but his execution was an accomplished fact be- 
fore Parlianiciit even met. In fact it seems clear that 
his doom was <lelil)erately wrapped in obscurity by 
Cromwell and Henry, for Marillac, writing to Francis 
I on 30 November, after mentioning the execution of 
the Abbots of Reading and Glastonbury, adds: 
"could learn no particulars of what they were charged 
with, except that it was the relics of the late lord mar- 
quis"; which makes things more perplexing than ever. 
Whatever the charge, however, Whiting was sent 
back to Somerset in the care of Pollard and reached 
Wells on 14 November. Here some sort of trial ap- 
parently took place, and next day, Saturday, 15 No- 
vember, he was taken to Glastonbury with two of his 
monks, Dom John Thome and Dom Roger James, 
where all three were fastened upon hurdles and 
dragged by horses to the top of Tor Hill which over- 
looks the town. Here they were hangeil, drawn and 
quartered. Abbot Whiting's head being fastened over 
the gate of the now deserted abbey and his limbs ex- 
posed at Wells, Bath, Ilchester and Bridgewater. 
Richard Whiting was beatified by Pope Leo XIII in 
his decree of 13 May, 1S95. His watch and seal are 
still preserved in the museum at Glastonbury. 

Hearne, History and AnliquilieK of Glastonbury (Oxford, 1722) ; 
Adam de Dombrham, Hist, de rebus . . . Glastoniensibus, 
ed. Hearne (Oxford, 1727); Leland, Collectanea, ed. Hearne 
(Oxford, 1715), VI, 70; Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic, 
Henry VIII., ed. Brewer and Gairdner (London, 1870, 1902), 
IV-XVIII; Sander, tr. Lewis, Rise and Growth of the Anglican 
Schism (London, 1877), 141, 142; Wright, Letters relating to the 
Suppression of the Monasteries, in publ. Camden Soc. (London, 
1843); Burnet, History of the Reformation, ed. Pollock (London, 
1875); Gasquet, Henry VIII and the English Monasteries, II 
(London, 1888), 325-86; Idem, The la.-it Abbot of Glastonbury 
(London, 1895); see also review of this work by Dixon in 
English Historical Review (Oct., 1897), 782; Baumer, Die Berie- 
dictiner-Martyren in England unter Heinrich VIII in Studien 
0. S. B., VIII, 502-31; IX, 22-38, 213-34; Archbold, Somerset 
Religious Houses (Cambridge, 1892); Collinson, History of 
Somerset, II (Bath, 1791). See also bibliography to article 

GLASTONBURy Abbey. g. Roger Hudleston. 



Richelieu, Armand-Jean du Plessis, Cardinal, 
Duke de, French statesman, b. in Paris, 5 September, 
1 585 ; d . there 4 December, 1 642 . At first he intended 
to follow a mihtary career, but when, in 1605, his brother 
Alfred resigned the Bishopric of LuQon and retired to 
the Grande Chartreuse, RicheUeu obtained the see 
from Henry IV and withdrew to the country to take 
up his theological studies under the direction of Bishop 
Cospean of Aire. He was consecrated bishop on 17 
April, 1607; he was not yet twenty-two years old, al- 
though the Brief of Paul V dated 19 December, 1606, 
announcing his appointment contains the statement: 
"in vigesimo tertio a^tatis anno tantum constitutus". 
Mgr Lacroix, the historian of Richelieu's youth, be- 




ToMB OF Richelieu 
Church of (he Sorbonne, Paris 

lieves that in a journey made to Rome at the end of 
1606, Richelieu deceived the pope as to his age, but 
the incident is still obscure. In his diocese, Richelieu 
showed great zeal for the conversion of Protestants 
and appointed the Oratorians and the Capuchins to 
give missions in all the parishes. Richelieu repre- 
sented the clergy of Poitou in the States General of 
1614, when his political career began. There he was 
the mouth-piece of the Church, and in a celebrated 
discourse demanded that bishops and prelates be sum- 
moned to the royal councils, that the distribution of 
ecclesiastical benefices lo the laity be forbidden, that 
the Church be exempt from taxation, that Protestants 
who usurped churches or had their coreligionists 
interred in them be punished, and that the Decrees 
of the Council of Trent be promulgated through- 
out France. He ended by as.suring the young king 
Louis XIII that the desire of the clergy was to have 
the royal power so assured that it might be "comme 
un ferme rocher qui brise tout ce qui le heurte" (as a 
firm rock which crushes all that opposes it). 

Richelieu was named secretary of state on 30 Novem- 
ber, 1616, but after the assassination of Concini, fav- 
ourite of Maria de' Medici, he was forced to leave the 
ministry and follow the queen mother to Blois. To 
escape the political intrigues which pursued him he re- 
tired in June, 1617, to the priory of Coussay and, 
during this time of leisure caused by his disgrace, pub- 
lished in October, 1617 (date confirmed by Mgr La- 
croix), his " Les principaux points de la foi de I'eglise 
catholique, ddfendus contre I'ecrit adress6 au Roi par 
les quatre ministres de Charenton"; it was upon 
reading this book half a century later that Jacques de 
Coras, a Protestant pastor of Tonneins, was converted 
to Catholicism. Richelieu continued to be represented 



RICHELIEU 



48 



RICHELIEU 



to the king as an enemy to his power; the Capuchin, 
Leclerc du Trembhiy, never succeeded in completely 
clearing him in Louis XIII's opinion. To disarm 
suspicion Richelieu asked the king to name a place of 
exile, and at his order went in 161 S io A\'ignon, where 
he passed nearly a year and where he composed a 
catechism which became famous under the name of 
"Instruction duchr(5tien". This book, destined to be 
read in every parish each Sunday at the sermon, was a 
real blessing at a time when ignorance of religion was 
the principal evil. When Maria de' Medici escaped 
from Blois, in 1619, Richelieu was chosen by the min- 
ister Lu\Ties to negotiate for peace between Louis 
XIII and his mother. By Brief of 3 November, 1622, 
he was created cardinal by Gregory XV. On 19 April, 
1624. he re-entered the Council of Ministers, and on 12 
August. 1624, was made its president. Richelieu's 
policy can be reduced to two principal ideas: the do- 
mestic unification of France and opposition to the 
Hou.se of Austria. At home he had to contend with 
constant conspiracies in which Maria de' Medici, 
Queen Anne of Austria, Gaston d 'Orleans (the king's 
brother), and the highest nobles of the court were in- 
volved. The executions of Marillac (1632), Mont- 
morency (1632), Cinq-Mars and of de Thou (1642) 
intimidated the enemies of the cardinal. He had also 
to contend with the Protestants who were forming a 
state within the state (see Huguenots). The capitu- 
lation of La Rochelle and the peace of Alais (28 June, 
1629) annihilated Protestantism as a political party. 
Richelieu's foreign policy (for which see Leclerc 
DU Trembl.w) was characterized b^' his fearlessness 
in making alliances with the foreign Protestants. At 
various times the Protestants of the Grisons, Sweden, 
the Protestant Princes of Germany, and Bernard of 
Saxe-Weimar were his allies. The favourable treaties 
signed by Mazarin (q. v.) were the result of Richelieu's 
policy of Protestant alliances, a policy which was 
severely censured by a number of Catholics. At the 
end of 1625, when Richelieu was preparing to give 
back Valteline to the Protestant Grisons, the parti- 
sans of Spain called him "Cardinal of the Hugue- 
nots", and two pamphlets, attributed to the Jesuits 
Eudemon Joannes and Jean Keller, appeared against 
him; these he had burned. Hostilities, however, in- 
crea-sed until finally the king's confessor opposed the 
foreign policy of the cardinal. This was a very im- 
pfirf ant episode, andon it the recent researches of Father 
de Piochernonteix in the archives of the Society of 
Jesus have cast new light. P'ather Caussin, author 
of "I^ Cour Sainfe", the Jesuit whom Richelieu, on 
25 March, 1636, had maxle the king's confessor, tried 
to use against the cardinal the influence of Mlle.de La 
Fayette, a lady for whom the king had entertained a 
ff-rtain regard and who had become a nun. On 
S DecernhfT, 1637, in a solemn interview Caus.sin re- 
callrfi to the king his dtities towards his wife, Anne of 
Austria, to whom he was too indifTerent; asked him 
to allow his mother, Maria de' Mr^dici, to return to 
France; and p<^jinted out the dangers to Catholicism 
which might arise through Richelieu's alliance with 
the Turks and the Protestant princes of Germany. 
After this interview Caussin gave Communion to the 
king and a/ldrc^ssfifl him a very beautiful sermon, en- 
treating him to obey his directions. Richelieu was 
anxious that the king's cxmfdKHor should occupy him- 
nelf Kf*lely with "giving absfjlutions", consequently, 
on 10 DecembcT, 1637, Caussin was dismissf^d and 
exilr-d to Rennes, and his Huccessor, Father Jacques 
Sinnond, e/-l<'brate<l for his hist^)rical knowl(;dge, was 
forcf<l to promiw that, if he saw "anything censur- 
able in the crjndiicf of the State", he would report it to 
the cardinal and not attempt to influence the king's 
c/jnwience. However, 1 at her Caussin 'h fears concern- 
ing Richelieu's foreign pf)licy were not shared by all of 
his confr/TOH. Father I^llemand, for instance, affirmed 
that it was rash to blame the king's political alliance 



with the Protestant princes — an alliance which had 
been made only after an unsuccessful attempt to form 
one with Bavaria and the Catholic princes of Germany. 
That Richelieu was possessed of religious senti- 
ments cannot be contested. It was he who in Febru- 
ary, 1638, prompted the declaration by which 
Louis XIII consecrated the Kingdom of France to the 
Virgin Marj-; in the ministry he surrounded himself 
with priests and religious; as general he employed 
Cardinal de la Valette; as admiral, Sourdis, Arch- 
bishop of Bordeaux; as diplomat, B^ruUe; as chief 
auxiliary he had Leclerc du Tremblay. He himself 
designated Mazarin his successor. He had a high 
idea of the sacerdotal dignity, was continually pro- 
testing against the encroachments of the parlements 
on the jurisdiction of the Church, and advised the 
king to choose as bishops only those who should 
"have passed after their studies a considerable time 
in the seminaries, the places established for the study 
of the ecclesiastical functions". He wished to com- 
pel the bishops to reside in their dioceses, to estab- 
lish seminaries there, and to visit their parishes. He 
aided the efforts of St. Vincent de Paul to induce the 
bishops to institute the "exercises des ordinants", 
retreats, during which the yoimg clerics were to pre- 
pare themselves for the priesthood. Richelieu fore- 
saw the perils to which nascent Jansenism would ex- 
pose the Church. Saint-Cyran's doctrines on the 
constitution of the Church, his views on the organi- 
zation of the "great Christian Republic", his liaison 
with Jansenius (who in 1635 had composed a violent 
pamphlet against France under the name of Mars 
gallicus), and the manner in which he opposed the an- 
nulment of the marriage of Gaston d'Orleans, drew 
upon him the cardinal's suspicion. In having him 
arrested 14 May, 1638, Richelieu declared that "had 
Luther and Calvin been confined before they had be- 
gun to dogmatize, the states would have been spared 
many troubles". Two months later Richelieu forced 
the solitaries of Port Royal-des-Champs to disperse; 
some were sent to Paris, others to Fert^-Milon. 
Saint-Cyran remained in the dungeon of Vincennes 
until the cardinal's death. With the co-operation of 
the Benedictine Gr^goire Tarisse, Richelieu devoted 
himself seriously to the reform of the Benedictines. 
Named coadjutor to the Abbot of Cluny in 1627, 
and Abbot of Cluny in 1629, he called to this monas- 
tery the Reformed Benedictines of Saint- Vannes. He 
proposed forming the congregations of Saint-Vannes 
and Saint-Maur into one body, of wliich he was to have 
been superior. Only half of this i)r()ject was accom- 
plished, however, when in 1636 lie succeeded in unit- 
ing the Order of Cluny with the Congregation of 
Saint-Maur. From 1622 Richelieu was ]>rovi.seur of 
th(! Sorbonne, and was in virtue of this office head of 
the Association of Doctors of the Sorbonne. He had 
the Sorbonne entirely rebuilt between 1626 and 1629, 
and between 1635 and 1642 built the church of the 
Sorbonne, in which he is now buried. 

On the question of the relations between the tem- 
poral and the spiritual powers, Richelieu really pro- 
fes.sed the doctrine called Duvalism after the theo- 
logian Duvjil, who admitted at the same time the 
supreme power of the pope and the supreme power 
of the king ;ind the divine right of both. In the dis- 
sensions between Rome and the Gallicans he most 
frequently nctcd as mediator. When in 1626 a book 
by the Jesuit Sanct.'ircl ;tj)pe;ired in I'aris, affirming 
the right of the iM)pes to depose kings for wrong-doing, 
heresy, or incai)acity, it was burned in the Place; de 
Grc^ve; p'ather Coton and the lliree superiors of the 
Jesuit houses summoned before the Parlement, W(!re 
forced to nspudiate the work. The enemies of the 
Jesuits wished immediately to create a new disturb- 
ance on the occasion of the publication of the "Somme 
tht^ologique des v^srit^s apostoliques capitales de la re- 
ligion chrdticnnc", by Father Garasse, but Richelieu 



RICHER 



49 



RICHER 



opposed the continued agitation. It was, however, 
renewed at the end of 1626, owing to a thesis of the 
Dominican Tetefort, which maintained that the Decre- 
tals formed part of the Scripture. Richeheu again 
strove to allay feehng, and in a discourse (while still 
affirming that the king held his kingdom from God 
alone) declared that "the king cannot make an article 
of faith unless this article has been so declared by the 
Church in her oecumenical councils". Subsequently, 
Richelieu gave .satisfaction to the pope when on 7 De- 
cember, 1629, he obtained a retraction from the Galil- 
ean Edmond Richer, syndic of the theological faculty, 
who submitted his book "La puissance eccl6sias- 
tique et politique " to the judgment of the pope. Nine 
years later, however, Richelieu's struggles against the 
resistance offered by the French clergy to taxes led 
him to assume an attitude more deliberately Galilean. 
Contrary to the theories which he had maintained in 
his discourse of 1614 he considered, now that he was 
minister, that the needs of the State constituted a 
case of jorce majeure, which should oblige the clergy to 
submit to all the fiscal exigencies of the civil power. 
As early as 1625 the assembly of the clergy, tired of 
the incessant demands of the Government for money, 
had decreed that no deputy could vote supplies with- 
out having first received full powers on the subject; 
Richelieu, contesting this principle, declared that the 
needs of the State were actual, while those of the 
Church were chimerical and arbitrary. 

In 1638 the struggle between the State and the 
clergy on the subject of taxes became critical, and 
Richelieu, to uphold his claims, enlisted the aid of the 
V)rothers Pierre and Jacques Dupuy, who about the 
middle of 163S published "Les libertcs de I'eglise 
gaUicane". This book cstabhshed the independence 
of the Galilean Church in opposition to Rome only to 
reduce it into servile submission to the temporal power. 
The clergy and the nuncio complained; eighteen 
bishops assembled at the house of Cardinal de la 
Rochefoucauld, and denounced to their colleagues this 
"work of the devil". Richelieu then exaggerated his 
fiscal exigencies in regard to the clergy ; an edict of 
16 April, 1639, stipulated that ecclesiastics and com- 
munities were incapable of possessing landed prop- 
erty in France, that the king could compel them to 
surrender their po.sscssions and unite them to his do- 
mains, but that he would allow them to retain what 
they had inconsidcratitjuof certain indemnities which 
should be calculated in going back to the year 1520. 
In Oct., 1639, after the murder of an eriuerrj^ of Mar- 
shal d'Estr^es, the French Ambassador, Estre6s de- 
clared the rights of the people violated. Richelieu 
refused to receive the nuncio (October, 1639); a de- 
cree of the royal council, 22 December, restrained the 
powers of the pontifical Briefs, and even the canonist 
Marca proposed to break the Concordat and to hold a 
national council at which Richelieu was to have been 
made patriarch. Precisely at this date Richelieu had 
a whole scries of grievances against Rome: Urban 
VIII had refused successively to name him Legate of 
the Holy See in France, Legate of Avignon, and coad- 
jutor to the Bishop of Trier; he had refu.sed the pur- 
ple to Father Joseph, and had opposed the annulment 
of the marriage of Gaston d'Orleans. But Richelieu, 
however furious he was, did not wish to carry things 
to extremes. After a certain number of polemics on 
the subject of the taxes to be levied on the clergy, the 
ecclesiastical assembly of Mantes in 1641 accorded to 
the Government (which was satisfied therewith) five 
and a half millions, and Richelieu, to restore quiet, ac- 
cepted the dedication of Marca's book "La concorde 
du sacerdoce et de I'empire", in which certain excep- 
tions were taken to Dupuy's book. At the same time 
the sending of Mazarin as envoy to France by LTr- 
ban VIII, and the presentation to him of the cardinal's 
hat put an end to the differences between Richelieu 
and the Holy See. 
XIII.— 4 



Upon the whole, Richelieu's policy was to preserve 
a just mean between the parliamentary Galileans and 
the Ultramontanes. "In such matters", he wrote in 
his political testament, "one must believe neither the 
people of the palace, who ordinarily measure the 
power of the king by the shape of his crowTi, which, be- 
ing round, has no end, nor those who, in the excesses 
of an indiscreet zeal, proclaim themselves openly as 
partisans of Rome". One may believe that Pierre de 
Marca's book was inspired by him and reproduces his 
ideas. According to this book the liberties of the 
Galilean Church have two foundations: (1) the recog- 
nition of the primacy and the sovereign authority of 
the Church of Rome, a primacy consisting in the 
right to make general laws, to judge without appeal, 
and to be judged neither by bishops nor by councils; 
(2) the sovereign right of kings which knows no su- 
perior in temporal affairs. It is to be noted that 
Marca does not give the superiority of a council over 
the pope as a foundation of the Galilean liberties. 
(For Richelieu's work in Canada see article Canada.) 
In 1636 Richelieu founded the Academic Frangaise. 
He had great literary pretentions, and had several 
mediocre plays of his own composition produced in a 
theatre belonging to him. With a stubbornness in- 
explicable to-day Voltaire foolishly denied that Rich- 
elieu's "Testament politique" was authentic; the re- 
searches of M. Hanotaux have proved its authenticity, 
and given the proper value to admirable chapters such 
as the chapter entitled "Le conseil du Prince", into 
which Richelieu, says M. Hanotaux, "has init all his 
soul and his genius". [For Richelieu's "Memoires" 
see Harlay, Family of: (2) Achille de Harlay.] 

Beside.s the works indicated in the articles Leclerc du Trem- 
BLAY and Maria de' Medici the following may be consulted: 
Maximes d'etat et fragments politiques du cardinal de Richelieu, ed. 
Hanotaux (Paris, 1880) ; Letlres, instructions diplomatiques et 
papiers d'Hat du cardinal de Richelieu, ed. Avenel (8 vols., Paris, 
18.53-77); Memoires du cardinal de Richelieu, ed. Horric de Beau- 
CAIRE, I (Paris, 1908); Lair, Lavoll^e, Bruel, Gabriel de 
MuN, and Lecestre, Rapports et notices sur Vedition des Me- 
moires du cardinal de Richelieu preparee pour la societe de I'his- 
toire de France (3 fasc, Paris, 1905-07); Hanotaux, Hist, du 
cardinal de Richelieu (2 tomes in 3 vols., Paris, 1893-1903), ex- 
tends to 1624; Caillet, L' Administration en France sous le mi- 
nisthe du cardinal de Richelieu (2 vols., Paris, 1863); D' Avenel, 
Richelieu et la monarchic absolue (4 vols., Paris, 1880-7); Idem, 
La noblesse fran^aise sow Richelieu (Paris, 1901); Idem, Pri- 
tres, soldats et juges sous Richelieu (Paris, 1907); Lacroix, Riche- 
lieu d Lufon, sa jeunesse, son episcopal (Paris, 1890); Geley, 
Fancan et la politique de Richelieu de 1 6 1 7 d 1G27 (Pari.s, 1884); 
De Rochemonteix, Nicholas Caussin, confesseur de Louis XIII, 
et le cardinal de Richelieu (Paris, 1911) ; Perraud, Le cardinal de 
Richelieu evSque, thiologien et protecleur des lettres (Autun, 1882) ; 
Valentin, Cardinalis Richelieu scriptor ecclesiasticus (Toulouse, 
1900) ; Lodge, Richelieu (London, 189fi) ; Perkins, Richelieu and 
the Growth of French Power (New York, 1900). 

Georges Goyau. 

Richer, a monk of Saint-Rcmi (flourished about 
980-1000), was the .son of a knight belonging to the 
Court of Louis IV d'Outre-Mer (reigned 936-54). 
Richer inherited from his father a love of war and 
politics. At Saint-Remi he was a pupil of Gerbert's; 
besides Latin he studied philo.sophy, medicine, and 
mathematics. Nothing more than these facts is 
known with certainty concerning his life. The great 
Gerbert commLssioned him to write a history of 
France. The only MSS. of his "Historiarum libri 
IV" was discovered by Pertz (1833) at Bamberg and 
then published. Richer selected the date 882, with 
which Hincmar's annals closed, for the starting- 
point of his history. In his work he depends upon 
Flodoard (d. 966) . In his eagerness for rhetorical orna- 
ment Richer frequently loses sight of historical ac- 
curacy. Notwithstanding this, in Wattcnbach's 
opinion, the work has great value: "he is our sole 
informant for the very important period in which the 
sovereignty passed from the Carlovingians to tlir- 
Capet ians". He gives a large amount of important 
information concerning this era. His statements 
concern both the events of the larger history as well 
as of the destinies of his church and school at Reims; 



RICHMOND 



50 



RICHMOND 



we receive also welcome information relating to 
various matters regarding the history of culture. 
In poUtics he defended the rights of the Carlovin- 
gians King Henn- I of Germany was to hun only 
the King of Saxonv. In ecclesiastical matters 
Richer held to the \-iews of his master Gerbert. 
Richer is the first writer to give clear expression to 
the conception of a French nationality. „ j, , 

Ebebt. Allgem. Ge^^ch. der Lit. des MitielaUers xm Abendlande 
(Leipzig 1S67); Watten-bach, DeutsMands Geschicht^qufUen im 
MiUelaU'er (Stuttgart, 1901); ^i'^'^^ll^"'^"^ l'^%/]-^- 
Pebtz in Mon. Germ. Hist.: Scnp., Ill: new ed. by Waitz in 
Script, rer. Germ, in usum schol. (Hanover, 1S7,): Reimaxx, De 
Richeri riia ei scriptis (Olsnae, 1S45): Giesebbecht, Jahrb. des 
dexUschen Reiches unter OUo II fBerlui, 1840), excu^us r^": Mi- 
vet. Richeri hist. lib. quatuor in Jour, des Savants ^1866) : -Monod, 
Etudes sw Vhist. de Hugues Capet in Rer. hist., XXV III (1S8.D) ; 
Wi-mcH, Richer uber die Hersage Giselbert ron Loihnngen und 
Heinrich ton Saditen in Porschungen zur deiUschen Gescti., Ill 
(1S63.). „ „ 

Fraxz K.\mpers. 

Richmond, Diocxse of CRichmondexsis), suf- 
fragan of Bahimore, established 11 July, 1820, com- 
prises the State of Virginia, except the Counties of 
Accomac and Northampton (Diocese of Wilmington ' ; 
and Bland, Buchanan, Carroll, Craig (partly i. Dickin- 
son, Flovd, Giles, Grayson, Lee, Montgomery, 
Pulaski, Russell, Scott, Smyth. Tazewell, Washing- 
ton, Wise, and W^-the (Diocese of Wheeling : and in 
the State of West Virginia, the Counties of Berkeley, 
Grant, Hampshire, Hardy, Jefferson, Mineral, Mor- 
gan, and Pendleton. It embraces 31,518 square miles 
in Virginia and 3290 square miles in West Virginia. 
Originallv it included also the territon,- of the present 
Diocese of \Mieeling, created 23 July, 1850. 

Colonial Period. — In the summer of 1526 a Spanish 
Catholic settlement was made in Virginia on the yer\' 
sp>ot (according to Ecija, the pilot-in-chief of Florida) 
where, in 1607, eighty-one years later, the English 
founded the settlement of Jamestown. Lucas Vas- 
quez de Ayllon, one of the judges of the island of San 
Domingo, received from the King of Spain, 12 June, 
1523, a patent empowering him to explore the coast 
for 800 leagues, estabUsh a settlement within three 
years and Christianize the natives. In June, 1-526, 
Ayllon sailed from Puerto de La Plata, San Domingo, 
with three vessels, 600 persons of both sexes, horses, 
and supplies. The Dominicans Antonio de Monte- 
sinos and Antonio de Cer\-antes, with Brother Peter 
de E.strada, accompanied the expedition. Entering 
the Capes at the Chesapeake, and ascending a river 
(the James '. he landed at Guandape, which he named 
St. Michael. Buildings were constructed and the 
Holy Sacrifice offered in a chapel, the second place of 
Catholic worship on American soil. Ayllon died of 
fever, 18 Oct., 1.526. The rebellion of the settlers and 
hostility of the Indians cau.sed Francisco Gomez, the 
next in command, to abandon the settlement in the 
spring of 1-527, when he set sail for San Domingo in 
two vessels, one of which foundered. Of the party 
only 1.50 reached their destination. 

A second expedition sent by Menendez, the Gov- 
ernor of Horida and nominal Governor of N'irginia, 
settlerl on the Rappahannock River at a point called 
Axacan, 10 Sept., 1570. It consisted of Fathers 
Segura, Vice-Pro\nncial of the Jesuit.s, and Luis de 
Quiros, six Jesuit brothers, and a few friendly Indians. 
A log building Her\-ed as chapel and home. Through 
the treaf-her>' of Don Luis de Velasco, an Indian pilot 
of Spanish name. Father Quiros and Brothers Solis 
and Mendez were slain by the Indians, 14 Feb.. 1.571. 
Four days later were mart\Ted Father Segura, Broth- 
ers Linares, Redondo, Gabriel, Gomez, and Sancho 
ZJevalles. Menenrlez, 8*^;veral months later, sailed for 
Axar;an, where he h:ul eiglit of the murderers hanged; 
they V>eing converted before death by Father John 
Rogel, a Jesuit mi.ssionar>'. 

Attempts to founrl Catholic settlements in Virginia 
were made by L/jrd Baltimore in 1629, and Captain 



George Brent in 1687. In the spring of 161 Father 
John Altham, a Jesuit companion of Fath' Andrew 
"^Tiite, the Mar>-land missionary-, laboure amongst 
some of the Virginia tribes on the south bj- of the 
Potomac. Stringent laws were soon enacti in Vir- 
ginia against Catholics. In 1687 Fathers xlmonds 
and Ra}-mond were arrested at Norfolk for zeroising 
their priestly functions. During the last qua or of the 
eighteenth centun,- the few Catholic settlerat Aquia 
Creek, near the Potomac, were attended » Father 
John Carroll and other Jesuit missionaries frn Marj'- 
land. 

American Period. — Rev. Jean Dubois, Terwards 
third Bishop of New York, accompanied v a few 
French priests and with letters of introduaon from 
Lafavette to several piominent Virginia fanaies, came 
to Norfolk in August, 1791, where he laboied a few 




Cathedbal of the Sacred Heabt, Ric^v,:,^ 

months, and probably left the priests whcame with 
him. Proceeding to Richmond towards le end of 
the year, he offered in the House of Deler es, by in- 
vitation of the General Assembly, the fir,-Ala.ss ever 
said in the Capital City. His succe-sso at Rich- 
mond, with interruptions, were the Revs. . C. Mon- 
grand, Xavier Michel, John McElroj', Jm Baxter, 
John Mahoney, James Walsh, ThomasLiore, and 
Fathers Homer and Schreiber. 

Tradition tells us that at an early da. probably 
at the time of the Declaration of Indepenence, Alex- 
andria had a log chapel with an unknon resident 
priest. Rev. John Thayer of Boston (se Boston, 
Archdiocese of) was stationed there in '94. Rev. 
Francis Neale, who in 1796 con-structed a Alexandria 
a brick church, erected fourteen years ' er a more 
suitable church where Fathers Kohlmi.i, Enoch, 
and Benedict Joseph Fenwick, afterwds second 
Bishop of Boston, frequently officiated, bout 1796 
Rev. James Bushe began the erection of church at 
Norfolk. His succcs,sfjrs were the Very P/. Leonard 
Neale, afterwards Archbishop of Baltimo (.«ee BaI/- 
TiMORE, Archdiocese of). Revs. Miiaol Lacy, 
Christopher Delaney, Josejih Stokes, Saiiel Cooper, 
J. Van Horsigh, and A. L. Hitzelberger. 

Bishops of Richmond.— (I) Rig)\t Rev. Rrick Kelly, 
D.D., consecrated first Bishop of Richmcd, 24 Aug., 



RICHMOND 



51 



RICHMOND 



1820, came to reside at Norfolk, where the Catholics 
were much more numerous than at Richmond, 19 
Jan., 1821. The erection of Virginia into a diocese 
had been premature and was accordingly opposed by 
the Archbishop of Baltimore. Because of factions 
and various other difficulties, Bi.shop Kelly soon peti- 
tioned Rome to be relieved of his charge. He left 
Virginia in July, 1822, having been transferred to the 
See of Waterford and Lismoro, where he died, 8 Oct., 
1829. Archbishop Marechal of Baltimore was ap- 
pointed administrator of the diocese. 

Rev. Timothy O'Brien, who came as pastor to 
Richmond in 1832, did more for Catholicism during his 
eighteen years' labour than any other missionary, ex- 
cepting the Bishops of the See. In 1834 he built St. 
Peter's Church, afterwards the cathedral, and founded 
St. Joseph's Female Academy and Orphan Asylum, 
bringing as teachers three Sisters of Charity. 

(2) The Right Rev. Richard Vincent Whelan, D.D., 
consecrated 21 March, 1841, established the same year, 
on the outskirts of Richmond, St. Vincent's Seminary 
and College, discontinued in 1846. Leaving Rev. 
Timothy O'Brien at St. Peter's, Richmond, the Bishop 
took up his residence at the seminarj^, and acted as 
president. In 1842 Bishop Whelan dedicated St. 
Joseph's Church, Petersburg, and St. Patrick's 
Church, Norfolk, and the following year that of St. 
Francis at Lynchburg. In 1846 he built a church at 
Wheeling and, two years later, founded at Norfolk 
St. Vincent's Female Orphan Asylum. Wheeling was 
made a separate see, 23 July, 1850, and to it was trans- 
ferred Bishop Whelan. 

(3) Right Rev. John McGill, D.D., consecrated 10 
Nov., 18.50, was present in Rome in 1854 when the 
Dogma of the Immaculate Concejjtion was proclaimed. 
By pen and voice he oppo.sed Knownothingism. In 
1855 Bishop McGill convened the First Diocesan Synod. 
During the yellow fever plague of the same year, Rev. 
Matthew O'Keefe of Norfolk and Rev. Francis Devlin 
of Portsmouth won renown; the latter dying a martyr 
to priestly duty. In 1856 St. Vincent's Hospital, 
Norfolk, was founded. Alexandria, formerly in the 
Baltimore archdiocese as part of the District of Co- 
lumbia, but ceded back to Virginia, was annexed to 
the Richmond diocese, 15 Aug., 1858. In 1860 the 
bishop transferred St. Mary's German Church, Rich- 
mond, to the Benedictines. During the Civil War 
Bishop McGill wrote two learned works, "The True 
Church Indicated to the Inquirer", and "Our Faith, 
the Victory", republished as "The Creed of Cath- 
olics". The bishop established at Richmond the 
Sisters of the Visitation, and at Alexandria the 
Sisters of the Holy Cross. He also took part in the 
Vatican Council. Bishop McGill died at Richmond, 
14 January, 1872. 

(4) Right Rev. James Gibbons, D.D. (afterwards 
archbishop and cardinal), consecrated titular Bishop of 
Adramyttum to organize North Carolina into a vica- 
riate, 16 Aug., 1808, was appointed Bishop of Rich- 
mond, 30 July, 1872. He established at Richmond 
the Little Sisters of the Poor, and St. Peter's Boys' 
Academy. Erecting new parishes, churches, and 
schools, making constant diocesan visitations, fre- 
quently preaching to large congregations of both 
Catholics and non-Catholics, Bishop Gibbons, during 
his short rule of five years, accomplished in the diocese 
a vast amount of religious good. Made coadjutor 
Bishop of Baltimore, 29 May, 1877, he succeeded 
Archbishop Bayley in that see, 3 Oct., 1877. 

(5) Right Rev. John Joseph Keane, D.D. (after- 
wards archbishop), consecrated, 25 Aug., 1878. 
Gifted with ever-ready and magnetic eloquence, 
Bishop Keane drew great numbers of people to hear 
his inspiring discourses. He held the Second Dio- 
cesan Synod in 1886, and introduced into the diocese 
the Josephites and the Xaverian Brothers. Bishop 
Keane was appointed first Rector of the Catholic 



University, Washington, 12 Aug., 1888, created titular 
Archbishop of Damascus, 9 Jan., 1897, and transferred 
to the See of Dubuque, 24 July, 1900. 

(6) Right Rev. Augustine Van De Vyvcr, D.D., 
consecrated, 20 Oct., 1889, began an able and vigorous 
rule. On 3 June, 1903, he publicly received the Most 
Rev. Diomede Falconio, Apostolic Delegate, who the 
following day laid the cornerstone of the new Sacred 
Heart Cathedral, one of the most artistic edifices in 
the country, designed by Joseph McGuire, architect, 
of New York. A handsome bishop's house and a 
pastoral residence adjoin the cathedral. The latter 
was solemnly consecrated by Mgr. Falconio on 29 
Nov., 1906. The event was the most imposing Cath- 
olic ceremony in the history of the diocese. Besides 
Cardinal Gibbons, and the Apostolic Delegate, there 
were present IS archbishops and bishops. Bishop 
Van De Vyver convened a quasi-synod, 12 Nov., 1907, 
which approved the decrees of the Second Synod and 
enacted new and needed legislation. In 1907 the 
Knights of Columbus held at the Jamestown Exposi- 
tion their national convention and jubilee celebration, 
participated in by the Apostolic Delegate, and several 
archbishops and bishops; while the following year the 
St. Vincent de Paul Society held a similar celebration 
in Richmond. In June, 1909, St. Peter's (Richmond) 
handsome new residence and the adjoining home of 
the McGill Union and the Knights of Columbus were 
completed, at a total cost of about $50,000. In the 
following autumn St. Peter's Church (the old cathe- 
dral) celebrated the diamond jubilee of its existence. 
With it, either as bishops or as priests, are indelibly 
linked the names of Cardinal Gibbons, Archbishops 
Keane and Janssens, and Bishops Van De Vyver, 
Whelan, McGill, Becker, Keiley, and O'Connell of 
San Francisco. Most Rev. John J. Kain, deceased 
Archbishop of St. Louis, had also been a priest of the 
diocese. Bishop Van De Vyver introduced into the 
dioce.se the Fathers of the Holy Ghost; additional 
Benedictine and Josephite Fathers and Xaverian 
Brothers; the Christian Brothers; additional Sisters 
of Charity; the Benedictine and Franciscan Sisters; 
Sisters of Charity of Nazareth, of the Blessed Sacra- 
ment and of the Perpetual Adoration. Under his 
regime have been founded 12 new parishes, 32 
churches, 3 colleges, 4 industrial schools, 2 orphan 
asylums, 1 infant asylum (coloured), and many paro- 
chial schools. 

Notable Benefactors. — Mr. and Mrs. Thomas For- 
tune Ryan, of New York, the former donating, the 
latter furnishing, the imposing Sacred Heart Cathedral 
(nearly $500,000), together with other notable bene- 
factions. Mrs. Ryan has built churches, schools, 
and religious houses in various parts of the state. 
Other generous benefactors were Right Rev. 
Bernard McQuaid, D.D., Joseph Gallego, John P. 
Matthews, William S. Caldwell, Mark Downey, and 
John Pope. 

Statistics.— (1911) : Secular priests, 50; Benedictines, 
10; Josephites, 6; Holy Ghost Fathers, 2; Brothers, 
Xaverian, 35; Christian, 12; Sisters of Charity, 60; of 
St. Benedict, 50; Visitation Nuns, 23; Sisters of Char- 
ity of Nazareth, Kentucky, 20; of the Holy Cross, 20: 
Little Sisters of the Poor, 18; Sisters of the Blessed 
Sacrament, 18; of St. Francis, 12; of Perpetual Adora- 
tion, 10; parishes with resident priests, 35; missions 
with churches, 48; colleges, 3 (1 coloured), academies, 
9; parochial schools, 26; industrial schools, 4 (2 col- 
oured); orphan asylums, 4; infant asylums, 1 (col- 
oured); young people attending Catholic institutions, 
7500; home for aged, 1 (inmates, 200); Cathohc Hos- 
pital, 1 (yearly patients, 3000). 

Catholic Societies. — Priests' Clerical Fund Associa- 
tion; Eucharistic League; Holy Name; St. Vincent de 
Paul; League of Good Shepherd; boys' and girls' 
sodalities; tabernacle, altar, and sanctuary societies; 
women's benevolent and beneficial; fraternal and 



RICHTER 



52 



RIENZI 



social, such as Knights of Columbus, Hibernians, and 
flourishing local societies. Of parishes there are one 
each of Germans, Italians, and Bohemians, and 4 for 
the coloured people. Cathohc population. 41,000. 
The causes of growth are principally natural increase 
and conversions, there being little Catholic immigra- 
tion into the diocese. 

M.\GRi, The Catholic Church in the City and Diocese of Richmond 
(Richmond, Virpinia, 1906); Parke. Catholic Missions in Vir- 
ginia (Richmond. 1S50): Keilet, Memoranda (Norfolk. Virginia, 
1S74); Proceedings of the Catholic Benevolent Union (Norfolk. 
1S75); The Metropolitan Catholic Almanac (Baltimore. 1841-61); 
Caiholif Almanac and Directory (New York. 1S65-95); Catholic 
Directory (Milwaukee, 1S95-9): Official Catholic Directory (Mil- 
waukee. 1900-11); Hughes. The History of the Society of Jesus tn 
Xorth America, Colonial and Federal (London. 1907); Shea. 
The History of the Catholic Church in the United States (Akron. 
Ohio, 1890): foreign references cited by Shea (I, bk. II, i, 106, 
107, 149, 150); Navarette, Real Cedula que coniiene el asiento 
capitulado con Lucas Vdsquez de Ayll6n; Coleccion de Viages y 
Descubrimientos (Madrid, 1S29), ii, 153, 156; Fernandez. His- 
taria Eclesiastica de Xuestros Tiempos (Toledo, 1611); QuiROS, 
Letter of IS Sept., 1570; Rogel. Letter of 9 Dec. 1520; Barcia, 
Ensaj/o CronoUgico, 142-6; Tanner. Societas Militaris, 447-51. 

F. Joseph Magri. 

Richter, Hexry Joseph. See Grand Rapids, 
Diocese of. 

Ricoldo da Monte di Croce (Pennini), b. at 
Florence about 1243; d. there 31 October, 1320. 
After studying in various great European schools, he 
became a Dominican, 12G7; was a professor in several 
convents of Tuscany (1272-88), made a pilgrimage to 
the Holy Land (1288), and then travelled for many 
j-ears as a missionary in western Asia, having his chief 
headquarters at Bagdad. He returned to Florence 
before 1302, and was chosen to high offices in his 
order. His " Itinerarium " (written about 1288-91; 
publi-shed in the original Latin at Leipzig, 1864; in 
Italian at Florence, 1793; in French at Paris, 1877) 
was intended as a guide-book for missionaries, and is 
an interesting description of the Oriental countries 
visited by him. The "Epistolaj de Perditione Ac- 
conis" are five letters in the form of lamentations 
over the fall of Ptolemais (written about 1292, pub- 
lished at Paris, 1884). Ricoldo's best known work is 
the "Contra Legem Sarracenorum", written at Bag- 
daxi, which has been ver>' popular as a polemical 
source against Mohammedanism, and has been often 
edited rfirst publishr-d at Seville, 1.500). The "Chris- 
tiana; Fidei Confessio facta Sarracenis" (printed at 
Ba.slc, 1.543) is attributed to Ricoldo, and was prob- 
ably wTitten about the same time as the above men- 
tioned works. Other works are: "Contra errores 
Judaeorum" (MS. at Florence); "Libellus contra 
nations orientales" (MSS. at Florence and Paris); 
"Contra Sarracenos et Alcoranum" (MS. at Paris); 
"De variLs religionibus" (MS. at Turin). Very prob- 
ably the la«t three works were written after his return 
to Europe. Ricoldo is also known to have written 
two thffjlogical works — a defence of the doctrines of 
St. Thomas (in collaboration with John of Pistoia, 
about 12H.5J and a commentary on the "Libri sen- 
tentiarum" (before 1288.) Ricoldo began a transla- 
tion of the Koran about 1290, but it is not known 
whether this work was complete<l. 

.Mam/ovnet in Rerue fiiblu,ue (189.3), 44-fil, 182-202, .584- 
607; i:rHAKD-<^*Tir. .Scrip*. Cjrd. Prmd., I. .506; Todron. Hint. 
tUi Hommtt i«u». de I'ordrt de St. Dom., I, 769-63; Murrat, 
IHacotervet and Travel* in Alia, I. 197. 

J. A. McHuoH. 

Rlel, Ixitis. See Saskatchewan and Alberta. 

Riemenschneider, Tii-lma.nn, one of the most 
irnjxjrtant of Irankish sculptors, b. at Osterode am 
Harz in or afUr 1400; d. at WUrzburg, 1.531. In 
1483 he wa« aflmittr;d into the Guild of St. Luke at 
Wijrzburg, where he worked until his death. In the 
tombhtone of the liitter von Grumbach he still ad- 
heres to the Gothic style, but in his works for the 
Marienkam-llf; at Wlirzburg he adopts the Renais- 
Bancc style, while retaining rerniniscences of earlier 



art. For the south entrance he carved, besides an 
annunciation and a representation of Christ as a 
gardener, the afterwards renowned statues of Adam 
and Eve, the heads of which are of special importance. 
There also he showed his gift of depicting character 
in the more than life-size statues of Christ, the Bap- 
tist, and the Twelve Apostles for the buttresses. 
Elsewhere indeed we seek in vain for the merits of 
rounded sculpture. He had a special talent for the 
noble representation of female saints (cf . for example, 
Sts. Dorothea and Margareta in the same chapel, 
and the Madonna in the Miinsterkirche). A small 
Madonna (now in the nuniicipal museum at Frank- 
fort) is perfect both in expression and drapery. Be- 
sides other works for the above-mentioned churches 
and a relief with the "\'ierzehn Nothelfer" for the 
hospital (St. Burkhard), he carved for the cathedral 
of Wiirzburg a tabernacle reaching to the ceiling, 
two episcopal tombs, and a colossal cross — all rec- 
ognized as excellent worlcs by those familiar with the 
peculiar style of the master. Riemenschneider's 
masterpiece is the tomb of Emperor Henry II in the 
Cathedral of Bamberg; the recumbent forms of the 
emperor and his spouse are ideal, while the sides of 
the tomb are adorned with fine scenes from their 
lives. The figures instinct with life, the drapery, 
and the expression of sentiment, are all of equal 
beauty. Among his representations of the "Lament 
over Christ", those of Heidingsfeld and Maidbrunn, 
in spite of some defects, are notable works; resem- 
bling the former, but still more pleasing, is a third 
in the university collection. The defects in many of 
his works are probably to be referred for the most 
part to his numerous apprentices. There are a great 
number of other works by him in various places, e. g 
a beautiful group of the Crucifixion in the Darm- 
stadt Museum, another at Volkach am Main rep- 
resenting Our Lady surrounded by a rosary with 
scenes from her life in relief and being crowned by 
angels playing music — the picture is suspended from 
the roof. 

There is a second Meistcr Tillmann Riemenschnei- 
der, who car\ed the Virgin's altar in Creglingen. 
This bears so clo.se a resemblance to the works of the 
younger "Master Dill", that recently many be- 
lieved it should be referred to him; in that case, 
however, he would have executed one of his best 



works as a very young 

Bode. Gesch. der dexdsche, 



man. 
len Plastik (Berlin. 1885); Weber, 
Lehen u. Wirken T. Riemenschneitiers (2nd ed.. WUrzburg, 1888) 
Tonnies, Leben u. Werke T. Riemenschneider a (Strasburg. 1900) 
Adelmann in Walhalla, VI (1910). 

G. Gietmann. 



Rienzi, Cola di (i. e., Nicola, son of Lorenzo), a 
popular tribune and extraordinary historical figure. 
His father was an innkeeper at Home in the vicinity 
of the Trastevere; though it was belicived that he was 
really the son of the l"]mperor Ih^iny VII. His child- 
hood and youth were pa,ssed at Anagni, with some 
relatives to whom he was sent on the death of his 
mother. Though he w:is thus brought up in the coun- 
try he succeeded in a(;quiring a knowledge of letters 
and of Latin, and devoted him.self to a study of the 
history of ancient Rome in the Latin authors, Livy, 
Valerius Maximus, Cicero, Sen(!ca, Boethius, and the 
poets. When his father di(;d he returned to Rome 
and practised as a notary. The sight of the remains 
of the former greatness of Rome only increased his 
admiration for the city and the men described in his 
favourite authors. (Contemplating the condition in 
which Rome then was in the absence of the popes, 
torn by the factions of the nobles who plundered on 
all sides and shed innocent blood, he conceived a de- 
sire of restoring the justice and splendour of former 
days. His plans became more definite and settled 
when his brother was slain in a brawl between the Or- 
sini and the Colonna. Thenceforth he thought only 



RIENZI 



53 



RIENZI 



of the means of breaking the power of the barons. 
To accompUsh this he liad first to win the favour of 
the populace by upholding the cause of the oppressed. 
In consequence of this and on account of the elo- 
quence with which he sjioke in Latin, he was sent to 
Avignon in 1343 to Clement VI, by the captain of the 
people, to ask him to return to Rome and grant the 
great jubilee every five years. Cola explained to the 
pope the miserable condition of Rome. Clement was 
much impressed, and appointed him to the office of 
notary (secretary) of the Camera Capitolina, in which 
position he could gain a better knowledge of the mis- 
fortunes of the city. Cola then by his public dis- 
courses and private conversations prepared the peo- 
ple; a conspiracy was fr)rmod, and on 19 May, 1347, 



I 




Statue of Cola 
G. Masini, Gradinata del Campidoglio 

he summoned the populace to assemble the follow- 
ing day in the Campidoglio. There Cola explained 
his plans and read a new democratic constitution 
which, among other things, ordained the establish- 
ment of a civic militia. The people conferred abso- 
lute power on him; but Cola at first contented him- 
self with the title of tribune of the people; later, how- 
ever, he assumed the bombastic titles of Candidatus 
Spiritus Sancli, Imperalor Orbis, Zelator Italia-, Atna- 
tor Orbis el Tribunus Auguslus (candidate of the Holy 
Spirit, emperor of the world, lover of Ital}', of the 
world, august tribune). He was wise enough to select 
a colleague, the pojic's vicar, Raimondo, Bishop of 
Orvieto. The success of the new regime was wonder- 
ful. The most powerful barons had to leave the city; 
the others swore fealty to the popular government. 
An era of peace and justice seemed to have come. 
The pope, on learning what had happened, regretted 
that he had not been consulted, but gave Cola the 
title and office of Rector, to be exercised in conjunc- 
tion with the Bishop of Or\'ieto. His name was heard 
everywhere, princes had recourse to him in their dis- 
putes, the sultan fortified his ports. 

Cola then thought of re-establishing the liberty and 
independence of Italy and of Rome, by restoring the 



Roman Empire with an Italian emperor. In August, 
1347, two hundred deputies of the Italian cities as- 
sembled at his request. Italy was declared free, and 
all those who had arrogated a lordship to themselves 
were declared fallen from power; the right of the peo- 
ple to elect the emperor was asserted. Louis the 
Bavarian and Charles of Bohemia were called upon to 
justify' their usurpation of the imperial title. Cola 
flattered himself secretly with the hope of becoming 
emperor; but his high opinion of himself proved his 
ruin. He was a dreamer rather than a man of action; 
he lacked many qualities for the exerci.se of good gov- 
ernment, especially foresight and the elements of po- 
litical prudence. He had formed a most puerile con- 
cept of the empire. He surrounded himself with 
Asiatic luxury, to pay for which he had to impose new 
taxes; thereupon the enthusiasm of the people, weary 
of serving a theatrical emperor, vanished. The barons 
perceived this, and forgetting for the moment their 
mutual discord, joined together against their common 
enemy. In vain the bell summoned the people to 
arms in the Campidoglio. No one stirred. Cola had 
driven out the barons, but he had not thought of re- 
ducing tliom to inaction; on the contrary he had ren- 
dered them more hostile by his many foolish and hu- 
miliating acts. Lacking all military knowledge he 
could ofifer no serious resistance to their attacks. The 
discontent of the people increased; the Bishop of 
Orvieto, the other Rector of Rome, who had already 
protested against what had occurred at the conven- 
tion of the Italian deputies, abandoned the city; the 
poi)e repudiated Cola in a I3ull. Thus deserted, and 
not believing himself safe, he took refuge in the Castle 
of 8. Angelo, and three days later (18 Dec, 1347) the 
barons returned in triumph to restore things to their 
former condition. 

Cola fortunately succeeded in escaping. He sought 
refuge with the Spiritual Franciscans living in the 
hermitages of Monte Maiella. But the plague of 1348, 
the i)re.sence of bands of adventurers and the jubilee 
(jf i:>.")0 had increased the mysticism of the people 
and still mcjre of the Spirituals. One of the latter, 
l'"ra Angelo, told Rienzi that it was now the proper 
moment to think of the common weal, to co-operate 
in the restoration of the empire and in the puri- 
fication of the Church: all of which had been pre- 
dicted by Joachim of Flora, the celebrated Calabrian 
abbot, and that he ought to give his assistance. Cola 
betook himself thence to Charles IV at Prague (1350), 
who imprisoned him, either as a madman or as a 
heretic. After two years Cola was sent at the request 
of the pope to Avignon, where through the interces- 
sion of Petrarch, his admirer, though now disillu- 
sioned, he was treated better. When Innocent VI 
sent Cardinal Albornoz into Italy (at the beginning of 
1353) he allowed Cola di Rienzi to accompany him. 
The Romans, who had fallen back into their "former 
state of anarchy, invited him to return, and Albornoz 
consented to appoint him senator (sindaco) of Rome. 
On 1 Aug., 1354, Rienzi entered Rome in triumph. But 
the new government did not last long. His luxury and 
revelry, followed by the inevitable taxation, above all 
the unjust killing of several persons (among whom waa 
Fra Moriale, a brigand, in the service of Cola), pro- 
voked the people to fury. On 8 Oct., 1354, the cry 
of "Death to Rienzi the traitor!" rose in the city. 
Cola attempted to flee, but was recognized and slain, 
and his corpse dragged through the streets of the 
city. Cola represented, one might say, the death 
agony of the Guelph (papal-national-democratic) idea 
and the rise of the classical (imperial and ajsthetic) 
idea of the Renaissance. 

Vita Kicolai Laurenlii in Muratori, Antiquitates; Vita Nicolai 
Laurentii, ed. del Re (Florence, 1854) ; Gabrielli, Epistolario di 
Cola Rienzo (Rome, 1890) ; Papencordt, Cola di Rienzo und seine 
Zeit (Hamburg, 1841); Rodocanachi, Cola di Rienzo (Paris, 
1888). 

U. Benigni. 



RIETI 



54 



RIFFEL 



Rieti, Diocese of (Reatina), Central Italy, im- 
mediately subject to the Holy See. The city is situ- 
ated in the valley of the River Velino, which, on 
account of the calcareous deposits that accumulate 
in it, grows shallower and imperils the city, so that 
even in ancient days it was necessary to construct. 
canals and outlets, "like that of Marius Curius Den- 
tat us (272 B. c.) which, repaired and enlarged by 
Clement VIII, has produced the magnificent waterfall 
of the Velino, near Terni. The city, which was 
founded by the Pelasgians, was the chief town of the 
Sabines, and became later a Roman municipium and 
prefecture. After the Longobard invasion it was the 
seat of a "gastaldo", dependent on the Duchy of 
Spoleto. It was presented to the Holy See by Otto I 
in 962; in 1143, after a long siege, it was destroyed by 
King Roger of Naples. It was besieged again in 1210 
by Otto of Brunswick when forcing liis way into the 
Kingdom of Naples. In the thirteenth century the 
popes took refuge there on several occasions, and in 
r2SS it witnessed the coronation of Charles II of 
Naples; later an Apostolic delegate resided at Rieti. 
In 1S60, by the disloyalty of a delegate, it was occu- 
pied by the Italian troops without resistance. Rieti 
was the birthplace of Blessed Colomba (1501) ; in the 
sixth century it contained an Abbey of St. Stephen; 
the body of St. Baldovino, Cistercian, founder of the 
monasterj' of Sts. Matthew and Pastor (twelfth cen- 
turj') is venerated in the cathedral. Near Rieti is 
Greccio, where St. Francis set up the first Christmas 
crib. The cathedral is in Lombard style, with a crypt 
dating from the fourth or fifth century. It should be 
remarked that in medieval documents there is fre- 
quent confusion between Reatinus (Rieti), Aretinus 
(Arezzo), and Teaiinus (Chieti). The first known 
Bi.shop of Rieti is Ursus (499); St. Gregory mentions 
Probus and Albinus (sixth century). The names of 
many bishops in the Longobard period are known. 
Later we meet with Dodonus (1137), who repaired the 
damage done by King Roger; Benedict, who in 1184 
officiated at the marriage of Queen Constance of 
Naples and Henr>' VI; Rainaldo, a Franciscan (1249), 
restorer of discipline, which work was continued by 
Tommaso (12.52); Pietro Guerra (1278), who had 
Andrea PLsano erect the episcopal palace with materi- 
als taken from the ancient amphitheatre of Vespasian; 
Lodovico Teodonari (1380), murdered while engaged 
in Divine service, on account of his severity, which 
deed was cruelly punished by Boniface IX; Angelo 
Capranica 04.50), later a cardinal; Cardinal Pompeo 
Colonna (1.508), who for rebellion against Julius II 
and Clement VII was twice deprived of his cardinal- 
it ial dignity; Scipione Colonna (1.520), his nephew, 
took part in the revolt against Clement VII in 1.528, 
and was kille<l in an encounter with Amico of Asooli, 
Abbot of F^arfa; Marianus Victorius (1572, for a few 
days), a distinguished writer and patrologi-st; Giorgio 
Bolognetti nG.'i9), restored the episcopal palace and 
was distinguijihed for his charity; Gabrielle Ferretti 
(1827), later a cardinal, a man of great charity. At 

Ercjsent the diocese contains 60 parishes, 142,100 in- 
abitants, 2.50 secular priests, 7 religious hou-ses with 
63 prif^tH, 15 houses of nuns; 2 educational establish- 
ments for boys, and 4 for girls. 

CArrELLrm, 1^ r,hu'e d' Italia, V; de Sanctib, Notizie ntoriche 
di Rxeti (Hieti, 1887); Maboni, Comnuntarii de EccUtia Reatina 

U. Benioni. 

Riayaulx (Rievali;), Abbey of.— Thurston, Arch- 
bishop of ^ork, was v<-r>' anxious to have a monastery 
of the newly founds] and f«;rvent order of Cistercians 
in his diwr«e; and so, at his invitation, St. Bernard 
of Clairvaux sent a cohmy of his rnonks, under the 
leadership of Alibot Willi'am, to make the flesired 
foundation. AfU^r some delay Walter Espec became 
their founder and chief benefactor, presfinting them 
with a suitable estate, situated in a wild and lonely 



spot, in the valley of the rivulet Rie (from whence 
the abbey derived its name), and surrounded by pre- 
cipitous hills, in Blakemore, near Helmesley. The 
community took possession of the ground in 1131, and 
began the foundation, the first of their order in York- 
shire. The church and abbey, as is the case with all 
monasteries of the order, were dedicated to the 
Blessed Virgin Mary. At first their land being crude 
and uncultivated, they suffered much until, after a 
number of years, their first benefactor again came to 
their assistance and, later on, joined their community. 
Their land, also, through their incessant labours, even- 
tually became productive, so that, with more ade- 
quate means of subsistence, they were able to devote 
their energies to the completion of church and 
monastic buildings, though these were finished only 
after a great lapse of time, on account of their isola- 
tion and the fact that the monastery was never 
wealthy. The constructions were carried on section 
by section, permanent edifices succeeding those that 
were temporary after long intervals. The final build- 
ings, however, as attested by the magnificent, though 
melancholy, ruins yet remaining, were completed on a 
grand scale. 

Within a very few years after its foundation the 
community numbered three hundred members, and 
was by far the most celebrated monastery in England ; 
many others sprang from it, the most important of 
them being Melrose, the first Cistercian monastery 
built in Scotland. Rievaulx early became a brilliant 
centre of learning and holiness; chief amongst its 
lights shone St. Aelred, its third abbot (1147-67), 
who from his sweetness of character and depth of 
learning was called Bernardo prope par. He had been, 
before his entrance into the cloister, a most dear 
friend and companion of St. David, King of Scotland. 
History gives us but scant details of the later life at 
Rievaulx. At the time of its suppression and con- 
fiscation by Henry VIII the abbot, Rowland Blyton, 
with twenty-three religious composed its community. 
The estates of this ancient abbey are now in the 
possession of the Duncombe family. 

Manrique, Annales Cistercienses (Lyons, 1642); MartJinb 
AND Ddrand, Thesaurus novus anecdotorum, IV (Paris, 1717); 
Henriquez, Pha:nix reviviscens (Brussels, 1626); Duodalb, 
Monaslicon Anglicanum, V (London, 1817-30); Carlularium ab- 
batiw de Ricvalle in Siirtees' Soc. Publ. (London, 1889); St. Aelred, 
Abbot of Rievaux (London, 1845); Oxford, Ruins of Fountains 
Abbey (London, 1910); Hodges, Fountains Abbey (New York, 
1904). 

Edmond M. Obrecht. 

Riffel, Caspar, historian, b. at Biidesheim, 
Bingen, Germany, 19 Jan., 1807; d. at Mainz, 15 
Dec, 1856. He studied under Klee at Mainz and 
Bonn and under Mohler at Tubingen. After his 
ordination to the priesthood, 18 Dec, 1830, he was 
named assistant priest at Bingen. In 1835 he was 
appointed to a parish at Giessen, and to the chair of 
moral theology in the local theological faculty. His 
transfer to the profes.sorship in Church history fol- 
lowed in 1837. The publication of the first volume 
of his Church history in 1841 aroused a storm of 
indignation among Protestants, to whom his accurate 
though not flattering account of the Reformation was 
distasteful. The Hessian Government hastened to 
pension the fearless teacher (19 Nov., 1842). This 
measure caused intense indignation among the dio- 
cesan Catholic clergy, who denounced the Protestant 
atmosphere of the university. Riffel retired to 
Mainz, where Bishop von Ketteler appointed him 
in 1851 professor of Church history in his newly 
organized ecclesiastical seminary. Death put a 
j)rematurc end to the teaching of this Catholic 
educator, who contributed largely to the restoration 
of a truly ecclesiastical spirit among the German 
clergy. He wrote: "Geschichtliche Darstellune des 
Verhaltnisses zwischen Kirche und Staat", ^lainz, 
1836; "Predigten auf alle Sonn- und Festtage des 



RIGBY 



55 



RIGHT 



Jahres", Mainz, 1839-40, 3rd ed., 1854; "Christ- 
liche Kirchengeschichte der neuesten Zeit", Mainz, 
1841-46; "Die Aufhebung des Jesuitenordens", 
3rd ed., Mainz, 1855. 

GoYAU, L'Allemagne religieuse: le Catholicisme, II (Paris, 1905), 
313. 

N. A. Weber. 

Rigby, John, Venerable, English martyr; b. 
about 1570 at Harrocks Hall, Eccleston, Lancashire; 
executed at St. Thomas Waterings, 21 June, 1600. 
He was the fifth or sixth son of Nicholas Rigby, by 
Mary, daughter of Oliver Breres of Preston. In the 
service of Sir Edmund Huddleston, at a time when his 
daughter, Mrs. Fortescue, being then ill, was cited 
to the Old Bailey for recusancy, Rigby appeared on 
her behalf; compelled to confess himself a Catholic, 
he was sent to Newgate. The next day, 14 February, 
1599 or 1600, he signed a confession, that, since he 
had been reconciled by the martyr, John Jones the 
Franciscan, in the Clink some two or three years 
previously, he had declined to go to church. He was 
then chained and remitted to Newgate, till, on 19 
February, he was transferred to the White Lion. On 
the first Wednesday in March (which was the 4th 
and not, as the martyr himself supposes, the 3rd) he 
was brought to the bar, and in the afternoon given a 
private opportunity to conform. The next day he 
was sentenced for having been reconciled; but was 
reprieved till the next sessions. On 19 June he was 
again brought to the bar, and as he again refused to 
conform, he was told that his sentence must be car- 
ried out. On his way to execution the hurdle was 
stopped by a Captain Whitlock, who wished him to 
conform and asked him if he were married, to which 
the martyr replied, "1 am a bachelor; and more than 
that I am a maid", and the captain thereupon de- 
sired his prayers. The priest, who reconciled him, 
had suffered on the same spot 12 July, 1598. 

Challoner, Missionary Priests, II (London, 1878), n. 117; 
Gii.i,ow, BiW. Dirt.Eno.Calh., V, 420; Chatham Socieli/s Pub- 
lications. LXXXI (1870), 74. 

John B. Wainewright. 

Rigby, Nicholas, b. 1800 at Walton near Preston, 
Lancashire; d. at Ugthorpe, 7 September, 1SS6. 
At twelve years he went to I'shaw College, where he 
was for a time professor of elocution. Ordained 
priest in September, 1826, he was sent to St. Mary's, 
Wycliffe, for six months, and was then given the united 
missions of Egton Bridge and Ugthorpe. After seven 
years the two missions were again separated, and 
he took up his residence at Ugthorpe. There he 
built a church (opened in 1855), started a new ceme- 
tery, and founded a middle-class college. About 
1884 he resigned the mission work to his curate, the 
Rev. E. J. Hickey. His obituary notice, in the 
"Catholic Times" of 17 September, 1886, gives a 
sketch of his life. He wrote: "The Real Doctrine 
of the Church on Scripture", to which is added an 
account of the conversion of the Duke of Brunswick 
(Anton Ulrich, 1710), and of "Father Ignatius" 
Spencer (1830), (York, 1834), dedicated to the Rev. 
Benedict Rayment. Other works, chiefly treatises 
on primary truths, or sermons of a controversial 
character, are described in Gillow, "Bibl. Diet. 
Eng. Cath." 

Patrick Ryan. 

Right, as a substantive (my right, his right), desig- 
nates the object of justice. When a person declares 
he has a right to a thing, he means he has .a kind of 
dominion over such thing, which others are obliged to 
recognize. Right may therefore be defined as a moral 
or legal authority to possess, claim, and use a thing 
as one's own. It is thus essentially distinct from 
obligation; in virtue of an obligation we should, in 
virtue of a right, we may do or omit something. Again, 



right is a moral or legal authoritj', and, as such, is 
distinct from merely physical superiority or pre-emi- 
nence; the thief who steals something without being 
detected enjoys the physical control of the object, 
but no right to it; on the contrary, his act is an in- 
justice, a violation of right, and he is bound to return 
the stolen object to its owner. Right is called a moral 
or legal authority, because it emanates from a law 
which assigns to one the dominion over the thing and 
imposes on others the obligation to respect this 
dominion. To the right of one person corresponds an 
obligation on the part of others, so that right and 
obligation condition each other. If I have the right 
to demand one hundred dollars from a person, he is 
under the obligation to give them to me; without this 
obligation, right would be illusory. One may even 
say that the right of one person consists in the fact 
that, on his account, others are bound to perform or 
omit something. 

The clause, "to possess, claim, and use, anything 
as one's own", defines more closely the object of right. 
Justice assigns to each person his own {suum cuique). 
When anyone asserts that a thing is his own, is his 
private property, or belongs to him, he means that 
this object stands in a spcrial n^lation to him, that it 
is in the first place destined for his use, and that he 
can dispose of it according to his will, regardless of 
others. By a thing is here meant not merely a material 
object, but everj'thing that can be useful to man, 
including actions, omissions, etc. The connexion of a 
certain thing with a certain person, in virtue of which 
the person may declare the thing his own, can orig- 
inate only on the basis of concrete facts. It is an 
evident demand of human reason in general that one 
may give or leave one's own to anyone; but what 
constitutes one's own is determined by facts. Many 
things are physically connected with the human per- 
son by conception or birth — his hmbs, bodily and 
mental qualities, health, etc. From the order imposed 
by the Creator of Nature, we recognize that, from the 
first moment of his being, his faculties and members 
are granted a person primarily for his own use, and 
so that they may enable him to supjiort himself and 
develop and fulfil the tasks appointed by the Creator 
for this life. These things (i. e.,his qualities, etc.) are 
his own from the first moment of his existence, and 
whoever injures them or deprives him of them vio- 
lates his right. However, many other things are con- 
nected with the human person, not physically, but 
only morally. In other words, in virtue of a certain 
fact, everyone recognizes that certain things are 
specially destined for the use of one person, and must 
be recognized as such by all. Persons who build a 
house for themselves, make an implement, catch game 
in the unreserved forest, or fish in the open sea, be- 
come the owners of these things in virtue of occupation 
of their labour; they can claim these things as their 
own, and no one can forcibly appropriate or injure 
these things without a violation of their rights. Who- 
ever ha.s lawfully purchased a thing, or been presented 
with it by another, may regard such thing as his own, 
since by the purchase or presentation he succeeds to 
the place of the other person and possesses his rights. 
As a right gives rise to a certain connexion between 
person and person with respect to a thing, we may 
distingui-sh in right four elements: the holder, the 
object, the title, and the terminus of the right. The 
holder of the right is the person who possesses the 
right, the terminus is the person who has the obliga- 
tion corresponding to the right, the object is the thing 
to which the right refers, and the title is the fact on 
the ground of which a person may regard and claim 
the thing as his own. Strictly speaking, this fact alone 
is not the title of the right, which originates, indeed, 
in the fact, but taken in connexion with the principle 
that one must assign to each his own property; how- 
ever, since this principle may be presupposed as self- 



RIGHT 



56 



RIGHT 



evident, it is customary to regard the simple fact as 
the title of the right. 

The right of which we have hitherto been speaking 
is individual right, to which th':> obligation of com- 
mutative justice corresponds. Commutative justice 
regulates the relations of the members of human 
society to one another, and aims at securing that each 
member renders to his fellow-members what is equally 
theirs. In addition to this commutative justice, there 
is also a legal and distributive justice; these virtues 
regulate the relations between the complete societies 
(State and Church) and their members. From the pro- 
I>ensities and needs of human nature we recognize 
the State as resting on a Divine ordinance; only in the 
State can man support himself and develop according 
to his nature. But, if the Divine Creator of Nature 
has willed the existence of the State, He must also 
will the means necessarj' for its maintenance and the 
attainment of its objects. This will can be found only 
in the right of the State to demand from its members 
what is necessar>' for the general good. It must be 
authorized to make laws, to punish violations of such, 
and in general to arrange everything for the public 
welfare, while, on their side, the members must be 
under the obligation corresponding to this right. The 
\-irtue which makes all members of society contribute 
what is necessar>' for its maintenance is called legal 
justice, because the law has to determine in individual 
cases what burdens are to be borne by the members. 
According to Catholic teaching, the Church is, like 
the State, a complete and indeiJcndent society, where- 
fore it also must be justified in demanding from its 
members whatever is necessary' for its welfare and the 
attainment of its object. But the members of the 
State have not only obligations towards the general 
body; they have likewnse rights. The State is bound 
to distribute public burdens (e. g. taxation) according 
to the powers and capability of the members, and is 
also under the obligation of distributing public goods 
(offices and honours) according to the degree of 
worthiness and services. To these duties of the gen- 
eral body or its leaders corresponds a right of the 
members; they can demand that the leaders observe 
the claims of distributive justice, and failure to do 
this on the part of the authorities is a violation of the 
right of the members. 

On the basis of the above notions of right, its object 
can be more exactly determined. Three species of 
right and justice have been distinguished. The object 
of the right, corresponding to even-handed justice, 
has as its object the .securing for the members of 
human society in their intercourse with one another 
freefiom and independence in the use of their own 
po8.sf!s.sioas. For the object of right can only be the 
gwxi for the attainment of which we recognize right 
SA neces.sar>', anti which it effects of its very nature, 
and this gcxxl is the freedom and independence of 
even,' member of society in the use of his own. If 
man is to fulfil fn^-ly the tasks imposed upon him by 
G'kI, he must pf)ss<'Ks the means nece,ssary for this 
purpow!, and be at liberty U) utilize such indepen- 
dently of others. He must have a sphere of free a(;tiv- 
ity, in which he is secure from the interference of 
others; this object is attained by tlie right which 
protects each in the free use of his f)wn from the en- 
croaehments of others. Hence the proverbs: "A 
willing p<Twm suffors no injustice" and "Xo one is 
c/)rnp<-ll<'d U> rnakf use of his rights". For the object 
of the right whifh rorrfsponds to commutative justice 
is the liberty of tlic iKmsessor of the right in the use of 
his own, and this right is not attained if «'ach is bound 
always to mak<- uh*- nf and insist ui)on his rights. The 
objffl of th»' right which ••orn-sponds to legal justice 
is the gfxxi of thf community; (if this right we may 
not say that "no one is bound to make use of his 
right", Bince the c<^>mmunity — fjr, mon* correctly, its 
l^tdefH — muHt make u»e of public rights, whenever 



and wherever the good of the community requires it. 
Finally, the right corresponding to the object of 
distributive justice is the defence of the members 
against the community or its leaders; they must not 
be laden with public burdens beyond their powers, 
and must receive as much of the public goods as be- 
comes the condition of their meritoriousness and 
services. Although, in accordance with the above, 
each of the three kinds of rights has its own immediate 
object, all three tend in common towards one remote 
object, which, according to St. Thomas (Cont. Gent., 
Ill, xxxiv), is nothing else than to secure that peace 
be maintained among men by procuring for each the 
peaceful possession of his own. 

Right (or more precisely speaking, the obligation 
corresponding to right) is enforceable at least in 
general — that is, whoev(>r has a right with respect to 
some other person is authorized to employ jihysical 
force to secure the fulfilment of this obligation, if the 
other person will not voluntarily fulfil it. This en- 
forceable character of the obligation arises necessarily 
from the object of right. As already said, this object 
is to secure for every member of society a sphere of 
free activity and for society the means necessary for 
its development, and the attainment of this object is 
evidently indispensable for social life; but it would 
not be sufl^ciently attained if it were left to each one's 
discretion whether he should fulfil his obligations or 
not. In a large community there are always many who 
would allow themselves to be guided, not by right or 
justice, but by their own selfish inclinations, and would 
disregard the rights of their fellowmen, if thej' were 
not forcibly confined to their proper sphere of right; 
consequently, the obligation corresponding to a right 
must be enforceable in favour of the poss(>ssor of the 
right. But in a regulated community the power of 
compulsion must be vested in the public authority, 
since, if each might emplo}' force against his fellowmen 
whenever his right was infringed, there would soon 
arise a general conflict of all against all, and order 
and safety would be entirely subverted. Only in 
cases of necessity, where an unjust attack on one's life 
or property has to be warded off and recourse to the 
authorities is impossible, has the individual the right 
of meeting violence with violence. 

While right or the obligation corresponding to it is 
enforceable, we must beware of referring the essence 
of right to this enforcibility or even to the authority 
to enforce it, as is done by many jurists sinc(> the time 
of Kant. For enforcibility is only a secondary char- 
acteristic of right and does not pertain to all rights; 
although, for example, under a real monarchy the 
subjects possess soidc rights with respect to the ruler, 
they can usually exercise no eoiiipulsion towards him, 
since he is irrespotisi})le, and is subject to no higher 
authority which can employ forcible meiusures against 
him. Rights are divided, according to the title on 
which they rest, into natural and positive rights, and 
the latter are subdivided into Divine and human 
rights. By natural rights are meant all those which 
we acquire by our very birth, e. g. the right to live, 
to integrity of limbs, to freedom, to acquire property, 
etc.; ail other rights are called acquired rights, al- 
though many of them are acquired, independently of 
any positive law, in virtue of free acts, e. g. the right 
of the husliand and wife in virtue of the marriage con- 
tract, the right to ownerless goods through occupa- 
tion, the right to a hou.se through purchiise or hire, 
etc. C)n the other hand, other rights may be given by 
positive law; according :ih the law is Divine or human, 
and the latter civil or ecclesiasti(;al, we distinguish 
between Divine or human, civil or ecclesiastical rights. 
To civil rights heUing citizenship in a state, active or 
jiiissive franchise, etc. 

Sumnut tht!ol.,ll-U.(.iCi.\vui><\(}.; Oominiccb SoTO; Molina; 
Lehhicr, Dr juxtitin it jitrr: Tapabklli d'Azeolio, Sapiiio 
te.nrrliro ili dirrtln nad/ra/c (Palermo, 1840-.3); Pruneb, Dix Le.hre 
vomRecht (Ratiabon, 1857); Vebmeersch, Quccationes de juatitia 



RIGHT 



57 



RIMINI 



(2nd ed., Bruges, 1904) ; Crolly, Dejustitia etjure (Dublin, 1870) ; 
^IEYER, Die Grundadtze der Sittlichkeit u. des Rechtes (Freiburg, 
1868); Idem, Institutiones juris naturalis, I (2nd ed.), nn. 430 
sqq.; FiJHRicH, Rechtssubjekt u, Kirchenrecht, I (Leipzig, 1908); 
Cathrein, Recht, Naturrecht u. positiven Rechl (2nd ed., Frei- 
burg, 1909); Idem, Moral philosophie, I (5th ed., Freiburg), 502 
sqq.; Thering, Der Zweck in Recht (4th ed., Vienna); St.\mm- 
LER, Die Lehre vom richtigen Recht (Vienna, 1902) ; Bekker, Grund- 
hegriffe des Rechts (Berlin, 1910). 

V. Cathrein. 

Right of Asylum. See Privileges, Ecclesias- 
tical. 

Right of Presentation. See Presentation, 
Right of. 

Rimbert, Saint, Archbishop of Bremen-Hamburg, 
d. at Bremen 11 June, 888. It is uncertain whether 
he was a Fleming or a Norman. He was educated at 
the monastery of Turholt near Brugge in Flanders. 
There St. Ansgar, first Archbishop of Hamburg, be- 
came acquainted with him, and later made him his 
constant companion. When Ansgar died on 2 Feb- 
ruary, 865, Rimbert was chosen his successor. Pope 
Nicholas I sent him the pallium in December, 86.5. 
As Ansgar's missionary system was based on a con- 
nexion with the Benedictine Order, Rimbert became, 
shortly after his consecration, a monk at Corvey, and 
subsequently made missionary journeys to West 
Friesland, Denmark, and Sweden, but concerning 
these unfortunately we have no detailed information. 
In 884 h(^ succeeded in putting to flight the Norman 
marauders on the coast of Friesland; in remembrance 
of this incident he was later held in special veneration 
in P'riesland. Among his episcopal achievements the 
foundation of a monastery in Biicken near Bremen 
and his care for the poor and sick are especially em- 
phasized. Historians are indebted to him for a 
biography of St. Ansgar, which is distinguished by 
valuable historical information and a faithful charac- 
ter-sketch. On the other hand, (he biography of 
Rimbert himself, written by a monk of Corvey, is, 
while very edifying, poor in actual information; 
hence we know so little of his life. 

Vita Rimberti in Mon. Germ. hist. Scriptores, II (Hanover, 
1829), 764-75; Dehio, Gesch. des Erzbistums Ilamburg-Bremen, 
I (Berlin, 1877), 92-8; .\llgem. deutsche Biogr., s. v.; Biogr. 
iiatioimle de Belgique, s. v. Rcmbert. 

Klemens Loffler. 

Rimini, Council of. — The second Formula of 
Sirmium (357) stated the doctrine of the Anomojans, 
or extreme Arians. Against this the Scmi-Arian 
bishops, assembled at Ancyra, the episcopal city of 
their leader Basilius, issued a counter formula, a.ssert- 
ing that the Son is in all things like the Father, after- 
wards approved by the Third Synod of Sirmium (358). 
This formula, though silent on the term ' honio- 
usios", consecrated by the Council of Nicaja, was 
signed by a few orthodox bishops, and probably by 
Pope Liberius, being, in fact, capable of an orthodox 
interpretation. The Emperor Constantius cheri.shed 
at that time the hope of restoring peace between the 
orthodox and the Semi-Arians by convoking a general 
council. Failing to convene one either at Nicsea or at 
Nicomedia, he was persuaded by Patroi)hilus, Bishop 
of Scythopolis, and Narcissus, Bishop of Neronias, to 
hold two synods, one for the East at Seleucia, in 
Isauria, the other for the West at Rimini, a proceeding 
justified by diversity of language and by expense. 
Before the convocation of the councils, Ursacius and 
Valens had Marcus, Bishop of Arethusa, designated 
to draft a formula (the Fourth of Sirmium) to be sub- 
mitted to the two synods. It declared that the Son 
was born of the Father before all ages (agreeing so far 
with the Third Formula); but it added that, when 
God is spoken of, the word ovala, "essence", should be 
avoided, not being found in Scripture and being a 
cause of scandal to the faithful; by this step they 
intended to exclude the similarity of essence. 

The Council of Rimini was opened early in July, 



359, with over four hundred bishops. About eighty 
Semi-Arians, including Ursacius, Germinius, and 
Auxentius, withdrew from the orthodox bishops, the 
most eminent of whom was Restitutus of Carthage; 
Liberius, Eusebius, Dionysius, and others were still 
in exile. The two parties sent separate deputations 
to the emperor, the orthodox asserting clearly their 
firm attachment to the faith of Nicsea, while the 
Arian minority adhered to the imperial formula. But 
the inexperienced representatives of the orthodox 
majority allowed themselves to be deceived, and not 
only entered into communion with the heretical dele- 
gates, but even subscribed, at Nice in Thrace, a 
formula to the effect merely that the Son is like the 
Father according to the Scriptures (the words "in all 
things" being ornitted). On their return to Rimini, 
they were met with the unanimous protests of their 
colleagues. But the threats of the consul Taurus, the 
remonstrances of the Semi-Arians against hindering 
peace between East and West for a word not contained 
in Scripture, their privations and their homesickness 
— all combined to weaken the constancy of the or- 
thodox bishops. And the last twenty were induced to 
subscribe when Ursacius had an addition made to the 
formula of Nice, declaring that the Son is not a 
creature like other creatures. Pope Liberius, having 
regained his liberty, rejected this formula, which was 
t hereupon repudiated by many who had signed it. In 
view of the hasty manner of its adoption and the 
lack of approbation by the Holy See, it could have no 
authority. In any case, the council was a sudden de- 
feat of orthodoxy, and St. Jerome could say: "The 
whole world groaned in astonishment to find itself 
Arian". 

Hefele, History of the Councils, tr.; § 82; Duchesne, Histoire 
ancienne de I'eglise, II (Paris, 1910), 294 sq.; Mansi, Coll. Cone, 
III, 29,3 sq.; Newman, The Arians of the Fourth Century (Lon- 
don and New York, reprint, 1901), 335-52; Gwatkin, Studies in 
Arianism (London). 

U. Benigni. 

Rimini, Diocese of (Ariminum), suffragan of 
Ravenna. Rimini is situated near the coast between 
the rivers Marecchia (the ancient Ariminus) and Ausa 
(Aprusa). Coast navigation and fishing are the prin- 
cipal indu.stries. The thirteenth-century cathedral 
(San Francesco) was originally Gothic, but was trans- 
formed by order of Sigismondo Malatesta (1446- 
55) according to the designs of Leone Baptista 
Alberti and never completed; the cupola is lacking, 
also the upper part of the fagade; in the cathedral are 
the tombs of Sigismondo and his wife Isotta. The 
plastic decorations of the main nave and some of the 
chapels, a glorification to Sigismondo and Isotta, are 
by Agostino di Duccio, and breathe the pagan spirit 
of the Renaissance. On the southern side are the 
tombs of illustrious humanists, among them that of 
the philosopher Gemistus Pletho, whose remains were 
brought back by Sigismondo from his wars in the 
Balkans. There is a remarkable fresco of Piero della 
Francesca. In San Giuliano is the great picture of 
Paul Veronese representing the martyrdom of that 
saint, also pictures of Bittino da Faenza (1357) dealing 
with some episodes of the saint's life. Among the 
profane edifices are the Arch of Augustus (27 b. c), 
the remains of an amphitheatre, and the five-arched 
bridge of Augustus over the Marecchia. The town 
hall has a small but valuable gallery (Perin del Vaga, 
Ghirlandajo, Bellini, Benedetto Coda, Tintoretto, 
Agostino di Duccio) ; the Gambalunga Library (1677) 
has valuable manuscripts. There is an archaeological 
museum and a bronze statue of Paul V; the castle of 
Sigismondo Malatesta is now user! as a prison. 

Ariminum was built by the Umbri. In t he sixth cen- 
tury B. c. it was taken by the Gauls; after their last de- 
feat (283) it returned to the Umbri and became in 263 a 
Latin colony, very helpful to the Romans during the 
late Gallic wars. Rimini was reached by the Via 



RIMOUSKI 



58 



RIMOUSKI 



Flamminia, and here began the Via ^Emilia that led to 
Piacenza. Augustus did much for the city and Galla 
Placida built the church of San Stefano. When the 
Goths conquered Rimini in 493, Odoacer, besieged m 
Ravenna, had to capitulate. During the Gothic wars 
Rimini was taken and retaken many times. In its 
vicinity Narses overthrew (553) the Alamanni. Un- 
der Bvzantine dominion it belonged to the Pentapolis. 
In 728 it was taken with many other cities by the 
Lombard King Liutprand but returned to the Byzan- 
tines about 735. King Pepin gave it to the Holy See, 
but during the wars of the popes and the Italian cities 
against the emperors, Rimini sided with the latter. 
In the thirteenth century it suffered from the discords 
of the Ganihaoari and Ansidei families. In 1295 
Malatesta I d:i Nerucchio was named "Signore" of 




Cathedral of San Francesco, Rimini 

Originally XIII Cf-ntury; the exterior rebuilt in Classic .Stylo 

after de.siKns of Leone Baptista Alberti, XV Century 

the city, and, despite interruptions, his family held 
authoritv until 1528. Among his successors were: 
Malatesta II (1312-17); Pandolfo I, his brother (d. 
1326), named by Louis the Bavarian imperial vicar in 
Romagna; Ferrantino, son of Malatesta II (1335), op- 
posed bv his cousin Ramberto and by Cardinal 
Bertando del Poggetto (1331), legate of John XXII; 
Malatesta III, Guastafamiglia (1363), lord also of 
Pesaro; Malatesta IV I'Ungaro (1373); Galeotto, 
uncle of the former (1385), lord also of Fano (from 
1340), Pesaro, and Cesena (1378); his son Carlo 
(1429), the noblest scion of the family, laboured for 
the cessation of the Western Schism, and was the 
counsellor, protector, and ambassador of Gregory 
XII, and patron of scholars; Galeotto Roberto 
(1432), his brother Sigismondo Pandolf (1468) had 
the militarj- and intelifctual qualities of Carlo Mala- 
tf«ta but not his character. He was tyrannous and 
perfidious, in constant rebellion against the popes, a 
gooil soldier, jK>et, philowipher, and lover of the fine 
artH, but a monster of doniestic and ptiblic vices; in 
1463 he submittrnl lo Pius II, who left him Rimini; 
Robert, his mm (1482), under Paul II nearly lost his 
state and under Sixtus IV became the commanding 
officer of the pontifical army against Alfonso of Naples, 
by whom he was defeated in the battle of Campo 
Morto (1482) ; Pandolfo V, his 8f)n (1500), lost Rimini 
to C<«are Borgia n5(K)-3), after whose overthrow it 
fell to Venice (1.503-9), but waw retaken by Julius II 
and incorfK^rated with the territory of the Holy See. 
After the death of ]a^) X Pandolfo returned for several 
months, and with his son Sigismondo held tyrannous 
rule. Adrian VI gave Rimini to the Duke of I'rbino, 
the fK»fK''H vif-ar. In 1.727 Sigisnifindo managi-d to 
regain the city, but the following vear the Malatesta 
dominion pa.sB»ffl away forever. f{imini was thence- 
forth a papal city, sufjject U) the legate at Forll. In 
1845 a band of aidvcnturerH commanded by Ribbolti 



entered the city and proclaimed a constitution which 
was soon abolished. In 1860 Rimini and the Romagna 
were incorporated with the Kingdom of Italy. 

Rimini was probably evangelized from Raventia. 
Among its traditional martyrs are: St. Innocent ia and 
companions; Sts. Juventinus, Facundinus, and com- 
panions; Sts. Theodoras and Marinus. The see was 
probably established before the peace of Constantine. 
Among the bishops were: Stennius, at Rome in 313; 
Cyriacus, one of his successors, sided with the Arians; 
under St. Gaudentius the famous Council of Rimini 
was held (359); he was later put to death by the 
Arians for having cxcommvmicated the priest Marci- 
anus; Stephanus attended at Constantinople (551); 
the election of Castor (591) caused much trouble to 
St. Gregory I, who had to send to Rimini a "visitor"; 
Agnellus (743) was governor of the city subject to 
the Archbishop of Ravenna; Delto acted frequently 
as legate for John VIII; Blessed Arduino (d. in 1009); 
I'berto II is mentioned with praise by St. Peter 
Damian; Opizo was one of the consecrators of the 
Antipope Clement III (Guiberto, 1075); Ranieri II 
dcgli I'berti (1143) consecrated the ancient cathedral 
of St. Colomba; Alberigo (1153) made peace between 
Rimini and Cesena; Bonaventura Trissino founded 
the hospital of Santo Spirito; under Benno (1230) 
some pious ladies founded a hospital for the lepers, 
and themselves caretl for the afflicted. At the end of 
tlie thirteenth century the Armenians received at 
Rimini a church and a hospital. P>om 1407 Gregory 
XII resided at Rimini. Giovanni Rosa united the 
eleven hospitals of Rimini into one. Under Giulio 
Parisani (1549) the seminary was opened (1568). 
Giambattista Castelli (1569) promoted the Triden- 
tine n^forms and was nuncio at Paris. Andrea 
Minucci was severely tried during the French Revolu- 
tion; under him the Malatt'sta church (San Fran- 
cesco) became the cathedral. The diocese has 124 
parishes, 125,400 inhabitants, 336 priests, 10 houses 
of religious with 56 priests, 24 houses of religious 
women, who care for the hospitals, orphanages, and 
other charitable institutions, or communal and private 
schools. There are also 1 school for boys and 3 for 
girls. 

Cappelletti, Le Chiese d'ltalia, II; Nardi, Cronotassi dei 
panlori della Chiesa di Rimini (Rimini, 1813); Tonini, Sloria 
civile e mcra di Rimini (6 vols., Rimini, 1848-88); Idem, Com- 
pendia della sloria di Rimini (1896) ; Yriarte, Rimini: Etudes sur 
les leltres el les arts d la cour des Malatesta (Paris, 1882). 

U. Benigni, 

Rimouski, Diocese of (Sancti Germani db 
RiMousKi), suffragan of Quebec, comprises the 
counties of Bonaventure, Gaspe (excej)t Magdalen 
Islands), Rimouski and the greater part of Temis- 
eouata, and forms the eastern extremity of the prov- 
ince of Quebec. At the extreme point of the Gasp^ 
peninsula (formerly called Honguedo), Jacques 
Cartier landed on his first voyage of discovery (1534) 
and plantetl a ctoss with tlie royal arms of I'Vance. 
The Souriquois or Micmacs occupied the shores of 
Bale des Chaleurs, and their successive missionaries, 
RecoUets, Capuchins, Jesuits, amongst them Father 
Labrosse, and Spirit ians (or priest s of the seminary of 
the Holy Ghost), including the celebrated Pierre 
Maillard, ministered to that region of the Rimouski dio- 
cese. The first Mass was celebrated near the city of 
Rimouski, at a place since called Pointe-au-Pc^re, by 
the Jesuit Henri Nouvel, in 1()()3, on his way to the 
Papinachois and Montagnais of Tadoussac, on the 
north shore. The first settler at Rimou.ski was 
CJermain Lejjage (1()96), whose patronymic was chosen 
as titular of the future parish and diocese. The 
B(!igniory had been conceded to his son Rene in 1688. 
The latest statistics give 120 churches and chapels, 
with 148 priests. Two wooden churches were built 
at Rimouski, in 1712 and 1787 respectively; the first 
stone church, 1824, was replaced by the present 



RINGS 



59 



RINGS 



cathedral in 1854. Before the creation of the see, 
Rimouski was successively visited by Bishops Hubert 
(1791), Denaut (1798), Plessis (1806-14-22), Panet 
(1810-26), Signay (1833-38-43), Turgeon (1849), and 
Baillargeon (1855-60-65). The see was created and 
its first titular nominated on 15 January, 1867, and 
acquired civil incorporation ipso facto the same day, 
according to the law of the country. 

The first bishop, Jean-Pierre-Fran9ois Laforce- 
Langevin, was b. at Quebec, 22 Sept., 1821, and or- 
dained on 12 Sept., 1844. As director of the Quebec 
seminary he was one of the joint founders of Laval 
University (1852). He successively filled the offices of 
pastor to the parishes of Ste Claire and Beauport, and 
of principal of Laval Normal School. He was con- 
secrated 1 May, 1867, resigned 1891, and died 1892. 
He completed the organization of a classical college 
previously founded by the Abbes C. Tanguay and G. 
Potvin and adopted it as the seminary of the diocese. 
He introduced the Sisters of the Congregation of 
Notre-Dame (Montreal) and sanctioned the founda- 
tion (1879) of the Sisters of the Most Holy Rosary, 
a flourishing institute largely due to the zeal of Vicar- 
General Langevin, his brother. Bishop Langevin 
established the cathedral chapter in 1878. 

The second bishop, still in office, Andre-Albert 
Blais, b. at St-Vallier, P. Q., 1842, studied at the 
college of Ste Anne de la Pocatiere, graduated in Rome 
Doctor of Canon Law, and taught the same branch 
at Laval University. He was consecrated bishop 18 
May, 1890, and took possession of the see in 1891. 
Bishop Blais created many new parishes in the dio- 
cese, and founded a normal school under the manage- 
ment of the LTrsulines. The clergy, exclusivcl}^ 
French-Canadian, study classics and philosophy at the 
diocesan seminary, and theology princii)ally at Laval 
University, in some cases at the Proi)ag:uul:i, Rome. 
(For parochial system, incorporation of religious in- 
stitutions, etc., see Canada, and Quebec, Province 
OF.) There are no cities besides Rimouski, but all 
the larger rural parishes have fine churches and con- 
vent-schools; the only domestic mission is that of the 
Micmacs at Ristigouche, under the care of the Capu- 
chins. Besides a Priests' Aid Society, there are 
several benevolent and mutual aid societies for the 
laity. The religious orders of men are the Capuchins, 
Eudists, and Brothers of the Cross of Jesus; those of 
women are the Ursulines, Sisters of Charity, of the 
Good Shepherd (t(!aching), of the Holy Rosary, of 
the Holy Family, and the Daughters of Jesus. Re- 
treats for the clergy are given each year; conferences 
to discuss theological cases take place every three 
months. Nearly all the secular clergy (110 out of 137) 
belong to the iMicharistic League. Out of a total 
Catholic population of 118,740, only 3695 are not 
French Canadians. The Indians number 610. The 
Protestant element amounts to 8798. There is no 
friction between these? difTercnt elements and no 
difficult racial ijroblem to solve, the parishes contain- 
ing an English-s])caking element as well as the Mic- 
macs being instructed in their native tongues. 

GuAY, Chroniques de Rimouski (Quebec, 1873); Le Canada 
ecclesiastique (Montreal, 1911). 

Lionel Lindsay. 

Rings. — L In General. — Although the siu-viving 
ancient rings, proved by their devices, provenance, 
etc., to be of Christian origin, are fairly numerous 
(See Fortnum in "Arch. Journ.", XXVI, 141, and 
XXVIII, 275), we cannot in most cases identify 
them with any liturgical use. Christians no doubt, 
just like other people, wore rings in accordance with 
their station in life, for rings are mentioned without 
reprobation in the New Testament (Luke, xv, 22, and 
James, ii, 2). Moreover, St. Clement of Alexandria 
(Paed., Ill, c. xi) says that a man might lawfully wear 
a ring on his little finger, and that it should bear some 
religious emblem — a dove, or a fish, or an anchor — 




Christian Symbols 



though, on the other hand, TertuUian, St. Cyprian, and 
the Apostolic Constitutions (I, iii) protest against the 
ostentation of Christians in decking themselves with 
rings and gems. In any case the Acts of Sts. Perpetua 
and Felicitas (c. xxi), about the beginning of the thu-d 
century, inform us of how the martyr Saturus took a 
ring from the finger of Pudens, a soldier who was 
looking on, and gave it back to him as a keepsake, 
covered with his own blood. 

Knowing, as we do, that in the pagan days of Rome 
every flamen Dialis (i. e., a priest specially consecrated 
to the worship of 
Jupiter) had, like the 
senators, the priv- 
ilege of wearing a 
gold ring, it would 
not be surprising to 
find evidence in the 
fourth century that 
rings were worn by 
Christian bishops. 
But the various pas- 
sages t hat have been 
appealed to, to prove 
this, are either not 
authentic or else are 
inconclusive. St. Augustine indeed speaks of his seal- 
ing a letter with a ring (Ep. ccxvii, in P. L., XXXIII, 
227), but on the other hand his contemporary Possidius 
ex'pressly states that Augustine himself wore no ring (P. 
L., XXXII, 53), whence we are led to conclude that 
the possession of a signet does not prove the use of a 
ring as part of the episcopal insignia. However, 
in a Decree of Pope Boniface IV (a. d. 610) we hear of 
monks raised to the episcopal dignity as anulo 
pontificali subarrhalis, while at the Fourth Council 
of Toledo, in 633, we are told that if a bishop has been 
deposed from his office, and is afterwards reinstated, 
he is to receive back stole, ring, and crosier {orarium, 
anulum el baculum). St. Isidore of Seville at about 
the same period couples the ring with the crosier 
and declares that the former is conferred as "an 
emblem of the pontifical dignity or of the sealing of 
secrets" (P. L., LXXXIII, 783). From this time 
forth it may be assumed that the ring was strictly 
speaking an episcopal ornament conferred in the rite 
of consecration, and that it was commonly regarded as 
emblematic of the betrothal of the bishop to his 
Church. In the eighth and ninth centuries in MSS. 
of the Gregorian Sacramen- 
tary and in a few early Pon- 
tificals (e.g., that attributed 
to Archbishop Egbert of 
York) we meet with various 
formula? for the delivery of 
the ring. The Gregorian 
form, which survives in sub- 
stance to the jjresent day, 
runs in these terms: "Re- 
ceive the ring, that is to say 
the seal of faith, whereby 
thou, being thyself adorned 
with spotless faith, mayst keep unsullied the troth 
which thou hast pledged to the spouse of God, His 
holy Church." 

These two ideas — namely of the seal, indicative of 
discretion, and of conjugal fidelity — dominate the 
symbolism attaching to the ring in nearly all its 
liturgical uses. The latter idea was pressed so far 
in the case of bishops that we find ecclesiastical decrees 
enacting that "a bishop deserting the Church to 
which he was consecrated and transferring himself 
to another is to be held guilty of adultery and is to 
be visited with the same penalties as a man who, 
forsaking his own wife, goes to live with another 
woman" (Du Saussay, "Panoplia episcopalis", 250). 
It was perhaps this idea of espousals which helped 




Silver ring of Leubatius, 
Abbot op Senaparia, Gaul 



RINGS 



60 



RINGS 



to establish the rule, of which we hear ah-eady in the 
ninth centurv, that the episcopal ring was to be placed 
on the fourth finger (i. e., that next thehttle finger) 
of the right hand. As the pontifical ring had to be 
worn on occasion over the glove, it is a common thing 
to find medieval specimens large in size and pro- 
portionately hea\-}- in execution. The inconvenience 
of the looseness thus resulting was often met by 




Cbtstal rings engraved in intaguo with Christian 
Emblems, Rome 

placing another smaller ring just above it as a keeper 
(see Lacy, "Exeter Pontifical", 3). As the pictures 
of the medieval and Renaissance periods show, it 
was formerly quite usual for bishops to wear 
other rings along with the episcopal ring; indeed the 
existing " Cseremoniale episcoporum" (Bk. II, viii, 
nn. 10-11) assumes that this is still likely to be the 
case. Custom prescribes that a layman or a cleric 
of inferior grade on being presented to a bishop should 
kiss his hand, that is to say his episcopal ring, but it 
is a popular misapprehension to suppose that any 
indulgence is attached to the act. Episcopal rings, 
both at an earlier and later period, were sometimes 
used as receptacles for relics. St. Hugh of Lincoln 
had such a ring which must have been of considerable 
capacity. (On investiture by ring and staff see 
Inve-stitcres, Conflict of.) 

Besides bi.shops, many other ecclesiastics are 
privileged to wear rings. The pope of course is the 
first of bishops, but he docs not habitually wear the 
signet ring distinctive of the papacy and known as 
"the Ring of the FLsherman" (see below in this ar- 
ticle), but usually a simple cameo, while his more 
magnificent pontifical rings are reserved for solemn 
ecclesiastical functions. Cardinals also wear rings 
independent!}' of their grade in the ecclesiastical 
hierarchy. The ring belonging to the cardinalitial 
dignity is conferred by the pope himself in the con- 
BLstory in which the new canlinal is named to a par- 
ticular "title". It is of small value and is .set with a 
Bai)phire, while it bears on the inner side of the bezel 
the arms of the jxjpe conferring it. In practice the 
cardinal is not required to wear habitually the ring 
thus pres<-nte<l, and he commonly prefers to use one 
of his own. The privilege of wearing a ring has be- 
longe<i to cardinal-priests since the time of Innocent 
III or earlier (see Sagmiiller, "Thatigkeit und Stel- 
lung der Cardinale", 163). Abbots in the earlier 
Middle Ages were permitted to wear rings only by 
Bper-ial privilege. A letter of Peter of Blois in the 
twelfth century (P. L., CCVII, 283) shows that at 
that datf the wearing of a ring by an abbot was apt 
to be Irxjkfd ujKjn an a pief:e of ostentation, l)Ut in 
the later Pontifieids the blessing and deliver}' of a 
ring forrne<l fiart of the ordinary ritual for the con- 
secration of an abbot, and this is still the case at the 
prew-nt day. On the other hand^ there is no such 
ceremony indicated in the blessmg of an abbess, 
though certain abbenwH hnve received, or assumed, 
the privilege of wearing a ring of office. The ring 
is ali*o regularly worn by certain other minor prelates, 
for example prothonotaries, but the privilege cannot 
be said to belong to canons a» such (B. de Montault, 



"Le costume, etc.", I, 170) without special indult. 
In any case such rings cannot ordinarily be worn by 
these minor prelates during the celebration of Mass. 
The same restriction, it need hardly be said, applies 
to the ring which is conferred as part of the insignia 
of the doctorate either of theology or of canon law. 

The plain rings worn by certain orders of nuns and 
conferred upon them in the course of their solemn 
profession, according to the ritual provided in the 
Roman Pontifical, appear to find some justification 
in ancient tradition. St. Ambrose (P. L., XVII, 
701, 735) speaks as though it were a received custom 
for virgins consecrated to God to wear a ring in 
memory of their betrothal to their heavenly Spouse. 
This delivery of a ring to jirofessed nuns is also men- 
tioned by several medieval Pontificals, from the 
twelfth century onwards. Wedding rings, or more 
strictly, rings given in the betrothal ceremonj', seem 
to have been tolerated among Christians under the 
Roman Empire from a quite early period. The use 
of such rings was of course of older date than Chris- 
tianity, and there is not much to suggest that the 
giving of the ring was at first incorporated in any 
ritual or invested with anj' precise religious signifi- 
cance. But it is highly probable that, if the accept- 
ance and the wearing of a betrothal ring was toler- 
ated among Christians, such rings would have been 
adorned with Christian emblems. Certain extant 
specimens, more particularly a gold ring found near 
Aries, belonging apparently to the fourth or fifth 
centur}', and bearing the inscription, Tecla vivat 
Deo cum marito seo [suo], may almost certainly be 
assumed to be Christian espousal rings. In the 
coronation ceremony, also, it has long been the cus- 
tom to deliver both to the sovereign and to the queen 
consort a ring previously blessed. Perhaps the ear- 
liest example of the use of such a ring is in the case 
of Judith, the step-mother of Alfred the Great. It 
is however in this instance a little difficult to deter- 
mine whether the ring was bestowed upon the queen 
in virtue of her dignity as queen con.sort or of her 
nuptials to Ethelwulf. 

Rings have also occasionally been used for other 
religious puri)oses. At an early date the small keys 




Signet of St. Arnould, Bishop 
OF Metz, VII Century 



Bishop's Gold Ring, 
Gaul, VII Century 



which contained filings from the chains of St. Peter 
seem to have been welded to a band of metal and worn 
ui)on the finger as reliquaries. In more modern 
times rings have been constructed with ten small 
knobs or protuberances, and used for saying the 
rosary. 

Babinoton in Diet. Christ. Anliq.; Leclercq in Did. darch. 
chrit., I (Paris, 1907), s. v. Anneaux; Deloche, Etude historigue 
el archiologique Kiir leu anneaux (Paris, 1900); I)u Saussay, 
Parioplia rinHcopalis (Paris, 1640), 17.5-294; Dalton, Catalof/ue 
of early Chrintinn Anlu/uities in the British Museum (London, 
1901); Barbier de Montault, Le co.tlume el leu usages ccclesias- 
tiques aelon la tradition romaine (Paris, 1897-1901). 

IIeubert Thurston. 

II. The Ring of the Fisherman. — The earliest 
mention of the Fisherman's ring worn by the popes 
is in a letter of Clement IV written in ]2V}Fi to his 
nephew, Peter Grossi. The writer states that jjopes 
were then accustomed to seal their private letters 
with "the seal of the Fisherman", whereas public 
documents, he odds, were distinguished by the 



RINUCCINI 



61 



RIOBAMBA 



leaden "bulls" attached (see Bulls and Briefs). 
From the fifteenth century, however, the Fisher- 
man's ring has been used to seal the class of papal 
official documents known as Briefs. The Fisherman's 
ring is placed by the cardinal carnerlengo on the 
finger of a newly elected pope. It is made of gold, 
with a representation of St. Peter in a boat, fishing, 
and the name of the reigning pope around it. 

Babington in Diet. Christ. Antiq., s. v., 3. 

Maurice M. Hassett. 

Rinuccini, Giovanni Battista, b. at Rome, 1592; 
d. at Fermo, 1653, was the son of a Florentine patri- 
cian, his mother being a sister of Cardinal Ottavo. 
Educated at Rome and at the Universities of Bologna, 
Perugia and Pisa, in due course he was ordained 
priest, having at the age of twenty-two obtained his 
doctor's degree from the University of Pisa. Return- 
ing to Rome he won distinction as an advocate in the 
ecclesiastical courts, and in 1625 became Archbishop 
of Fermo. For the twenty years following, his life 
was the uneventful one of a hard-working chief pastor, 
and then, in 1645, he was sent as papal nuncio to Ire- 
land. Maddened by oppression, the Irish Catholics 
had taken up arms, had set up a legislative assembly 
with an executive government, and had bound them- 
selves by oath not to cease fighting until they had 
secured undisturbed possession of their lands and reli- 
gious liberty. But the difficulties were great. The 
Anglo-Irish and old Irish disagreed, their generals 
were incompetent or quarrelled with each other, sup- 
plies were hard to get, and the Marquis of Ormond 
managed to sow dissension among the members of 
the Supreme Council at Kilkenny. In these circum- 
stances the Catholics sought for foreign aid from Spain 
and the pope; and the latter sent them Rinuccini with 
a good supply of arms, ammunition, and money. He 
arrived in Ireland, in the end of 1645, after having 
narrowly escaped capture at sea by an English vessel. 
Acting on his instructions from the pope, he encour- 
aged the Irish Catholics not to strive for national 
independence, but rather to aid the king against the 
revolted Puritans, provided there was a repeal of the 
penal laws in existence. Finding, however, that Or- 
mond, acting for the king, would grant no toleration 
to the Catholics, Rinuccini wished to fight both the 
Royalists and the Puritans. The Anglo-Irish, satis- 
fied with even the barest toleration, desired negotia- 
tions with Ormond and peace at any price, while the 
Old Irish were for continuing the war until the Planta- 
tion of Ulster was undone, and complete toleration 
secured. Failing to cfTect a union between such 
discordant elements, Rinuccini lost courage; and 
when Ormond surrendered Dublin to the Puritans, 
and the Catholics becam(> utterly helpless from dis- 
sension, he left Ireland, in 1649, and retired to his 
diocese, where he died. 

Rinuccini, The Embassy to Ireland (tr. Hutton. Dublin, 
1873); Gilbert, History of Irish Affairs {1641-62) (Dublin, 
1880); Meehan, Confederation of Kilkenny (Dublin, 184G); 
D'Alton, History of Ireland (London, 1910). 

E. A. D'Alton. 

Rio, Alexis-Francois, French writer on art, b. 
on the Island of Arz, Department of Morbihan, 20 
May, 1797; d. 17 June, 1874. He was educated at 
the college of Vannes, where he received his first 
appointment as instructor, which occupation how- 
ever proved to be distasteful. He proceeded to Paris, 
but was temporarily disappointed in his hope of ob- 
taining there a chair of history. His enthusiastic 
championsliip of the liberty of the Greeks attracted 
the attention of the Government, which appointed 
him censor of the public; press. His refusal of this 
appointment won him great popularity and the life- 
long friendship of Montalembert. In 1828 he pub- 
lished his first work, "Essai sur I'histoire de I'esprit 
humain dans I'antiquite", which brought him the 



favour of the minister de La' Ferronays and a secreta- 
riate in the Ministry of P''oreign AiTairs. This position 
allowed him (as Montalembert later wrote to him) to 
become for Christian, what Winckelmann had been 
for ancient, art. He spent the greater portion of the 
period 1830-60 in travels through Italy, Germany, 
and England. In Munich he became acquainted with 
the spokesmen of contemporary Catholicism — 
Boisserde, Baader, Dollinger, Gorres, and Rumohr — 
and also with Schelling. Schelling gave him an in- 
sight into the aesthetic ideal; Rumohr directed him to 
Italy, where the realization of this ideal in art could 
be seen. In 1835 the first volume of his "Art chrd- 
tien" appeared under the misleading title, "De la 
poesie chretienne — ^Forme de I'art". This work, 
which was received with enthusiasm in Germany and 
Italy, was a complete failure in France. Discouraged, 
he renounced art study and wrote a history of the 
persecutions of the English Catholics, a work which 
was never printed. As the result of his intercourse 
with the Pre-Raphaelites of England, where he lived for 
three years and married, and especially of Montalem- 
bert's encouragement, he visited again, in company 
with his wife, all the important galleries of Europe, 
although he had meanwhile become lame and had to 
drag himself through the museums on crutches. 
Prominent men like Gladstone, Manzoni, and Thiers 
became interested in his studies, which he published 
in four volumes under the title "L'art chr6tien" 
(1861-7). This work is not a history of all Christian 
art, but of Italian painting from Cimabue to the death 
of Raphael. Without any strict method or criticism, 
he expresses preference for the art of the fifteenth cen- 
tury, not without many an inexact and even unjust 
judgment on the art of later ages; but, in spite, or 
rather on account of this partiality, he has contributed 
greatly towards restoring to honour the forgotten and 
despised art of the Middle Ages. Rio describes the 
more notable incidents of his life in the two works, 
"Histoire d'un college breton sous I'Empire, la petite 
chouannerie" (1842) and "Epilogue h l'art chrdtien" 
(2 vols., Paris, 1872). He also published the following 
works: "Shakespeare" (1864), in which he claims 
the great dramatist as a Catholic; "Michel-Ange 
et Raphael" (1867); "L'id6al antique et I'iddal Chre- 
tien" (1873). 

Lef^bure, Portraits de croyants (2nd ed., Paris, 190.5), 157- 
284. B. KlEINSCHMIDT. 

Riobamba, Diocese of (Bolivarensis), suffragan 
of Quito, Ecuador, erected by Pius IX, 5 Jan., 1863. 
The city, which has a population of 18,000, is situated 
9039 feet above sea-level, 85 miles E.N.E. of Guaya- 
quil. Its streets are wide and its adobe houses gen- 
erally but one story high on account of the frequent 
earthquakes. Formerly the city was situated about 
18 miles further west near the village of Cajabamba 
and contained 40,000 inhabitants, but it was com- 
pletely destroyed on 4 Feb., 1797, by an earthquake. 
Old Riobamba was the capital of the Kingdom of 
Puruha before the conquest of the Incas; it was de- 
stroyed by Ruminahui during his retreat in 1533 after 
his defeat by Benalcdzar. The cathedral and the 
Redemptorist church in the new city are very beauti- 
ful. Velasco the historian and the poets Larrea and 
Orozco were natives of Riobamba. It was here too 
that the first national Ecuadorian convention was 
held in 1830. The diocese, comprising tlu; civil Prov- 
inces of Chimborazo and Bolivar (ha\'ing an area of 
4250 square miles), has 63 priests, 48 churches and 
chapels, and about 200,000 inhabitants. The pres- 
ent bishop, Mgr Andres Machado, S.J., was born at 
Cuenca, Ecuador, 16 Oct., 1850, and appointed, 12 
Nov., 1907, in succession to Mgr Arsenio Andrade (b. 
at Uyumbicho, in the Archdiocese of (Juito, 8 Sept., 
1825, appointed on 13 Nov., 1884, d. 1907). 

Mera, Geog. de la republica del Ecuador. 

A. A. MacErlean. 



BIO 



62 



RIPON 



Rio de Janeiro. See Sao Sebastiao, Archdio- 
cese OF. 

Rio Negro, Prefecture Apostolic of, in Brazil, 
bounded on the south by a hne running westwards 
from the confluence of the Rio Negro and Rio Branco 
along the watershed of the Rio Negro to Colombia, 
separating the new prefecture from those of Teff6 and 
Upper SoUmOes., and the See of Amazones (from 
which it was separated by a Decree of the Sacred 
Congregation of the Consistory, 19 Oct., 1910), on 
the west by Colombia, on the north by Colombia 
and Venezuela, on the east by the territorj^ of Rio 
Branco. The whit^ population is small, and confined 
to the few \-illages along the banks of the Rio Negro. 
As early as 165S a Jesuit Father, Francisco Gonsales, 
established a mission among the natives of the Upper 
Rio Negro, and traces of the work of the Jesuit mis- 
sionaries still exist in the scattered villages. Two 
years later a Carmelite, Father Theodosius, evan- 
gehzed the Tucumaos. The Franciscans laboured 
among the Indians from 1870 and had seven stations 
on the Rio Uaup^s (Tariana Indians), four on the 
Rio Tikie (Toccana Indians), and one on the Rio 
Papuri (Macu Indians), but on the fall of the empire 
most of the missions were abandoned, though some 
of them were re-established later. 

A. A. MacErlean. 

Riordan, Patrick William. See San Francisco, 
Archdiocese of. 

Ripalda, Jcan MartIxez de, theologian, b. at 
Pamplona, Navarre, 1594; d. at Madrid, 26 April, 
1648. He entered the Society of Jesus at Pamplona 
in 1609. In the triennial reports of 1642 he saj^s of 
him.self that he was not physically strong, that he 
had studied religion, arts, and theology, that he had 
taught grammar one year, arts four, theolog}^ nine- 
teen, and had been professed. According to South- 
well, he taught philosophy at Monforte, theology at 
Salamanca, and was called from there to the Imperial 
College of Madrid, where, by royal decree, he taught 
moral theologj'. Later he was named censor to 
the Inquisition and confessor of de Olivares, the 
favourite of Philip IV. whom he followed when he 
was exiled from Madrid. Southwell describes his 
character by saying that he was a good religious, 
not«d for his innocence. Mentally he qualifies him 
Bls subtle in argument, sound in opinion, keen-edged 
and rlfar in exfjrc.ssion, and wcll-vcr.sfd in St. Augus- 
tine and St. Thomas. According to Drews, no Jesuit 
ever occupied this chair in the University of Sala- 
manca with more honour than he, and I lurter places 
him, with Lugo, first among the contemporary theo- 
logians of Spain, and perhaps of all Europe. Among 
the numerous thc-ological opinions which characterize 
him the following are worth citing: (1) He thinks 
that the creation of an intrinsically supernatural sub- 
stance is possible, in other words, that a creature 
is possible to which supernatural grace, with the ao- 
comnanying gift« and intuitive vision, is due. (2) 
He rioKlH that, by a positive decree of God, super- 
natural graw; is conferred, in the existing providence, 
for *'ver>' gofxi acX whatsoever; so that (;very good 
a<;t is supernatural, or at least that (!very natural 
good act is accompanied by another which is 8uy)er- 
natural. (3j He maintains that, prescinding from 
the extrinsic Divine law, and taking mto account only 
the nature of things, the supernatural faith which is 
callwl Inlfi would be HufTuient for iustification, that 
faith, namely, which comes In' the contemplation 
of creat*,-*] thing.4, though assent is not jjroduced with- 
out grace. (4) He affinnH that in the promissory 
revelations the formal object of faith is God's faith- 
fulness to His promises, the constancy of His will, 
and the efficacy of omnipotence. (5) He asserts 
that all the propositions of Baius were (;on- 
demned for doctrine according to the Bcnue in which 



he (Baius) held them. (6) He maintains that the 
Divine maternity of the Blessed Virgin Mary is of 
itself a sanctifying form. The following are his 
works: "De ente supernaturaU disputationes in 
imiversam theologiam , three vols., I (Bordeaux, 
1634), II (Lyons, 1645), III, written "AdversusBa- 
janos" (Cologne, 1648); rare editions like that of 
Lyons, 1663, have been published of the two first 
volumes. It is a classic work in which he included 
questions which are not included in ordinary theologi- 
cal treatises. His third volume was attacked in an 
anonymous work, "P. Joannis Martinez . . . Vulpes 
capta per theologos . . . Academiaj Lovaniensis", 
which Reusch says was the work of Sinnich. "Ex- 
positio brevis littera? Magistri Sententiarum" (Sala- 
manca, 1635), praised by the Calvinist Voet. "Trac- 
tatus theologici et scholastici dc virtutibus, fide, spe 
et charitate" (Lyons, 1652), a i)ost humous work and 
very rare. Two new editions of all his works have been 
issued: Vives (8 vols., Paris, 1871-3), Palm6 (4 
vols., Paris, Rome, Propaganda Fide, 1870-1). 
"Discurso sobre la elecci6n de sucessor del ponti- 
ficado en vida del pontifi(;e" (Seville). Uriarte says 
this work was published in Aragon, perhaps in Huesca, 
with the anagram of Martin Jir6n de Palazeda, writ- 
ten by order of the Count de Olivares. The following 
are in manuscript: "De visione Dei" (2 vols.); 
"De prsedestinatione"; "De angelis et auxiliis"; 
"De voluntate Dei" — preserved in the University 
of Salamanca; "Discurso acerca de la ley de 
desafio y parecer sobre el desafio de Medina Sidonia 
d Juan de Braganza", preserved in the Biblioteca 
Nacional. 

SocTHWELL, Biblioteca scriptorum S. J. (Rome, 1670), 478; 
Antonio, Bibliotheca fiixpaim nova, I (Madrid, 1783), 736; 
HuRTER, Nomenclator, I (Innsbruck, 1892), 381; Sommervogel, 
Bibliolheque, V., col. 640; Bioyrafia eclesidstica completa, XXII 
(Madrid, 1864), 179. 

Antonio Perez Goyena. 

Ripatransone, Diocese of (Ripanensis), in 
Ascoli Piceiu), Central Italy. The city is situated on 
five hills, not far from the site of ancient Cupra Marit- 
tima. The modern name comes from Ripa trans 
Asonem, "the other bank of the A,sonc". A castle 
was erected there in the early Middle Ages, and en- 
larged later by the bishops of Fermo, who had several 
conflicts with the people. In 1571 St. Pius V made it 
an episcopal see, naming as its first bishop Cardinal 
Lucio Sasso and including in its jurisdiction .small por- 
tions of the surrounding Dioceses of Fermo, Ascoli, and 
Teramo. Noteworthy' bishops were : Cardinal Filippo 
Sega (1575); Gaspare Sillingardi (1582), afterwards 
Bishop of Modena, employed by Alfon.so II of Ferrara 
on various missions to Rome and to Spain, eff'ected 
a revival of religious life in Ripatransone; Gian Carlo 
Gcntili (1845), historian of Sanseverino and Ripa- 
transone; Alessandro Spoglia (1860-67), not recog- 
nized by the Government . Th(! cathedral is the work 
of Gaspare Guerra and has a b(;autiful marble altar 
with a triptych by Crivelli; th(> church of the Madonna 
dr-l Carmine; po.ssesses i)ictures of the Raphael School. 
The diocese, at first dir(!ctly subj(!ct to the Holy See, 
has been suffragan of Fermo since 1680. 

Cappeli-etti. Lr chiiKC d' Italia, III (Venice, 1857); Annuaire 
pontifical aitholique (Parb, 1911), b. v. 

U. Beniqni. 

Ripon, Marquess of, George Frederick Samuel 
Robinson, K.G., P.C, G.C.S.I., F.R.S., Earl de 
Grey, Earl of Ripon, Viscount Goderich, Baron Grant- 
ham, and barrjiiet ; !>. at the prime minister's resi- 
dence, 10 Downing Street, London, 24 Oct., 1827; d. 
9 July, 1909. He was the second son of Frederick 
John Robinson, Vi.scount Goderich, afterwards first 
Earl of Ripon, and Lady Sarah Albinia Louisa, 
daughter of Robert, fourth Earl of Buckinghamshire; 
and he was bom during his father's brief tenure of the 
office of prime minister. Before entering public life 



RISBY 



63 



RISHTON 



he married (8 April, 1851) hia cousin Henrietta Ann 
Theodosia, elder daughter of Captain Henry Vyner, 
and by her had two children, Frederick Oliver, who 
succeeded to his honours, and Mary Sarah, who died 
in infancy. Inheriting the principles which were 
common to the great Whig families, Lord Ripon 
remained through his long public life one of the most 
generally respected supporters of Liberalism, and 
even those who most severely criticised his admin- 
istrative ability — and in his time he held very many 
of the great offices of state — recognized the integrity 
and disinterestedness of his aims. He entered the 
House of Commons as member for Hull in 1852, and 
after representing Huddersfield (1853-57), and the 
West Riding of Yorkshire (1857-59), he succeeded 
his father as Earl of Ripon and Vis(!Ount Goderich 
on 28 Jan., 1859, taking his seat in the House of Lords. 
In the following 
November he suc- 
ceeded his uncle 
as Earl de Grey 
and Baron Gran- 
tham. In the same 
year he first took 
office, and was a 
member of every 
Liberal adminis- 
tration for the 
next half-century. 
The offices he held 
were: under sec- 
retary of State 
for war (1859- 
61); under secre- 
tary of State for 
India (1861- 
1863); secretary 
of State for war 
(1863-66), all un- 
der Lord Palmer- 




M.\Rgr 



George Frederick Sa% 

OF RlI'O 

Bton; secretary of State for India (1866) under Earl 
Russell. In Mr. Gladstone's first administration he 
was lord president of the council (1868-73) and 
during this period acted as chairman of the joint 
commission for drawing up the Treaty of Washington, 
which settled the Alabama claims (1876). For this 
great public service he was created Marquess of Ripon. 
He also was grand master of the freemasons from 
1871 to 1874, when he resigned this office to enter the 
Catholic Church. He was received at the London 
Oratory, 4 Sept., 1S74. When Gladstone returned to 
power in 1880 he appointed Lord Ripon Governor- 
General and Viceroy of India, the office with which his 
name willev^er be connected, he having made himself 
beloved by the Indian subjects of the Crown as no 
one of his predecessors had been. He held this office 
until 1884. In the short administration of 1886 he 
was first lord of the admiralty, and in that of 1892- 
1895 he was secretary of State for the Colonies. 
When the Liberals again returned to power he took 
office as lord privy seal. This office he resigned in 
1908. Ever a fervent Catholic, Lord Riix)n took a 
great share in educational and charitable works. He 
was president of the Society of St. Vincent de Paul 
from 1899 until his death ; vice-president of the Cath- 
olic Union, and a great supporter of St. Joseph's 
Catholic Missionary Society. 

The Tablet (17 July, 1909); Annual Register (London. 1909). 

Edwin Burton. 

Risby, Richard, b. in the parish of St. Lawrence, 
Reading, 1490; executed at Tyburn, London, 20 
April, 1534. He entered Winchester College in 1500, 
and was subsequently a fellow of New College, Oxford, 
taking his degree in 1510. He resigned in 1513 to 
enter the Franciscan Order, and eventually became 
warden of the Observant friary at Canterbury. 



He was condemned to death by the Act of Attainder, 
25 Henry VIII, c. 12, together with Elizabeth Barton, 
Edward Bocking, Hugh Rich, warden of the Ob- 
servant friary at Richmond, John Dering, B.D. 
(Oxon.), Benedictine of Christ Church, Canterbury, 
Henry Gold, M.A. (Oxon.), parson of St. Mary, Alder- 
manbury, London, and vicar of Hayes, Middlesex, 
and Richard Master, rector of Aldington, Kent, who 
was pardoned; but by some strange oversight 
Master's name is included and Risb^y's omitted in the 
catalogue of prcetermissi. Father Thomas Bourchier, 
who took the Franciscan habit at Greenwich about 
1557, says that Fathers Risby and Rich were twice 
offered their lives, if they would accept the king's 
supremacy. 

^ Gairdner, Letters and Papers of the reign of Henry VIII, 
VI, VII (London, Oxford, Cambridge, Edini)urgh, and Dublin, 
1882-3), passim; Gasquet, Henry VIII and the English \fonas- 
teries (London, 1906), 44; Kirby, Winchester Scholars (London 
and Winchester, 1888), 98; Boase, Register of the Uuiversitu of 
Oxford (Oxford, 1885), 71. 

J. B. Wainewright. 

Rishanger, William, chronicler, b. at Rishangles, 
Suffolk, about 1250; d. after 1312. He became a 
Benedictine at St. Alban's Abbey, Hertfordshire in 
1271, and there revived the custom of composing 
chronicles which had languished since the time of 
Matthew Paris. His chief work is the history of the 
Barons' Wars, "Narratio de bellis apud Lewes et 
E^vesham", covering the period from 12.58 to 1267 
and including a reference which shows that he was 
still engaged on it on 3 May, 1312. Apart from its 
historical matter which is derived from Mat thew Paris 
and his continuators, it is interesting for the evidence 
it affords of the extreme veneration in which Simon 
de Montfort was held at that time. He also wrote 
a short chronicle about Edward I, "Quiedam recapi- 
tulatio brevis de gestis domini Edwardi". It is 
possible, though not very probable, that he wrote 
the earlier part of a chronicle, "Willelmi Rishanger, 
monachi S. Albani, Chronica". Four other works 
attributed to him by Bale are not authentic. 

Riley, Willelmi Rishanger chronica et annates in R. S. (London, 
1S(33-7G); Riley in Mon. Germ. Hist., XXVIII (Berlin, 1865); 
Halliwell, Chronicle of William de Rishanger of the Barons' 
Wars in Camden Society Publications, XV (London, 1840); 
B^MONT, Simon de Montfort (Paris, 1884) ; Hardy, Descriptive 
Catalogue (London, 1862-71), I, 871; III, 171-2, 191-3; Tout in 
Diet. Nat. Biog., s. v. 

Edwin Burton. 

Rishton, Edward, b. in Lancashire, 1550; d. at 
Sainte-Menehouid, Lorraine, 29 June, 1.585. He was 
probably a younger son of John Rishton of Dunken- 
halgh and Dorothy Southworth. He studied at 
Oxford from 1568 to 1572, when he proceeded B.A. 
probably from Braseno.se College. During the next 
year he was converted and went to Douai to study 
for the priesthood. He was the first Englishman to 
matriculate at Douai, and is said to have taken his 
M.A. degree there. While a student ho drew up and 
publi-shed a chart of ecclesiastical history, and was one 
of the two sent to Reims in November, 1576, to see if 
the college could be removed there. After his ordina- 
tion at Cambrai (6 April, 1576) he was sent to Rome. 
In 1580 he returned to England, visiting Reims on the 
way, but was soon arrested. He was tried and con- 
demned to death with Blessed Edmund Campion and 
others on 20 November, 1581, but was not executed, 
being left in prison, first in King's Bench, then in the 
Tower. On 21 January he was exiled with several 
others, being sent under escort as far as Abbeville, 
whence he made his way to Reims, arriving on 3 
March. Shortly aftenvards, at the suggestion of 
Father Persons, he completed Sander's imperfect 
"Origin and Growth of the Anglican Schism". With 
the intention of taking his doctorate in divinity he 
proceeded to the University of Pont-;\-Mousson in 
Lorraine, but the plague broke out, and though ho 



RITA 



64 



RITES 



went to Saintc-Mdnohould to escape the infection, he 
died of it and was buried there. Dodd in error 
ascribes his death to loS6, in which mistake he has 
been followed bv the writer in the "Dictionary of 
National Biography" and others. After his death the 
book on the schisin was published by Leather Persons, 
and subseqvient editions included two tracts attributed 
to Rishton, the one a diary of an anonymous priest in 
the Tower (15S0-5), which was probably the work of 
Father John Hart, S.J.; the other a list of martyrs 
with later additions by Persons. Recent luiblicat ion of 
the "Tower Bills" makes it certain that Rishton did 
not write the diary, and his only other known works 
are a tract on the difference between Catholicism and 
Protestantism (Douai, 1575) and "Profession of his 
faith made manifest and confirmed by twenty-one 
reasons". 

Pitts, De illufiribus Angliee scriptorihus (Paris, 1619); Dodd, 
Church History (Brussels vere Wolverhampton, 1737-42), II, 74, 
a verv inaccurate account; a Wood, Athen(e Oxonicnxes, ed. 
Bus.s\London, 1813-20); Kinsella and Deane, The Rise and 
Progress of the English Reformation (Dublin, 1827), a translation 
of Sander: Lewis, Rise and Growth of the Anglican Schism (Lon- 
don, 1877), the best translation of Sander, the editor accepts the 
diary in the Tower as being by Rishton; Knox, First and Second 
Dowiy Diaries (London, 1878); Foley, Records Eng. Prov. S.J., 
VI (London, 18S0); Foster, Alumni Oionienses (Oxford, 1891); 
GiLLOw, Bihl. Diet. Eng. Cath.; Simpson, Edmund Campion, re- 
vised ed. (London, 1896-1907); Cooper in Diet. Nat. Biog.; 
Persons, Memoirs in Calholic Record Society, II, IV (London, 
1906); Tower BilU, ed. Pollen in Catholic Record Society, III 
(London. 1906). 

Edwin Burton. 

Rita of Cascia, Saikt, b. at Rocca Porena in the 
Diocese of Spoleto, 13SG; d. at the Augustinian con- 
vent of Cascia, 1456. Feast, 22 May. Represented as 
holding roses, or roses and figs, and sometimes with 
a wound in her forehead. According to the "Life" 
(.\cta SS., May, V, 224) written at the time of her 
beatification by the Angustinian, Jacob Carelicci, 
from two older biographies, she was the daughter of 
parents advanced in years and distinguished for 
charity which merited them the surname of "Peace- 
makers of Je.siLS Christ". Rita's great desire was to 
become a nun, but, in obedience to the will of her 
parents, she, at the age of twelve, married a man 
extremely rruel and ill-tempered. P"or eighteen years 
she was a niftdel wife and mother. When her husband 
was murdered she tried in vain to dissuade her twin 
iK)ns from attempting to take revenge; she appealed to 
Heaven to prevent such a crime on their part, and 
the}' were taken away by death, reconciled to God. 
She applied for admission to the August inian convent 
at Cascia, but, being a widow, was refused. By con- 
tinued entreaties, and, as is related, by Divine inter- 
vention, she gained admission, received the habit of 
the order and in due time her profession. As a reli- 
f^ouH she was an example for all, excelled in mortifica- 
tions, and was widely known for the effieaey of Ikt 
pravers. Urban VIII, in 1G37, perrnittetl her Mass 
and OfTice. On account of the many miracles re- 
jKjrted to have been wrought at her intercc^ssion, she 
n'ceived in Spain the title of La Srinta de los impon- 
aiffiles. She was solemnly canonized 24 May, 1900. 

MrnKengrr of the Sarred Henri (1902), 200; Dunbar, Diet, of 
Saintly llV;m^n dyfindon, I90.">); .Staiiler, llriliiim-leTicon; Aria 
K. Sedi-. X.XXII, m.i: Acta SS., March, V, 221-31; Cardi, Vita 
della b. Rita da Cascia (Foligno, 180.5; rev. cd., Uoiiii-, 1900). 

Francis Mer.shman. 

Rites. — I. Name and Definition. — Rilus'm classi- 
cal Lai in means, primarily, the ff)rm and manner of any 
religious observance, 8f> Livy, I, 7: "Sacra diis aliis 
albano ritu, grjeeo HeretiJi nt ab Evandro instituta 
erant (Romulus j facit"; then, in general, any custom 
or usage. In EngliKh the word "rite" ordinarily 
means the ceremonies, prayers, and functions of any 
religiouH bwly, whether pagan, Jewish, Moslem, or 
Christian. Hut here we must distinguish two uses 
of the word. We speak of any om: such religious 



function as a rite — the rite of the blessing of palms, 
the coronation rite, etc. In a slightly different sense 
we call the whole complex of the services of any 
Church or group of Churches a rite — thus we speak 
of the Roman Rite, Byzantine Rite, and various 
Eastern rites. In the latter sense the word is often 
considered equivalent to liturgy (q. v.), which, 
however, in the older and more proper use of the 
word is the Eucharistic Service, or Mass; hence for 
a whole series of religious functions "rite" is pref- 
erable. 

A Christian rite, in this sense, comprises the manner 
of performing all services for the worship of God and 
the sanctification of men. This includes therefore: 
(1) the administration of sacraments, among which 
the service of the Holy Eucharist, as being also the 
Sacrifice, is the most important element of all; (2) 
the series of psalms, lessons, prayers, etc., divided 
into separate unities, called "hours", to make up 
together the Divine Office; (3) all other religious and 
ecclesiastical functions, called sacramentals. This 
general term includes blessings of persons (such as a 
coronation, the blessing of an abbot, various cere- 
monies performed for catechumens, the reconcilia- 
tion of public penitents, Benediction of the Blessed 
Sacrament, etc.), blessings of things (the consecration 
of a church, altar, chalice, etc.), and a number of 
devotions and ceremonies, e. g. processions and the 
taking of vows. Sacraments, the Divine Office, 
and sacramentals (in a wide sense) make up the rite 
of any Christian religious body. In the case of 
Protestants these three elements must be modified 
to suit their theological opinions. 

II. Difference of Rite. — The Catholic Church 
has never maintained a principle of uniformity in rite. 
Just as there are different local laws in various parts 
of the Church, whereas certain fundamental laws are 
obeyed by all, so Catholics in different places have 
their own local or national rites; they say prayers 
and perform ceremonies that have evolved to suit 
people of the various countries, and are only dif- 
ferent expressions of the same fundamental truths. 
The essential elements of the functions are obviously 
the same everj^where, and are observed by all Catho- 
lic rites in obedience to the command of Christ and 
the Apostles, thus: in every rite baptism is adminis- 
tered with water and the invocation of the Holy 
Trinity; the Holy Eucharist is celebrated with bread 
and wine, over which the words of institution are 
said; pen.ance involves the confession of .sins. In the 
ain])lificati()n of these essential elements, in the ac- 
comi)anying prayers and practical or symbolic cere- 
monies, various customs have produced the changes 
which make the difTerent rites. If any rite did not 
contain one of the essenti.al notes of the service it 
would be invalid in that point, if its prayers or cere- 
monies expressed false doctrine it would be heretical. 
Such rites would not be tolerated in the Catholic 
Church. But, supposing uniformity in essentials 
and in faith, the authority of the Church has never 
insisted on uniformity of rite; Rome has never re- 
sented the fact that other people have their own 
expressions of th(> same truths. The Roman Rite 
is the most venerable, the mo.st archaic, and immeas- 
urably the most important of all, but our fellow- 
Catholics in the East have the same right to their 
traditional liturgies as we have to ours. Nor can 
we doubt that otlier rites too have many beautiful 
prayers and ceremonies, which add to the richness of 
Catholic liturgical inheritance. To lo.se these would 
be a misfortune second onlv to the loss of the Roman 
Rite. Leo XIII in his I^ncyelieal, "Prtrclara" (20 
June, W.)\), expressr-d tlie tradition.al attitude of the 
papacy when he wrote of his rc-verence for the vener- 
able rites of the Ivistern Churches and assured the 
schismatics, whom he, invited to reunion, that there 
was no jealousy of these things at Rome; that for 



RITES 



65 



RITES 



all Eastern customs "we shall provide without nar- 



At the time of the Schism, Photius and Cerularius 
hurled against Latin rites and customs every con- 
ceivable absurd accusation. The Latin fast on 
Saturday, Lenten fare, law of celibacy, confirmation 
by a bishop, and especially the use of unleavened 
bread for the Holy Eucharist were their accusations 
against the West. Latin theologians replied that 
both were right and suitable, each for the people 
who used them, that there was no need for uni- 
formity in rite if there was unity in faith, that one 
good custom did not prove another to be bad, thus 
defending their customs without attacking those of 
the East. But the Byzantine patriarch was breaking 
the unity of the Church, denying the primacy, and 
plunging the East into schism. In 1054, when 
Cerularius's schism had begun, a Latin bishop, 
Dominic of Gradus and Aquileia, wrote concerning 
it to Peter III of Antioch. He discussed the ques- 
tion Cerularius had raised, the use of azymes at Mass, 
and carefully explained that, in using this bread, 
Latins did not intend to disparage the Eastern cus- 
tom of consecrating leavened bread, for there is a 
symbolic reason for either practice. "Because we 
know that the sacred mixture of fermented bread is 
used and lawfully observed by the most holy and 
orthodox Fathers of the Eastern Churches, we faith- 
fully approve of both customs and confirm both by a 
spiritual explanation" (Will, "Acta et scripta qua; 
de controv(!rsiis occlesiie grseca; et latina; sa^c. XI 
composita extant", Leipzig, 1861, 207). These words 
represent very well the attitude of the papacy to- 
wards other rites at all times. Three points, how- 
ever, may seem opposed to this and therefore require 
some explanation: the supplanting of the old Gal- 
ilean Rite by that of Rome almost throughout the 
West, the modification of Uniat rites, the sup- 
pression of the later medieval rites. 

The existence of the Galilean Rite was a imique 
anomaly. The natural principle that rite follows 
patriarchate has been sanctioned by universal tra- 
dition with this one exception. Since the first or- 
ganization of patriarchates there has been an ideal 
of uniformity throughout cat-h. The close bond that 
joined bishops anil metroijolitans to their patriarch 
involved the use of his liturgy, just as the priests of a 
diocese follow the rite of their bishop. Before the 
arbitrary imposition of the Byzantine Rite on all 
Orthodox Churches no Eastern jiatriarch would have 
tolerated a foreign liturgy in his domain. All Egypt 
used the Alexandrine Rite, all Syria that of Antioch- 
Jerusalem, all Asia Minor, Greece, and the Balkan 
lands, that of Constantinople. But in the vast West- 
ern lands that make up the Roman patriarchate, 
north of the Alps and in Spain, various local rites 
developed, all bearing a strong resemblance to each 
other, yet different from that of Rome itself. These 
form the Galilean family of liturgies. Abbot Cabrol, 
Dom Cagin, and other writers of their school think that 
the Galilean Rite was really the original Roman Rite 
before Rome modified it ( " Pal^^ographie musicale ", 
V, Solesmes, 1889; Cabrol, "Lesoriginesliturgiques", 
Paris, 1906). Most writers, however, maintain with 
Mgr Duchesne ("Origines du culte chr^tien", Paris, 
1898, 84-89), that the Galilean Rite is Eastern, Antio- 
chene in origin. Certainly it has numerous Antio- 
chene peculiarities (see Gallican Rite), and when it 
emerged as a complete rite in the sixth and seventh 
centuries (in Germanus of Paris, etc.), it was dif- 
ferent from that in use at Rome at the time. Non- 
Roman liturgies were used at Milan, Aquileia, even 
at Gubbio at the gates of the Roman province (In- 
nocent I's letter to Decentius of Eugubium; Ep. 
XXV, in P. L., XX, 551-61). Innocent (401-17) nat- 
urally protested against the use of a foreign rite in 
Umbria; occasionally other popes showed some de- 
XIII.— 5 



sire for uniformity in their patriarchate, but the great 
majority regarded the old state of things with per- 
fect indifference. When other bishops asked them 
how ceremonies were performed at Rome they sent 
descriptions (so Pope Vigilius to Profuturus of Braga 
in 538; Jaff6, "Regesta Rom. Pont.", n. 907), but 
were otherwise content to allow different uses. St. 
Gregory I (590-604) showed no anxiety to make the 
new English Church conform to Rome, but told St. 
Augustine to take whatever rites he thought most 
suitable from Rome or Gaul (Ep. xi, 64, in P. L., 
LXXVII, 1186-7). 

Thus for centuries the popes alone among patriarchs 
did not enforce their own rite even throughout their 
patriarchate. The gradual romanization and sub- 
sequent disappearance of Gallican rites were (be- 
ginning in the eighth and ninth centuries), the work 
not of the popes but of local bishops and kings who 
naturally wished to conform to the use of the Apos- 
tolic See. The GaUican Rites varied everywhere 
(Charles the Great gives this as his reason for adopt- 
ing the Roman Use; see Hauck, " Kirchengesch. 
Deutschlands", II, 107 sq.), and the inevitable desire 
for at least local uniformity arose. The bishops' fre- 
quent visits to Rome brought them in contact with 
the more dignified ritual observed by their chief at 
the tomb of the Apostles, and they were naturally in- 
fluenced by it in their return home. The local bis- 
hops in synods ordered conformity to Rome. The 
romanizing movement in the West came from be- 
low. In the Prankish kingdom Charles the Great, as 
part of his scheme of unifying, sent to Adrian I for 
copies of the Roman books, commanding their use 
throughout his domain. In the history of the sub- 
stitution of the Roman Rite for the Gallican the popes 
appear as spectators, except perhaps in Spain and 
much later in Milan. The final result was the ap- 
plication in the West of the old principle, for since 
the pope was undoubtedly Patriarch of the West it 
was inevitable, that sooner or later the West should 
conform to his rite. The places, however, that 
really cared for their old local rites (Milan, Toledo) 
retain them even now. 

It is true that the changes made in some Uniat rites 
by the Roman correctors have not always corre- 
sponded to the best liturgical tradition. There are, 
as Mgr Duchesne says, "corrections inspired by zeal 
that was not always according to knowledge" 
(Origines du culte, 2nd ed., 69), but they are much 
fewer than is generally supposed and have never been 
made with the idea of romanizing. Despite the 
general prejudice that Uniat rites are mere mutilated 
hybrids, the strongest impression from the study of 
them is how little has been changed. Where there is 
no suspicion of false doctrine, as in the Byzantine 
Rite, the only change made was the restoration of 
the name of the pope where the schismatics had 
erased it. Although the question of the procession 
of the Holy Ghost has been so fruitful a source of 
dispute between Rome and Constantinople the 
Filioque clause was certainly not contained in the 
original creed, nor did the Roman authorities insist on 
its addition. So Rome is content that Eastern 
Catholics should keep their traditional form un- 
changed, though they believe the Catholic doctrine. 
The Filioque is only sung by those Byzantine Uniata 
who wish it themselves, as the Ruthenians. Other 
rites were altered in places, not to romanize but only 
to eradicate passages suspected of heresy. All 
other Uniats came from Nestorian, Monophysite, 
or Monothelete sects, whose rites had been used for 
centuries by heretics. Hence, when bodies of these 
people wished to return to the Catholic Church their 
services were keenly studied at Rome for possible 
heresy. In most cases corrections were absolutely 
necessary. The Nestorian Liturgy, for instance, did 
not contain the words of institution, which had to be 



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66 



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added to the Liturgy of the converted Chaldees. 
The Monophvsite Jacobites, Copts, and Armenians 
have in the Trisagion the fateful clause: "who wast 
crucified for us", which has been the watchword of 
Monophvsitism ever since Peter the Dyer of Antioch 
added it "(470-SS). If only because of its associations 
this could not remain in a Catholic Liturgy. 

In some instances, however, the correctors were 
over scrupulous. In the Gregorian Armenian Liturgy 
the words said by the deacon at the expulsion of the 
catechumens, long before the Consecration: "The 
body of the Lord and the blood of the Saviour are set 
forth (or "are before us") (Brightman, "Eastern 
Liturgies", 430) were in the Uniat Rite changed to: 
"are about to be before us". The Uniats also omit 
the words sung by the Gregorian choir before the 
Anaphora: "Christ has been manifested amongst us 
(has appeared in the midst of us)" (ibid., 434), and 
further change the cherubic hymn because of its antici- 
pation of the Consecration. These misplacements 
are really harmless when understood, yet any reviser 
would be shocked by such strong cases. In many 
other ways also the Armenian Rite shows evidence of 
Roman influence. It has unleavened bread, our 
confession and Judica psalm at the beginning of 
Mass, a Lavabo before the Canon, the last Gospel, 
etc. But so Uttle is this the effect of union with Rome 
that the schismatical Armenians have all these 
points too. They date from the time of the Crusades, 
when the Armenians, vehemently opposed to the 
Orthodox, made many advances towards Cathohcs. 
So also the strong romanizing of the Maronite 
Liturgy was entirely the work of the Maronites 
themselves, when, surrounded by enemies in the 
East, they too turned towards the great Western 
Church, sought her communion, and eagerly copied 
her practices. One can hardly expect the pope to 
prevent other Churches from imitating Roman cus- 
toms. Yet in the case of Uniats he does even this. 
A Byzantine Uniat priest who uses unleavened 
bread in his Liturgy- incurs excommunication. The 
only case in which an ancient Eastern rite has been 
wilfully romanized is that of the Uniat Malabar 
Christians, where it was not Roman authority but 
the misguided zeal of Alexius de Menezes, Arch- 
bishop of Goa, and his Portuguese advisers at the 
Synod of Diamper (1599) which spoiled the old 
Alalabar Rite. 

The Western medieval rites are in no case (except 
the AmV>rosian and Mozarabic Rites), really inde- 
pendent of Rome. They are merely the Roman Rite 
with local additions and modifications, most of which 
are to its disadvantage. They are late, exuberant, 
and inferior variants, whose ornate additions and long 
interpolates! tropes, sequences, and farcing destroy 
the dignifie<i simplicity of the old liturgy. In 1570 
the revisers appointed by the Council of Trent 
rcfitorwl with scrupulous care and, even in the light 
of later studies, brilliant success the pure Roman 
Missal, which Pius V ordered should alone be used 
wherever the Roman liite is followed. It was a 
return to an oMer and purer form. The medieval 
riteH have no doubt a certain archaeological interest; 
but where the Roman Rite is used it is best to use 
it in its pure form. This too only means a return 
to the principle that rite should follow patriarchate. 
The reform was made very prudently, Pius V allowing 
any rite that could prove an existence of two cen- 
turies to remain (Bull, "Quo primum", 19 July, 
1570, printed first in the Missal), thus saving any 
local use that had a certain antiquity. Some dio- 
ceses (e. g. Lyons) and religious orders (Domin- 
icans, Carthusians, Carmelites), therefore keep their 
special uses, and the independent Ambrosian and 
Mozarabic Kites, whose loss would have been a real 
misfortune (see Liturgy, Mass, Liturot of the) 
still remain. 



Rome then by no means imposed uniformity 
of rite. Catholics are united in faith and discipline, 
but in their manner of performing the sacred func- 
tions there is room for variety based on essential 
unity, as there was in the first centuries. There are 
cases (e. g. the Georgian Church) where union with 
Rome has saved the ancient use, while the schis- 
matics have been forced to abandon it by the cen- 
tralizing poUcy of their authorities (in this case 
Russia). The rutliless destruction of ancient rites 
in favour of uniformity has been the work not of 
Rome but of the schismatical patriarchs of Con- 
stantinople. Since the thirteenth century Con- 
stantinople in its attempt to make itself the one 
centre of the Orthodox Church has driven out the far 
more venerable and ancient Liturgies of Antioch and 
Alexandria and has compelled all the Orthodox to 
use its owTi late derived rite. The Greek Liturgy of 
St. Mark has ceased to exist; that of St. James has 
been revived for one or two days in the year at 
Zakynthos and Jerusalem only (see Antiochene 
Liturgy). The Orthodox all the world over must 
follow the Rite of Constantinople. In this unjustifi- 
able centralization we have a defiance of the old 
principle, since Antioch, Jerusalem, Alexandria, 
Cyprus, in no way belong to the Byzantine Patriarch- 
ate. Those who accuse the papacy of sacrificing 
everything for the sake of uniformity mistake the real 
offender, the oecumenical patriarch. 

III. The Old Rites. — Catholic and Schismatical. — 
A complete table of the old rites with an account of 
their mutual relations will be found in the article 
Liturgy. Here it need only be added that there is a 
Uniat body using each of the Eastern rites. There is no 
ancient rite that is not represented within the Catholic 
Church. That rite, liturgical language, and religious 
body connote three totally different ideas has been 
explained at length in the article Greek Rites. The 
rite a bishop or priest follows is no test at all of his 
religion. Within certain broad limits a member of 
any Eastern sect might use any rite, for the two 
categories of rite and religion cross each other con- 
tinually. They represent quite different classifica- 
tions: for instance, liturgically all Armenians belong 
to one class, theologically a Uniat Armenian belongs 
to the same class as Latins, Chaldees, Maronites, etc., 
and has nothing to do with his Gregorian (Mono- 
physite) fellow-countrymen (see Eastern Churches). 
Among Catholics the rite forms a group; each rite is 
used by a branch of the Church that is thereby a 
special, though not separate, entity. So within the 
Catholic unity we speak of local Churches whose 
characteristic in each case is the rite they use. Rite 
is the only basis of this classification. Not all Ar- 
menian Catholics or Byzantine Uniats obey the same 
patriarch or local authority; yet they are "Churches " 
in(lividual provinces of the same great Church, 
because each is bound together by their own rites. 
In the West there is the vast Latin Church, in the 
Ea.st the Byzantine, Chaldean, Coptic, Syrian, 
Maronite, Armenian, and Malabar Uniat Churches. 
It is of course possible to subdivide and to speak 
of the national Churches (of Italy, France, Spain, 
etc.) under one of these main bodies (see Latin 
Church). In modern times rite takes the place 
of the old classification in patriarchates and provinces. 

IV. Protestant Rites. — The Reformation in the 
sixteenth century produced a new and numerous 
series of rites, which are in no sense continuations of 
the old development of liturgy. They do not all 
represent descendants of the earliest rites, nor can 
they be classified in the table of genus and species 
that includes all the old liturgies of Christendom. 
The old rites are unconscious and natural develop- 
ments of earlier ones and go back to the original 
fluid rite of the first centuries (see Liturgy). The 
Protestant rites are deliberate compositions made 



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67 



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by the various Reformers to suit their theological 
positions, as new services were necessary for their 
prayer-meetings. No old hturgy could be used 
by people with their ideas. The old rites contain 
the plainest statements about the Real Presence, 
the Eucharistic Sacrifice, prayers to saints, and for 
the dead, which are denied by Protestants. The 
Reformation occurred in the West, where the Roman 
Rite in its various local forms had been used for cen- 
turies. No Reformed sect could use the Roman 
Mass; the medieval derived rites were still more 
ornate, explicit, in the Reformers' sense super- 
stitious. So all the Protestant sects abandoned the 
old Mass and the other ritual functions, composing 
new services which have no continuity, no direct re- 
lation to any historic liturgy. However, it is hardly 
possible to compose an entirely new Christian ser- 
vice without borrowing anything. Moreover, in many 
cases the Reformers wished to make the breach with 
the past as little obvious as could be. So many of 
their new services contain fragments of old rites; 
they borrowed such elements as seemed to them 
harmless, composed and re-arranged and evolved 
in some cases services that contain parts of the old 
ones in a new order. On the whole it is surprising 
that they changed as much as they did. It would 
have been possible to arrange an imitation of the 
Roman Mass that would have been much more 
like it than anything they produced. 

They soon collected fragments of all kinds of rites. 
Eastern, Roman, Mozarabic, etc., which with their 
new prayers they arranged into services that are hope- 
less liturgical tangles. This is specially true of the 
Anglican Prayer-books. In some cases, for instance, 
the placing of the Gloria after the Communion in 
Edward VI's second Prayer-book, there seems to be 
no object except a love of change. The first Lutheran 
services kept most of the old order. The Calvinist 
arrangements had from the first no connexion with 
any earlier rite. The use of the vulgar tongue was a 
great principle with the Reformers. Luther and 
Zwingli at first compromised with Latin, but soon the 
old language disappeared in all Protestant services. 
Luther in 1523 published a tract, "Of the order of the 
service in the parish" ("Von ordenung gottis diensts 
3mn der gemeine" in Clemen, "Quellenbuch zur 
prakt. Theologie", I, 24-6), in which he insists on 
preaching, rejects all "unevangelical" parts of the 
Mass, such as the Offertory and idea of sacrifice, in- 
vocation of saints, and ceremonies, and denounces 
private Masses (Winkclmessen), Masses for the dead, 
and the idea of the priest as a mediator. Later in the 
same year he issued a " Formula missa? et communionis 
pro ecclesia Vittebergensi " (ibid., 26-34), in which he 
omits the preparatory prayers. Offertory, all the Canon 
to qui pridie, from Unde et memores to the Pater, the 
embolism of the Lord's Prayer, fraction, Ite missa 
est. The Preface is shortened, the Sanctus is to be 
sung after the words of institution which are to be 
said aloud, and meanwhile the elevation may be 
made because of the weak who would be offended by 
its sudden omission (ibid., IV, 30). At the end he 
adds a new ceremony, a blessing from Num., vi, 24-6. 
Latin remained in this service. 

Karlstadt began to hold vernacular services at 
Wittenberg since 1521. In 1524 Kaspar Kantz pub- 
lished a German service on the lines of Luther's 
"Formula missae" (Lohe, "Sammlung liturgischer 
Formulare", III, Nordlingen, 1842, 37 sq.); so also 
Thomas Munzer, the Anabaptist, in 1523 at Alstedt 
(Smend, "Die evang. deutschen Messen", 1896, 99 
sq.). A number of compromises began at this time 
among the Protestants, services partly Latin and 
partly vernacular (Rietschel, "Lehrbuch der Litur- 
gik", I, 404-9). Vernacular hymns took the place of 
the old Proper (Introit, etc.). At last in 1526 Luther 
issued an entirely new German service, "Deudsche 



Messe und ordnung Gottis diensts" (Clemen, op. cit., 
34-43), to be used on Sundays, whereas the "P'ormula 
missae", in Latin, might be kept for week-days. In 
the "Deudsche Messe" "a spiritual song or German 
psahn" replaces the Introit, then follows Kyrie elei- 
son in Greek three times only. There is no Gloria. 
Then come the Collects, Epistle, a German hymn. 
Gospel, Creed, Sermon, Paraphrase of the Lord's 
Prayer, words of institution with the account of 
the Last Supper from I Cor., xi, 20-9, Elevation 
(always kept by Luther himself in spite of Karl- 
stadt and most of his colleagues). Communion, 
during which the Sanctus or a hymn is sung, Collects, 
the blessing from Num., vi, 24-6. Except the Kyrie, 
all is in German; azj^me bread is still used but de- 
clared indifferent; Communion is given under both 
kinds, though Luther preferred the unmixed chalice. 
This service remained for a long time the basis of the 
Lutheran Communion function, but the local branches 
of the sect from the beginning used great freedom in 
modifying it. The Pietistic movement in the eigh- 
teenth century, with its scorn for forms and still more 
the present Rationalism, have left very little of Lu- 
ther's scheme. A vast number of Agendce, Kirchen- 
ordnungen, and Prayer-books issued by various Lu- 
theran consistories from the sixteenth century to our 
own time contain as many forms of celebrating the 
Lord's Supper. Pastors use their own discretion to a 
great extent, and it is impossible to foresee what ser- 
vice will be held in any Lutheran church. An arrange- 
ment of hymns, Bible readings (generally the Nicene 
Creed), a sermon, then the words of institution and 
Communion, prayers (often extempore), more hymns, 
and the blessing from Num., vi, make up the general 
outline of the service. 

Zwingli was more radical than Luther. In 1523 he 
kept a form of the Latin Mass with the omission of all 
he did not like in it ("De canone missa) epichiresis" 
in Clemen, op. cit., 43-7), chiefly because the town 
council of Zurich feared too sudden a change, but in 
1525 he overcame their scruples and issued his 
"Action oder bruch (=Brauch) des nachtmals" 
(ibid., 47-50). This is a complete breach with the 
Mass an entirely new service. On Maundy Thurs- 
day the men and women are to receive communion, 
on Good Friday those of "middle age", on Easter 
Sunday only the oldest {die alleraliesten) . These 
are the only occasions on which the service is to 
be held. The arrangement is: a prayer said by the 
pastor facing the people, reading of I Cor., xi, 20-9, 
Gloria in Excelsis, "The Lord be with you" and its 
answer, reading of John, vi, 47-63, Apostles' Creed, 
an address to the people. Lord's Prayer, extempore 
prayer^ words of institution, Communion (under both 
kinds in wooden vessels), Ps. cxiii, a short prayer of 
thanksgiving; the pastor says: "Go in peace". On 
other Sundays there is to be no Communion at all, 
but a service consisting of prayer. Our Father, sermon, 
general confession, absolution, prayer, blessing. 
Equally radical was the Calvinist sect. In 1535 
through Farel's influence the Mass was abolished in 
Geneva. Three times a year only was there to be a 
commemorative Supper in the baldest form ; on other 
Sundays the sermon was to suffice. In 1542 Calvin 
issued " La forme des prieres ecclcsiastiques" (Clemen, 
op. cit., 51-S), a supplement to which describes "La 
maniere de cel^brer la c^ne" (ibid., 51-68). This rite, 
to be celebrated four times yearly, consists of the read- 
ing of I Cor., xi, an excommunication of various kinds 
of sinners, and long exhortation. "This being done, 
the ministers distribute the bread and the cup to the 
people, taking care that they approach reverently and 
in good order" (ibid., 60). Meanwhile a psalm is sung 
or a lesson read from the Bible, a thanksgiving fol- 
lows (ibid., 55), and a final blessing. Except for their 
occurrence in the reading of I Cor., xi, the words of 
institution are not said ; there is no kind of Commu- 



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68 



RITES 



nion form. It is hardly possible to speak of rite at all 
in the Calvinist body. 

The other ritual functions kept by Protestants 
(baptism, confirmation as an introduction to Com- 
munion, marriage, funerals, appointment of ministers) 
went through much the same development. The 
first Reformers expunged and modified the old rites, 
then gradually more and more was changed until 
Uttle remained of a rite in our sense. Psalms, hymns, 
pravers, addresses to the people in various combina- 
tions make up these functions. The Calvinists have 
alwavs been more radical than the Lutherans. The 
development and multiple forms of these services may 
be seen in Rietschei, "Lehrbuch der Liturgik", II, 
and Clemen, "Quellenbuch zur praktischcn Theolo- 
gie", I (texts only). The Anglican body stands 
somewhat apart from the others, inasmuch as it has a 
standard book, almost unaltered since 1662. The 
first innovation was the introduction of an English 
Utany under Henry VIII in 1544. Cranmer was pre- 
paring further changes when Henry VIII died (see 
Procter and Frere, "A New History of the Book of 
Common Prayer", London, 1908, 29-35). Under 
Edward VI (1547-53) many changes were made at 
once: blessings, holy water, the creeping to the Cross 
were abolished. Mass was said in English (ibid., 39-41), 
and in 1549 the first Prayer-book, arranged by Cran- 
mer, was issued. Much"^of the old order of the Mass 
remained, but the Canon disappeared to make way 
for a new praj'er from Lutheran sources. The "Kol- 
nische Kirchenordnung " composed by Melanchthon 
and Butzer supplied part of the prayers. The changes 
are Lutheran rather than Calvinist. In 1552 the 
second Prayer-book took the place of the first. This 
is the present Anglican Book of Common Prayer and 
represents a much stronger Protestant tendency. The 
commandments take the place of the Introit and 
Kyrie (kept in the first book), the Gloria is moved to 
the end, the Consecration-prayer is changed so as to 
deny the Sacrifice and Real Presence, the form at the 
Communion becomes: "Take and eat this in remem- 
brance that Christ died for thee, and feed on him in 
thy heart by faith with thanksgiving" (similarly for 
the chalice). In 1558 Elizabeth's Government issued 
a new edition of the second Prayer-book of Edward 
VI with slight modifications of its extreme Protestant- 
ism. Both the Edwardine forms for communion 
are combined. In 1662 a number of revisions were 
made. In particular the ordination forms received 
additions defining the order to be conferred. A few 
slight modifications (as to the lessons read, days no 
longer to be kept) have been made since. 

The Anglican Communion service follows this 
order: The Lord's Prayer, Collect for purity. Ten 
Commandments, Collect for the king and the one for 
the day, Epistle, Gospel, Creed, sermon, certain sen- 
tences from the Bible (meanwhile a collection is made), 
prayer for the Church militant, address fo the people 
about Communion, general confession and absolution, 
the comfortable words (Matt., xi, 28; John, iii, 16; 
1 Tim., i, 15; I John, ii, 1), Preface, prayer ("We do 
not j»rfi8ume"j, Consecration-prayer, Communion at 
once, I>jrd's Prayer, Thanksgiving-prayer, "Glory be 
to G(k1 on high ", blessing. Ver>' little of the arrange- 
ment of the old Mass remains in this service, for all the 
ideap Protest ants reject are carefully excluded. The 
Book of Common Prayer contains all the official ser- 
vices of the Anglican Church, baptism^ the catechism, 
confirmation, marriage, funeral, ordmation, articles 
of religion, etc. It has also forms of morning and 
evening j)rayer, composfid partly from the Catholic 
Office with rnanv moflifications and very considerably 
re^lucwl. The i-'piscopal Church in Scotlanrl has a 
Prayer-bofjk, formed in lt)37 and revised in 1764, 
which ifl more nearly akin to the first Prayer-bf)ok of 
Edward VI and in decidedly more High-C^hurch in 
tone. In 1789 the Protestant Episcopal Church of 



America accepted a book based on the English one of 
1662, but taking some features from the Scotch ser- 
vices. The Anghcan service-books are now the least 
removed from Cathohc Uturgies of those used by any 
Protestant body. But this is saying very Uttle. The 
Non-jurors in the eighteenth century produced a 
number of curious liturgies which in many ways go 
back to Catholic principles, but have the fault common 
to all Protestant services of being conscious and arti- 
ficial arrangements of elements selected from the old 
rites, instead of natural developments (Overton, "The 
Non-jurors", London, 1902, ch. vi). The Irvingites 
have a not very successful service-book of this type. 
Many Methodist s use the Anglican book ; the other later 
sects have for the most part nothing but loose arrange- 
ments of hymns, readings, extempore praj'crs, and a 
sermon that can hardly be called rites in any sense. 
V. Liturgical Language. — The language of any 
Church or rite, as distinct from the vulgar tongue, is 
that used in the official services and may or may not 
be the common language. I^or instance the Rumanian 
Church uses liturgically the ordinary language of the 
country, while Latin is used by the Latin Church for 
her Liturgy without regard to the mother tongue of 
the clergy or congregation. There are many cases 
of an intermediate state between these extremes, in 
which the liturgical language is an older form of the 
vulgar tongue, sometimes easily, sometimes hardly at 
all, understood by people who have not studied it 
specially. Language is not rite. Theoretically any 
rite may exist in any language. Thus the Armenian, 
Coptic, and East S>Tian Rites are celebrated always 
in one language, the Byzantine Rite is used in a great 
number of tongues, and in other rites one language 
sometimes enormously preponderates but is not used 
exclusively. This is determined by church discipUne. 
The Roman Liturgy is generally celebrated in Latin. 
The reason why a liturgical language began to be used 
and is still retained must be distinguished in liturgical 
science from certain theological or mystic considera- 
tions by which its use may be explained or justified. 
Each liturgical language was first chosen because it was 
the natural language of the people. But languages 
change and the Faith spreads into countries where 
other tongues are spoken. Then either the authori- 
ties are of a more practical mind and simph' translate 
the prayers into the new language, or the conservative 
instinct, always strong in religion, retains for the 
liturgy an older language no longer used in common 
life. The Jews showed this instinct, when, though 
Hebrew was a dead language after the Captivity, they 
continued to use it in the Temple and the synagogues 
in the time of Christ, and still retain it in their ser- 
vices. The Moslem, also conservative, reads the 
Koran in classical Arabic, whether he be Turk, Persian, 
or Afghan. The translation of the church service is 
complicated by the difficulty of determining when the 
language in whit-h it is written, as Latin in the West 
and Hellenistic Greek in the East, has ceased to be the 
vulgar tongue. Though the Byzantine services were 
translated into the common language of the Slavonic 
peo])le that they might he understood, this form of the 
language fChurfh-Slavonic) is no longer spoken, but 
is gradually becoming as unintelligible as the original 
Greek. Protestants make a great point of using 
languages "understanded of the people", yet (he 
language of Luther's Bible and the Anglican Prayer- 
book is already archaic. 

History. — \Vhen Christianity appeared Hellenistic 
Greek was the common language spoken around the 
Mediterranean. St. Paul writes to people in Greece, 
Asia Minor, and Italy in Greek. When the parent 
rites were finally written down in the fourth and fifth 
centuries Eastern liturgical language had slightly 
changed. The Greek of these liturgies (Apost. 
Const. VIII, St. James, St. Mark, the Byzantine 
Liturgy) was that of the Fathers of the time, strongly 



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(59 



RITES 



coloured by the Septuagint and the New Testament. 
These liturgies remained in this form and have never 
been recast in any modern Greek dialect. Like the 
text of the Bible, that of a liturgy once fixed becomes 
sacred. The formulae used Sunday after Sunday are 
hallowed by too sacred associations to be changed 
as long as more or less the same language is used. 
The common tongue drifts and develops, but the 
liturgical forms are stereotyped. In the East and 
West, however, there existed different principles in 
this matter. Whereas in the West there was no 
literary language but Latin till far into the Middle 
Ages, in the East there were such languages, totally 
unlike Greek, that had a position, a literature, a 
dignity of their own hardly inferior to that of Greek 
itself. In the West every educated man spoke and 
wrote Latin almost to the Renaissance. To trans- 
late the Liturgy into a Celtic or Teutonic language 
would have seemed as absurd as to write a prayer- 
book now in some vulgar slang. The East was never 
hellenized as the West was latinized. Great nations, 
primarily Egypt and Syria, kept their own languages 
and literatures as part of their national inheritance. 
The people, owing no allegiance to the Greek lan- 
guage, had no rea.son to say their prayers in it, and 
the Liturgy was translated into Coptic in Egypt, into 
Syriac in Syria and Palestine. So the principle of a 
uniform liturgical language was broken in the East 
and people were accustomed to hear the church ser- 
vice in different languages in different places. This 
uniformity once broken never became an ideal to 
Eastern Christians and the way was opened for an 
indefinite multi[)lication of liturgical tongues. 

In the fourth and fifth centuries the Rites of Antioch 
and Alexandria were used in Greek in the great towns 
where people spoke Greek, in Coptic or Syriac among 
peasants in the country. The Rite of Asia Minor and 
Constantinople was always in Greek, because here 
there was no rival tongue. But when the Faith was 
preached in Armenia (from Ca^sarea) the Armenians 
in taking over the Cesarean Rite translated it of 
course into their own language. And the great Xes- 
torian Church in East Syria, evolving her own litera- 
ture in Syriac, naturally used that language for her 
church services too. This diversity of tongues was 
by no means parallel to diversity of sect or religion. 
People who agreed entirely in faith, who were sepa- 
rated by no schism, nevertheless said their prayers in 
different languages. Melchites in Syria clung entirely 
to the Orthodox faith of Constantinople and used the 
Byzantine Rite, yet used it translated into Syriac. 
The process of translating the Liturgy continued later. 
After the Schism of the eleventh century, the Ortho- 
dox Church, unlike Rome, insisted on uniformity of 
rite among her members. All the Orthodox use the 
Byzantine Rite, yet have no idea of one language. 
When the Slavs were converted the Byzantine Rite 
was put into Old Slavonic for them; whVn Arabic be- 
came the only language spoken in Egyi)t and Syria, it 
became the languag(M)f the Liturgy in those countries. 
For a long time all the peojjle north of Constantinople 
used Old Slavonic in church, although the dialects they 
spoke gradually drifted away from it. Only the 
Georgians, who are Slavs in no sense at all, used their 
own language. In the seventeenth century as part 
of the growth of Rumanian national feeling came a 
great insistence on the fact that they were not Slavs 
either. They wished to be counted among Western, 
Latin races, so they translated their liturgical books 
into their own Romance language. These represent 
the old classical liturgical languages in the East. 

The Monophysite Churches have kept the old 
tongues even when no longer spoken; thus they use 
Coptic in P]gypt, Syriac in Syria, Armenian in Ar- 
menia. The Nestorians and their daughter-Church 
in India (Malabar) also use Syriac. The Orthodox 
have four or five chief liturgical languages: Greek, 



Arabic, Church-Slavonic, and Rumanian. Georgian 
has almost died out. Later Russian missions have 
very much increased the number. They have 
translated the same Byzantine Rite into German, 
Esthonian, and Lettish for the Baltic provinces, 
Finnish and Tartar for converts in Finland and 
Siberia, Eskimo, a North American Indian dialect, 
Chinese, and Japanese. Hence no general principle 
of liturgical language can be established for Eastern 
Churches, though the Nestorians and Monophysitea 
have evolved something like the Roman princi{)le 
and kept their old languages in the liturgy, in spite 
of change in common talk. The Orthodox services 
are not, however, everywhere understood by the 
people, for since these older versions were made lan- 
guage has gone on developing. In the case of con- 
verts of a totally different race, such as Chinese or 
Red Indians, there is an obvious line to cross at once 
and there is no difficulty about translating what 
would otherwise be totally unintelligible to them. 
At home the spoken language gradually drifts away 
from the form stereotyped in the Liturgy, and it is 
difficult to determine when the Liturgy ceases to be 
understood. In more modern times with the growth 
of new sects the conservative instinct of the old 
Churches has grown. The Greek, Arabic, and 
Church-Slavonic te.xts are jealously kept unchanged, 
though in all cases they have become archaic and 
difficult to follow by uneducated people. Lately the 
question of liturgical language has become one of the 
chief difficulties in Macedonia. Especially since the 
Bulgarian Schism the Phanar at Constantinople in- 
sists on Greek in church as a sign of Hellenism, while 
the people clamour for Old-Slavonic or Rumanian. 

In the West the whole situation is different. 
Greek was first used at Rome, too. About the third 
century the services were translated into the vulgar 
tongue, Latin (see Mass, Liturgy of the), which has 
remained ever since. There was no possible rival 
language for many centuries. As the Western 
barbarians became civilized they accepted a Latin 
culture in everj'thing, having no literatures of their 
own. Latin was the language of all educated people, 
so it was used in church, as it was for books or even 
letter-writing. The Romance people drifted from 
Latin to Italian, Spanish, French, etc., so gradually 
that no one can say when Latin became a dead lan- 
guage. The vulgar tongue was used by peasants and 
ignorant people only; but all books were written, 
lectures given, and solemn speeches made in Latin. 
Even Dante (d. 1321) thought it necessary to write 
an apology for Italian (De vulgari eloquentia). 
So for centuries the Latin language was that, not of 
the Catholic Church, but of the Roman patriarchate. 
When people at last realized that it was dead, it was 
too late to change it. Around it had gathered the 
associations of Western Christendom; the music 
of the Roman Rite was composed and sung only to a 
Latin text; and it is even now the official tongue of 
the Roman Court. The ideal of uniformity in rite 
extended to language also, so when the rebels of the 
sixteenth century threw over the old language, sacred 
from its long use, as they threw over the old rite and 
old laws, the Catholic Church, conservative in all 
these things, would not give way to them. As a 
bond of union among the many nations who make up 
the Latin patriarchate, she retains the old Latin 
tongue with one or two small exceptions. Along 
the Eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea the Roman 
Rite has been used in Slavonic (with the Glagolitic 
letters) since the eleventh century, and the Roman 
Mass is said in Greek on rare occasions at Rome. 

It is a question how far one may speak of a special 
liturgical Latin language. The writers of our Col- 
lects, hymns. Prefaces, etc., wrote simply in the lan- 
guage of their time. The style of the various ele- 
ments of the Mass and Divine Office varies greatly ac- 



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cording to the time at which they were written. V^e 
have texts from the fourth or fifth to the twentieth 
century. Liturgical Latin then is simply late Chris- 
tian Latin of various periods. On the other hand the 
Liturgy had an influence on the style of Christian 
Latin writers second only to that of the Bible. First 
we notice Hebraisms (per omnia scecula sceculorum) , 
many Greek constructions (per Dominum nostrum, 
meaning " for the sake of", Sid) and words (Eucha- 
ristia, litania, episcopus), expressions borrowed from 
B.'blical metaphors (pastor, liber pra'destinationis, 
crucifigere carnem, lux, vita, Agnus Dei), and words 
in a new Christian sense (humilitas, compunctio, 
caritas). St. Jerome in his Vulgate more than any 
one else helped to form liturgical style. His con- 
structions and phrases occur repeatedly in the non- 
Biblical parts of the ALass and Office. The style 
of the fifth and sixth centuries (St. Leo I, Celestine I, 
Gregory I) forms perhaps the main stock of our 
services. The mediaeval Schoolmen (St. Thonias 
Aquinas) and their technical terminology have in- 
fluenced much of the later parts, and the Latin of the 
Renaissance is an important element that in many 
cases overlays the ruder forms of earlier times. Of 
this Renaissance Latin many of the Breviary lessons 
are typical examples; a comparison of the earlier 
forms of the hvmns with the improved forms drawn 
up by order of Urban VIII (1623-44) will convince 
any one how disastrous its influence was. The ten- 
dency to write inflated phrases has not yet stopped: 
almost any modern Collect compared with the old 
ones in the "Gelasian Sacramentary " will show how 
much we have lost of style in our liturgical prayers. 

Use of Latin. — The principle of using Latin in 
church is in no way fundamental. It is a question 
of discipline that evolved differently in East and West, 
and may not be defended as either primitive or uni- 
versal. The authority of the Church could change 
the liturgical language at any time without sacrificing 
any important principle. The idea of a universal 
tongue may seem attractive, but is contradicted by 
the fact that the Catholic Church uses eight or nine 
different liturgical languages. Latin preponderates 
as a result of the greater influence of the Roman 
patriarchate and its rite, caused by the spread of 
Western Europeans into new lands and the unhappy 
schism of so many Easterns (see Fortescue, "Or- 
thodox Eastern Church", 431). Uniformity of rite 
or liturgical language has never been a Catholic 
ideal, nor was Latin chosen deliberately as a sacred 
language. Had there been any such idea the lan- 
guage would have been Hebrew or Greek. The 
objections of Protestants to a Latin Liturgy can be 
answered eaj?ily enough. An argument often made 
from I Cor., xiv, 4-18, is of no value. The whole 
pasKage treats of quite another thing, prophesying in 
tongu<« that no one understands, not even the speaker 
(sf"e 14 : " I'"or if I pray in a tongue, my spirit prayeth, 
hut my understanding is without fruit"). The 
other argument, from practical convenience, from the 
loKH to the people who do not unrlerstand what is 
being said, has some value. The Church has never 
set up a mysterious unintelligible language as an 
ideal. There is no principle of sacerdotal mysteries 
from which the layman is shut out. In spite of the 
use of Latin the people have means of understanding 
the service. That they might do so still better if 
everything were in the vulgar tongue may be ad- 
mittwl, but in making this change the loss would 
probably be greater than the gain. 

By changing the language of the Liturgy we should 
losfi the principle of uniformity in the Roman patri- 
archate. According to the ancient principle that 
rite follows patriarchate, the Western rite should be 
that of the Wf*item patriarch, the Roman Bishop, 
who uwH the local rite of the city of Rom'- There is 
a further advantage in using it in hia language, bo 



the use of Latin in the West came about naturally 
and is retained through conservative instinct. It is 
not so in the East. There is a great practical ad- 
vantage to travellers, whether priests or laymen, in 
finding their rite exactly the same everywhere. An 
English priest in Poland or Portugal could not say 
his Mass unless he and the server had a common 
language. The use of Latin all over the Roman 
patriarchate is a very obvious and splendid witness 
of unity. Every Catholic traveller in a country of 
which he does not know the language has felt the 
comfort of finding that in church at least everything 
is familiar and knows that in a Catholic church of his 
own rite he is at home anywhere. Moreover, the 
change of liturgical language would be a break with 
the past. It is a witness of antiquitj' of which a 
Catholic may well be proud that in Mass to-day we 
are still used to the very words that Anselm, Gregory, 
Leo sang in their cathedrals. A change of language 
would also abolish Latin chant. Plainsong, as 
venerable a relic of antiquity as any part of the ritual, 
is composed for the Latin text only, supposes always 
the Latin syllables and the Latin accent, and becomes 
a caricature when it is forced into another language 
with different rules of accent. 

These considerations of antiquity and universal 
use always made proportionately (since there are the 
Eastern Uniat rites) but valid for the Roman patri- 
archate may well outweigh the practical convenience 
of using the chaos of modern languages in the liturgy. 
There is also an aesthetic advantage in Latin. The 
splendid dignity of the short phrases with their 
rhythmical accent and terse style redolent of the 
great Latin Fathers, the strange beauty of the old 
Latin hymns, the sonorous majesty of the Vulgate, 
all these things that make the Roman Rite so digni- 
fied, so characteristic of the old Imperial City where 
the Prince of the Apostles set up his throne, would 
be lost altogether in modern English or French 
translations. The impossibility of understanding 
Latin is not so great. It is not a secret, unknown 
tongue, and till quite lately every educated person 
understood it. It is still taught in every school. 
The Church does not clothe her prayers in a secret 
language, but rather takes it for granted that people 
understand Latin. If Catholics learned enough 
Latin to follow the very easy style of the Church 
language all difficulty would be solved. For those 
who cannot take even this trouble there is the ob- 
vious solution of a translation. The Missal in Eng- 
lish is one of the easiest books to procure; the 
ignorant may follow in that the prayers that lack of 
education prevents their understanding without it. 

The liturgical languages used by Catholics are: 

1. Latin in the Roman, Milanese, and Mozarabic 
Rites (except in parts of Dalmatia). 

2. Greek in the. Byzantine Rite (not exclusively). 

3. Syriac in the Syrian, Maronite, Chaldean, and 
Malabar Rites. 

4. Coptic in the Coptic Rite. 

.5. Armenian bv all the C'hurclies of that rite. 

6. /Ironic by tlie .Mclchitcs (Byzantine Rite). 

7. Slavonic by Slavs of the Byzantine Rite and (in 
Glagolitic letters) in the Roman Rite in Dalmatia. 

8. Georgian (Byzantine Rite). 

9. Rumanian (Byzantine Rite). 

VI. Liturgical Science. — A. Rubrics. The most 
obvious and necessary study for ecclesiastical persons 
is that of the laws that regulate the performance of 
liturgical functions. From this point of view litur- 
gical study is a branch of canon law. The rules for 
the celebration of the Holy Mysteries, administration 
of sacraments, etc., are part of the positive law of the 
Church, jtist as much as the laws about benefices, 
church property, or fiisting, and oblige those whom 
they concern under pain of sin. As it is therefore 
the duty of persons in Holy orders to know them, 



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they are studied in all colleges and seminaries as part 
of the training of future priests, and candidates are 
examined in them before ordination. Because of 
its special nature and complication liturgical science 
in this sense is generally treated apart from the rest 
of canon law and is joined to similar practical matters 
(such as preaching, visiting the sick, etc.) to makeup 
the science of pastoral theology. The sources from 
which it is learned are primarily the rubrics of the 
liturgical books (the Missal, Breviary, and Ritual). 
There are also treatises which explain and arrange 
these rubrics, adding to them from later decrees of the 
S. Congregation of Rites. Of these Martinucci has 
not yet been displaced as the most complete and au- 
thoritative, Baldeschi has long been a favourite and 
has been translated into English, De Herdt is a good 
standard book, quite sound and clear as far as it goes 
but incomplete, Le Vavasseur is perhaps the most 
practical for general purposes. 

B. History. — The development of the various rites, 
their spread and mutual influence, the origin of each 
ceremony, etc., form a part of church history whose 
importance is becoming more and more realized. 
For practical purposes all a priest need know are 
the present rules that affect the services he has to 
perform, as in general the present laws of the Church 
are all we have to obey. But just as the student 
of history needs to know the decrees of former synods, 
even if abrogated since, as he studies the history of 
earlier times and remote provinces of the Church, 
because it is from these that he must build up his 
conception of her continuous life, so the liturgical 
student will not be content with knowing only what 
affects him now, but is prompted to examine the past, 
to inquire into the origin of our present rite and study 
other rites too as expressions of the life of the Church 
in other lands. The history of the liturgies that deeply 
affect the life of Christians in many ways, that are 
the foundation af many other objects of study 
(architecture, art, music, etc.) is no inconsiderable 
element of church history. In a sense this study 
is com|)aratively new and not yet sufficiently organ- 
ized, though to some extent it has always accompanied 
the practical study of liturgy. The great mediaeval 
liturgists were not content with describing the rites 
of their own time. They suggested historical reasons 
for the various ceremonies and contrasted other prac- 
tices with those of their own Churches. Benedict 
XIV's treatise on the Mass discusses the origin of each 
element of the Latin liturgy. This and other books 
of seventeenth- and eighteenth-century liturgiologists 
are still standard works. So also in lectures and 
works on liturgy in our first sense it has always been 
the custom to add historical notes on the origin of the 
ceremonies and prayers. 

But the interest in the history of liturgy for its own 
sake and the systematic study of early documents is a 
comparatively new thing. In this science England 
led the way and still takes the foremost place. It 
followed the Oxford Movement as part of the revived 
interest in the early Church among Anglicans. W. 
Palmer (Origines liturgicaj) and J. M. Neale in his 
various works are among those who gave the first 
impulse to this movement. The Catholic Daniel Rock 
("Hierurgia" and "The Church of our Fathers") 
further advanced it. It has now a large school of 
followers. F. C. Brightman's edition of "Eastern 
Liturgies" is the standard one used everywhere. 
The monumental editions of the "Gelasian Sacra- 
mentary" by H. A. Wilson and the "Leonine Sacra- 
mentary" by C. L. Feltoe, the various essays and dis- 
cussions by E. Bishop, C. Atchley, and many others 
keep up the English standard. In France Dom 
Gu^ranger (L'ann^e liturgique) and his school of 
Benedictines opened a new epoch. Mgr Duchesne 
supplied a long-felt want with his "Origines du culte 
Chretien", Dom Cabrol and Dom Leclercq ("Mon. 



eccl. lit.", etc., especially the monumental "Diet, 
d'arch. chret. et de liturgie") have advanced to the 
first place among modern authorities on historical 
liturgy. From Germany we have the works of H. 
Daniel (Codex lit. eccl. universae), Probst, ThaUiofer, 
Gihr, and a school of living students (Drews, Riet- 
schel, Baumstark, Buchwald, Rauschen). In Italy good 
work is being done by Semeria, Bonaccorsi, and others. 
Nevertheless the study of liturgy hardly yet takes the 
place it deserves in the education of church students. 
Besides the practical instruction that forms a part 
of pastoral theology, lectures on liturgical history 
would form a valuable element of the course of church 
history. As part of such a course other rites would be 
considered and compared. There is a fund of deeper 
understanding of the Roman Rite to be drawn from 
its comparison with others, Galilean or Eastern. Such 
instruction in liturgiology should include some notion 
of ecclesiology in general, the history and comparison 
of church planning and architecture, of vestments and 
church music. The root of all these things in different 
countries is the liturgies they serve and adorn. 

Dogmatic Value. — The dogmatic and apologetic 
value of liturgical science is a very important con- 
sideration to the theologian. It must, of course, be 
used reasonably. No Church intends to commit her- 
self officially to every statement and implication con- 
tained in her official books, any more than she is 
committed to everything said by her Fathers. For 
instance, the Collect for St. Juliana Falconieri (19 
June) in the Roman Rite refers to the story of her 
miraculous communion before her death, told at 
length in the sixth lesson of her Office, but the truth 
of that story is not part of the Catholic Faith. Lit- 
urgies give us arguments from tradition even more 
valuable than those from the Fathers, for these state- 
ments have been made by thousands of priests day 
after day for centuries. A consensus of liturgies is, 
therefore, both in space and time a greater witness of 
agreement than a consensus of Fathers, for as a gen- 
eral principle it is obvious that people in their prayers 
say only what they believe. This is the meaning of 
the well-known axiom: Lex orandi lex credendi. The 
prayers for the dead, the passages in which God is 
asked to accept this Sacrifice, the statements of the 
Real Presence in the oldest liturgies are unimpeach- 
able witnesses of the Faith of the early Church as to 
these points. The Bull of Pius IX on the Immaculate 
Conception (" Ineffabilis Deus", 8 Dec, 1854) con- 
tains a classical example of this argument from liturgy. 
Indeed there are few articles of faith that cannot be 
established or at least confirmed from liturgies. The 
Byzantine Office for St. Peter and St. Paul (29 June) 
contains plain statements about Roman primacy. 
The study of liturgy from this point of view is part of 
dogmatic theology. Of late years especially dogmatic 
theologians have given much attention to it. Chris- 
tian Pesch, S.J., in his " Praelectiones theologiae dog- 
maticae" (9 vols., Freiburg i. Br.) quotes the liturgical 
texts for the theses as part of the argument from tra- 
dition. There are then these three aspects under 
which liturgiology should be considered by a Catholic 
theologian, as an element of canon law, church history, 
and dogmatic theology. The history of its study 
would take long to tell. There have been liturgiol- 
ogists through all the centuries of Christian theology. 
Briefly the state of this science at various periods is 
this: 

Liturgiologists in the Ante-Nicene period, such as 
Justin Martyr, composed or wrote down descriptions 
of ceremonies performed, but made no examination of 
the sources of rites. In the fourth and fifth centuries 
the scientific study of the subject began. St. Am- 
brose's "Liber de Mysteriis" (P. L., XVI, 405-26), 
the anonymous (pseudo- Ambrose) " De Sacramentis " 
(P. L., XVI, 435-82), various treatises by St. Jerome 
(e. g., "Contra Vigilantium" in P. L., XXIII, 354- 



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367) and St. Augustine, St. CjtII of Jerusalem's 
"Catechetical Instructions" (P. L., XXXIII, 331- 
1154) and the famous " Peregrinat io Silviae" (in the 
"Corpus script, eccl. Latin." of \'ienna: "Itinera 
hierosol>'mitana", 35-101) represent in various de- 
grees the beginning of an examination of hturgical 
texts. From the sixth to the eighth centuries we have 
valuable texts (the Sacrament aries and Ordines) and 
a liturgical treatise of St. Isidore of Seville ("De eccl. 
officiis" in P. L., LXXXIII). The Carlovingian revival 
of the eighth and ninth centuries began the long line 
of medieval Uturgiologists. Alcuin (P. L., C-CI), 
Amalarius of Metz (P. L., XCIX, CV), Agobard (P. 
L., CIV). Florus of Lvons (P. L., CXIX, 15-72), 
Rabanus Maurus (P. L., CVII-CXII), and Wala- 
frid Strabo (P. L., CXIV, 916-66) form at this 
time a galaxy of liturgical scholars of the first impor- 
tance. In the eleventh century Berno of Constance 
("Micrologus" in P. L., CLI, 974-1022), in the 
twelfth Rupert of Deutz ("De divinis ofhciis" in 
P. L., CLXX, 9-334), Honorius of Autun ("Gemma 
animx'" and "De Sacramentis" in P. L., CLXXII), 
John Beleth ("Rationale div. offic." in P. L., CCII, 
9-166), and Beroldusof Milan (ed. Magistretti, Milan, 
1894) carrj' on the tradition. In the thirteenth cen- 
tury William Durandus of Mende ("Rationale div. 
offic"; see Dur.\ndus) is the most famous of all the 
mediaeval Uturgiologists. There is then a break till 
the sLxteenth century. The discussions of the Refor- 
mation period called people's attention again to 
liturgies, either as defences of the old Faith or as 
sources for the compilation of reformed services. 

From this time editions of the old rites were made 
for students, with commentaries. J. Clichtove 
(" Elucidatorium eccl.", Paris, 1516) and J. CochliEus 
("Speculum ant. devotionis", Mainz, 1549) were the 
first editors of this kind. Claude de Sainctes, Bishop 
of E\Teux, published a similar collection ("Liturgiae 
eive missae ss. Patrum", Antwerp, 1562). Pamelius's 
"Liturgica latin." (Cologne, 1571) is a valuable edition 
of Roman, Milanese, and Mozarabic texts. Melchior 
Hittorp published a collection of old commentaries 
on the liturgj' ("De Cath. eccl. div. offic", Cologne, 
1568) which was re-edited in Bigne's "Bibl. vet. 
Patrum.", X (Paris, 1610). The seventeenth century 
opened a great period. B. Gavanti ("Thesaurus sacr. 
rituum", re-edited by Merati, Rome, 173()-8) and H. 
Menard, O.S.B. (" Sacrament arium Gregorianum" in 
P. L., LXXVIII) began a new line of liturgiologists. 
J. Goar, O.P. ("Euchologion", Paris, 1647), and Leo 
Allatius in his various dissertations did great things 
for the study of Ea.stern rites. The Oratorian J. Morin 
("Comm. hist, de disciplina in admin. Sac. Pa'n.", 
Paris, 1651, and "Comm. de sacr is eccl. ordination- 
ibus", Paris, 1655). Cardinal John Bona ("Rerum 
lit. libri duo", Rome, 1671), Card. Tommasi ("Co- 
dices saframentorum", Rome, 1680; "Antiqui libri 
missarum", Rome, 1691), J. Mabillon, O.S.B. ("Mu- 
ea-um Italicum", Paris. 1687-9), E. Martene, O.S.B. 
("De ant. eccl. ritibus , Antwerp, 1736-8), represent 
the highest p<jint of liturgical study. Dom Claude de 
Vert wrote a series of treatises on liturgical matters. 
In the eighteenth century the most im}>ortant names 
are: Benc^diet XIV ("De SS. Sacrificio Mis-sae", re- 
published at Mainz, 1879), E. Rcnaudot ("Lit. orient, 
collectio", Paris, 1716), the four Assemani, Maronites 
("Kalendaria eccl. universae", Rome, 1755; "Codex 
lit. eccl. universy;", Rrjme, 1749-66, etc.). Muratori 
("Liturgia romana vetus", Venice, 1748). So we come 
to the revival of the nineteenth century, Dom 
Gu<^Tanger and the modem authors already men- 
tionefi. 

liENArDOT. IMuTginTum mienUilium colUctv) (Frankfurt, 1847); 
MARTtNE, iJt arUi'juxn '■crUficc rilihun f Antwerp ari'l Milan, 17.30- 
8) : Amemani. Codtz liturgicut Krclmia univerit (Home, 1749-66) ; 
Da!OEL, f'rtdtz liturgicuf ecrUtirr tinitniKT (I>eiprig, 1847); 
Denzioek, Rituii f}HinUil\Hm fWCrzliurK, lHr,3); Niu.bh. Knlen- 
dnrium mnnuaU rlnnxtirurk, ISWi); Hammond, Liturgieii, EnKlprn 
and WeMern (Oxford, 1878;; Hbiuhtman, Batlern Uturgiei 



(Oxford, 1896); Cabrol, Introduction aux itudes liturgiquea 
(Paria, 1907); Rietschbl, Lehrbuch tier Liturgik (Berlin, 1900); 
Clemen, Quellenbuch zur praktischen Theologie, I: LxtuTgik 
(Gieasen, 1910); The Prayer-books of Edward VI and Elizabeth 
are reprinted in the Ancient and Modem Library of Theological 
Literature (London); Proctor and Frere, .4 New History of the 
Book of Common Prayer (London, 1908); Maude, .1 History of 
the Book of Common Prayer (London, 1899). 

Adrian Fortescue. 

Benedictine Rite. — The only important rite pecu- 
liar to the Benedictine Order is the Benedictine 
Breviary (Breviarium Monasticum). St. Benedict 
devotes thirteen chapters (viii-xx) of his rule to 
regulating the canonical hours for his monks, 
and the Benedictine Breviary is the outcome of this 
regulation. It is used not only by the so-called 
Black Benedictines, but also by the Cistercians, 
Olivetans, and all those orders that have the Rule 
of St. Benedict as their basis. The Benedictines 
are not at liberty to .substitute the Roman for the 
Monastic Breviary; by using the Roman Breviary 
they would not satisfy their obligation of saying the 
Divine Office. Each congregation of Benedictines 
has its own ecclesiastical calendar. 

Michael Ott. 

Carmelite Rite. — The rite in use among the 
Carmelites since about the middle of the twelfth cen- 
tury is known by the name of the Rite of the Holy 
Sepulchre, the Carmelite Rule, which was written 
about the year 1210, ordering the hermits of Mount 
Carmel to follow the approved custom of the 
Church, which in this in.stance meant the Patriarchal 
Church of Jerusalem: "Hi qui litteras noverunt et 
legere psalmos, per singulas horas eos dicant qui ex 
institutione sanctorum patrum et ecclesiae approbata 
consuetudine ad horas singulas sunt deputati." This 
Rite of the Holj^ Sepulchre belonged to the Galilean 
family of the Roman Rite; it appears to have de- 
scended directly from the Parisian Rite, but to have 
undergone some modifications pointing to other 
sources. For, in the Sanctorale we find influences of 
Angers, in the proses traces of meridional sources, 
while the lessons and prayers on Holy Saturday are 
purely Roman. The fact is that most of the clerics 
who accompanied the Crusaders were of French na- 
tionality; some even belonged to the Chapter of 
Paris, as is proved by documentary evidence. Local 
influence, too, played an important part. The 
Temple itself, the Holy Sepulchre, the vicinity of 
the Mount of Olives, of Bethany, of Bethlehem, gave 
rise to magnificent ceremonies, connecting the prin- 
cipal events of the ecclesiastical year with the very 
localities where the various episodes of the work of 
Redemption has taken place. The rite is known to 
us by means of some manuscripts, one (Barberini 
6.')9 of A. D. 1160) in the V.atican library, another at 
Barletta, described by Kohler (Revue de I'Orient 
Latin, VIII, 19fK)-01, pp. 383-500) and by him 
ascribed to about 1240. 

The hermils on Mount Carmel were bound by rule 
only to a.ssembl(! once a day for the celebration of 
Mass, the Divine Office being recited privately. 
Lay brothers who were able to read might recite the 
Office, while others repeated the Lord's Prayer a 
certain number of times, according to the length and 
solemnity of tlu; various offices. It may be presumed 
that on settling in lOurope (from about a. d. 1240) the 
Carmelites conformed to the habit of the other men- 
dicant orders with respect to the choral recitation 
or chant of the Office, and there is documentary evi- 
dence that on Mount Carmel itself the choral recita- 
tion was in force at leiist in 1254. The General 
Chapter of 12.59 passed a number of regulations on 
liturgical matters, but, owing to the loss of the acts, 
their nature is unfortunately not known. Sub- 
serjuent chapters very frecjuently dealt with the rite, 
chiefly adding new fefisfs, changing old established 
cusUjms, or revising rubrics. An Ordinal, belonging 



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73 



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to the second half of the thirteenth century, is pre- 
served at Trinity College, Dublin, while portions 
of an Epistolarium of about 1270 are at the Maglia- 
becchiana at Florence (D6, 1787). The entire Or- 
dinal was rearranged and revised in 1312 by Master 
Sibert de Beka, and rendered obligatory by the 
General Chapter, but it experienced some difficult}"^ 
in superseding the old one. Manuscripts of it are 
preserved at Lambeth (London), Florence, and else- 
where. It remained in force until 1532, when a 
committee was appointed for its revision; their work 
was approved in 1539, but published only in 1544 
after the then General Nicholas Audet had intro- 
duced some further changes. The reform of the 
Roman liturgical books under St. Pius V called for a 
corresponding reform of the Carmelite Rite, which 
was taken in hand in 1580, the Breviary appearing 
in 1584 and the Missal in 1587. At the same time 
the Holy See withdrew the right hitherto exercised 
by the chapters and the generals of altering the liturgy 
of the order, and placed all such matters in the hands 
of the Sacred Congregation of Rites. The publica- 
tion of the Reformed Breviary of 1584 caused the 
newly established Discalced Carmelites to abandon 
the ancient rite once for all and to adopt the Roman 
Rite instead. Besides the various manuscripts of 
the Ordinal already mentioned, we have examined 
a large number of manus(Tii)t missals and breviaries 
preserved in public and private libraries in the Un- 
ited Kingflom, France, Italy, Spain, and other coun- 
tries. We have seen most of the early prints of the 
Missal enumerated by Weale, as well as some not 
mentioned by him, and the breviaries of 1480, 1490, 
1504, 1510 (Horaj), 1542, 1568, 1575, and 1579. 

Roughly speaking, the ancient Carmelite Rite 
may be said to stand about half way between the 
Carthusian and the Dominican rites. It shows signs 
of great antiquity — e. g. in the absence of liturgical 
colours, in the sparing use of altar candles (one at 
low Mass, none on the altar itself at high Mass but 
only acolytes' torches, even these being extinguished 
during part of the Mass, four torches and one candle 
in choir for Tenebrie) ; incense, likewise, is used rarely 
and with noteworthy restrictions; the Blessing at 
the end of the Mass is only i)ormittod where tlic cus- 
tom of the country requires it ; passing before the 
tabernacle, the brethren are directed to make a pro- 
found inclination, not a genuflexion. Many other 
features might be quoted to show that the whole 
rite points to a period of transition. Already ac- 
cording to the earliest Ordinal Communion is given 
under one speci(!s, the days of general Communion 
being seven, later on ten or twelve a year with leave 
for more frequent Communion under certain condi- 
tions. Extreme Unction was administered on the 
eyes, ears, nostrils, mouth, both hands (the palms, 
with no distinction between priests and others) and 
the feet superius. The Ordinal of 1312 on the con- 
trary orders the hands to be anointed exlerius, 
but also without distinction for the priests; it more- 
over adds another anointing on the breast {super 
pectus: per ardorem libidinis). 

In the Mass there are some peculiarities, the altar 
remains covered until the priest an<l ministers are 
ready to begin, when the acolytes then roll hack the 
cover; likewise before the end of the Mass they cover 
the altar again. On great feasts the Introit is said 
three times, i. e. it is repeated both before and after 
the Gloria Patri; besides tlie I^pistle and Gospel there 
is a lesson or prophecy to be recited by an acolyte. 
At the Lavaho the prie-st leaves the altar for the 
piscina where he says that psalm, or else Veni 
Creator Spiritus or Deiis misereatur. Likewi.se after 
the first ablution he goes to the piscina to wash his 
fingers. During the Canon of the Mass the deacon 
moves a fan to keep the flies away, a custom still in 
use in Sicily and elsewhere. At the word fregil in 



the form of consecration, the priest, according to 
the Ordinal of 1312 and later rubrics, makes a move- 
ment as if breaking the host. Great care is taken 
that the smoke of the thurible and of the torches do 
not interfere with the clear vision of the host when 
lifted up for the adoration of the faithful; the chalice, 
however, is only slightly elevated. The celebrating 
priest does not genuflect but bows reverently. After 
the Pater Noster the choir sings the psalm Deus 
venerunt gentes for the restoration of the Holy Land. 
The prayers for communion are identical with those 
of the Sarum Rite and other similar uses, viz. Domine 
sancte pater, Domine Jesu Christe (as in the Roman 
Rite), and Salve salus mundi. The Domine non 
sum dignus was introduced only in 1568. The Mass 
ended with Dominus vobiscum, lie missa est (or its 
equivalent) and Placeat. The chapter of 1324. or- 
dered the Salve regina to be said at the end of each 
canonical hour as well as at the end of the Mass. 
The Last Gospel, which in both ordinals serves for 
the priest's thanksgiving, appears in the Missal of 
1490 as an integral part of the Mass. On Sundays 
and feasts there was, besides the festival Mass after 
Terce or Sext, an early Mass {malulina) without 
solemnities, corresponding to the commemorations of 
the Office. From Easter till Advent the Sunday Mass 
was therefore celebrated early in the morning, the 
high Mass being that of the Resurrection of our Lord; 
similarly on these Sundays the ninth lesson with its 
responsory was taken from one of the Easter days; 
these customs had been introduced soon after the 
conquest of the Holy Land. A solemn commemora- 
tion of the Resurrection was held on the last Sunday 
before Advent; in all other respects the Carmelite 
Liturgy reflects more especially the devotion of the 
order towards the Blessed Virgin. 

The Divine Office also presents some noteworthy 
features. The first Vespers of certain feasts and the 
Vespers during Lent have a responsory usually taken 
from Matins. Compline has various hymns accord- 
ing to the season, and also special antiphons for the 
Canticle. The lessons at Matins follow a somewhat 
different plan from those of the Roman Office. The 
singing of the genealogies of Christ after Matins on 
Christmas and the Epiphany gave rise to beautiful 
ceremonies. After Tenebrte in Holy Week (sung at 
midnight) we notice the chant of the Tropi; all the 
Holy Week services present interesting archaic 
features. Other points to be mentioned are the 
antiphons Pro fidei meritis etc. on the Sundays from 
Trinity to Advent and the verses after the psalms on 
Trinity, the feasts of St. Paul, and St. Laurence. 
The hymns are those of the Roman Office; the proses 
appear to be a uniform collection which remained 
practically unchanged from the thirteenth century 
to 1544, when all but four or five were abolished. 
The Ordinal prescribes only four processions in the 
course of the year, viz. on Candlemas, Palm Sunday, 
the Ascension, and the Assumption. 

The calendar of saints, in the two oldest recensions 
of the Ordinal, exhibits some feasts proper to the 
Holy Land, namely some of the early bishops of 
Jerusalem, the Patriarchs Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, 
and Lazarus. The only special features were the 
fejist of St. Anne, probably due to the fact that the 
Carmelites occupied for a short time a convent dedi- 
cated to her in Jerusalem (vacated by Benedictine 
nuns at the capture of that city in 1187), and the 
octave of the Nativity of Our Lady, which also was 
proper to the order. In the works mentioned below 
we have given the list of feasts added in the* course 
of three centuries, and shall here speak only of a few. 
The Chapter of 1306 introduced those of St. Louis, 
Barbara, Corpus Christi, and the Conception of 
Our Lady (in Conceptione seu potius veneratione 
sanctificationis B. V.); the Corpus Christi procession, 
however, dates only from the end of the fifteenth 



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74 



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centurv'. In 1312 the second part of the Confiteor, 
which "till then had been ver>' short, was introduced. 
Daily commemorations of St. Anne and Sts. Albert 
and 'Angelas date respectively from the beginning 
and the end of the fifteenth centurj-, but were trans- 
ferred in 1503 from the canonical Office to the Little 
Office of Our Ladv. The feast of the "Three Maries" 
dates from 1342, "those of the Visitation, of Our Lady 
ad nii^e^, and the Presentation from 1391. Feasts 
of the order were first introduced towards the end 
of the fourteenth centurj' — viz. the Commemoration 
(Scapular Fe;ist) of 16 July appears first about 
1386; St. Eliseus. prophet, and St. Cyril of Con- 
stantinople in 1399; St. Albert in 1411; St. Angelus 
in 1456. Owing to the printing of the first Breviary 
of the order at Brussels in 1480, a number of terri- 
torial feasts were introduced into the order, such as 
St. Joseph, the Ten Thousand Martyrs, the Division 
of the Apostles. The raptus of St. Elias (17 June) is 
first to be found in the second half of the fifteenth 
centur\' in England and Germany; the feast of the 
Prophet (20 July) dates at the earliest from 1551. 
Some general chapters, especially those of 1478 and 
1564, added whole lists of saints, partly of real or 
supposed saints of the order, partly of martyrs whose 
bodies were preserved in various churches belonging 
to the Carmelites, particularly that of San Martino ai 
Monti in Rome. The revision of 1584 reduced the Sanc- 
torale to the smallest possible dimensions, but many 
feasts then suppressed were afterwards reintroduced. 
A word must be added about the singing. The 
Ordinal of 1312 allows /auxbowrdon, at least on solemn 
occasions; organs and organists are mentioned with 
ever-increa.sing frequency from the first j'ears of the 
fifteenth centun,', the earliest notice being that of 
Mathias Johannis de Lucca, who in 1410 was elected 
organist at Florence; the organ itself was a gift of 
Johannes Dominici Bonnani, sumamed Clerichinus, 
who died at an advanced age on 24 Oct., 1416. 

Zimmerman, Le ceremonial de Matlre Sibert de Bcka in Chro- 
niquet du Corme! (Jambes-lez-Namur, 1903-.5) ; Idem, Ordinaire 
de I'Ordre de Notre-Dame du Mont Carmel (Paris, 1910), being 
the thirteenth volume of Bibliotheque lUurgique; Wessels, 
Ritus Ordinis in Analecta Ordinis Carmeliiarum (Rome, 1909); 
Weale, Bibliographia liturgica (London, 1886). The oldest 
Ordinal, now in Dublin but of English origin, written after 1262 
and before the publication of the Constitution of Boniface VIII, 
"Gloriotus DeuK," C. Gloriosus, de Reliquiis, in Sexto, has not 
yet been printed. BENEDICT ZiMMERMAN. 

Cistercian Rite. — This rite is to be found in the 
liturgical books of the order. The collection, com- 
po.sed of fifteen books, was made by the General 
Chapter of Ctteaux, most probably in 1134; they are 
now included in the Missal, Breviary, Ritual, and 
calendar, or Martyrology. When Pius V ordered the 
entire Church to conform to the Roman Missal and 
Breviary, he exempted the Cistercians from this law, 
because their ritf; ha^i been more than 400 years in 
existence. Under Claude Vaussin, General of the 
Cistercians fin the middle of the seventeenth century), 
several refonns were ma^le in the liturgical books of 
the order, and were appnived by Alexander VII, 
Clement IX, and Clement XIII. Thrae approbations 
were eonfirmef] by Pius IX on 7 Feb., 1871, for the 
Cisterr-ians of the Common as well as for those of the 
Strict Obsers-ance. The Breviary is quite different 
from the Roman, as it follows exactly the prescrip- 
tion« of the Rule of St. Benedict, with a very few 
minor a^iditions. St. Benedict wished the entire 
PsalU-r recite each week; twelve psalms are to be 
Raid at Matins when there are but two Noctums; 
when there is a third Noctum, it is to be composed 
of thrw! divisions of a canticle, there being in this 
latter case always twelve leswjns. Three psalms or 
divisions of psalms are appointed for Prime, the Little 
llours, and Compline Hn this latter hour the "Nunc 
dimittifl" is never saidj, and always four psalms for 
Vespfjrfl. Many minor divisions and directions arc 
given in St. Benedict's Rule. 



In the old missal, before the refoim of Claude 
Vaussin, there were wide divergences between the 
Cistercian and Roman rites. The psalm "Judica" 
was not said, but in its stead was recited the "Veni 
Creator"; the "Indulgentiam" was followed by the 
"Pater" and "Ave", and the "Oramus te Domine" 
was omitted in kissing the altar. Aft«r the "Pax 
Domini sit semper vobiscum", the "Agnus Dei" was 
said thrice, and was followed immediately by "Ha;c 
sacrosancta commixtio corporis", said by the priest 
while placing the small fragment of the Sacred Host 
in the chahce; then the "Domine Jesu Christe, Fih 
Dei Vivi" was said, but the "Corpus Tuum" and 
"Quod ore sumpsimus" were omitted. The priest 
said the "Placeat" as now, and then "Meritis et 
precibus istorum et omnium sanctorum Suonim 
misereatur nostri Omnipotens Dominus. Amen", 
while kissing the altar; with the sign of the Cross the 
Mass was ended. Outside of some minor exceptions 
in the wording and conclusions of various prayers, the 
other parts of the Mass were the same as in the Roman 
Rite. Also in some Masses of the year the ordo was 
diflferent; for instance, on Palm Sunday the Passion 
was only said at the high Mass, at the other Masses 
a special gospel only being said. However, since the 
time of Claude Vaussin the differences from the 
Roman Mass are insignificant. 

In the calendar there are relatively few feasts of 
saints or other modern feasts, as none were introduced 
except those especially prescribed by Rome for the 
Cistercian Order; this was done in order to adhere as 
closely as possible to the spirit of St. Benedict in 
prescribing the weekly recitation of the Psalter. The 
divisions of the feasts are: major or minor feast of 
sermon; major or minor feast of two Masses; feast 
of twelve lessons and Mass; feast of three lessons and 
Mass; feast of commemoration and Mass; then 
merely a commemoration; and finally the feria. 

The differences in the ritual are very small. As re- 
gards the last sacraments, Extreme Unction is given 
before the Holy Viaticum, and in Extreme Unction 
the word "Peccasti" is used instead of the "Deli- 
quisti" in the Roman Ritual. In the Sacrament of 
Penance a shorter form of absolution may be used in 
ordinary confessions. 

Missaie Cislerciense, MS. of the latter part of the fourteenth 
century; Mis. Cisl. (Strasburg, 1486); Mis. Cist. (Paris, 1516, 
154.5, 1584); Regula Ssmi. Patris Benedicli; Breviarium Ciat. 
cum Bulla Pii Papa; IX die 7 Feb., 1871; Bona, Op. omnia 
(Antwerp, 1677); Gdignart, Mon. primitifa de la rhgle cist. 
(Dijon, 1878); Rubriques du breviaire cist., by a religious of La 
Grande Trappe (1882); Trilhb, Mimoire sur le projet de c6ri- 
monial cisl. (Toulouse, 1900) ; Idem, Man. cceremoniarum juxla 
usum S. 0. Cist. (Westmalle, 1908). 

Edmond M. Obrecht. 

Dominican Rite, a name denoting the distinctive 
ceremonies embodied in the privileged liturgical 
books of the Order of Preachers, (a) Origin and 
development. — The question of a special unified rite 
for the order received no official attention in the time 
of St. Dominic, each province sharing in the general 
liturgical diversities prevalent throughout the Church 
at the time of the order's confirmation (1216). Hence, 
each province and often each convent had certain 
peculiarities in the text and in the ceremonies of the 
Holy Sacrifice and the recitation of the Office. The 
successors of St. Dominic were quick to recognize the 
impracticability of such conditions and soon busied 
themselves in an effort to eliminate the embarrassing 
distinctions. They maintained that the safety of a 
basic principlr- of community life — unity of prayer 
and worship — Wiis eiidangerecl by this conformity with 
different diocesan conditions. This belief was im- 
pressed upon them more ff)rcibly by the confusion 
that these liturgical diversities occasioned at the 
general chaptcTs of the order where brothers from 
every province were a.Hsembled. 

The first indication of an effort to regulate liturgical 
conditions was manifested by Jordan of Saxony, the 



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75 



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successor of St. Dominic. In the Constitutions (1228) 
ascribed to him are found several rubrics for the reci- 
tation of the Office. These insist more on the atten- 
tion with which the Office should be said than on the 
qualifications of the liturgical books. However, it is 
said that Jordan took some steps in the latter direc- 
tion and compiled one Office for universal use. 
Though this is doubtful, it is certain that his efforts 
were of little practical value, for the Chapters of 
Bologna (1240) and Paris (1241) allowed each convent 
to conform with the local rites. The first systematic 
attempt at reform was made under the direction of 
John the Teuton, the fourth master general of the 
order. At his suggestion the Chapter of Bologna 
(1244) asked the delegates to bring to the next 
chapter (Cologne, 1245) their special rubrics for the 
recitation of the Office, their Missals, Graduals, and 
Antiphonaries, "pro concordando officio". To bring 
some kind of order out of chaos a commission was 
appointed consisting of four members, one each from 
the Provinces of France, England, Lombardy, and 
Germany, to carry out the revision at Angers. They 
brought the result of their labours to the Chapter of 
Paris (1246), which approved the compilation and 
ordered its exclusive use by the whole Order. This 
same chapter approved the " Lectionarj' " which had 
been entrusted to Humbert of Remains for revision. 
The work of the commi.ssion was again approved by 
theChaptersof Montepulciano (1247) and Paris (1248). 
But dissatisfaction with the work of the commission 
was felt on all sides, especially with their interpretation 
of the rubrics. They had been hurried in their work, 
and had left too much latitude for local customs. 
The question was reopened and the Chapter of Lon- 
don (1250) asked the commission to reassemble at 
Metz and revise their work in the light of the criti- 
cisms that had been made; the result of this revision 
was approved at the Chapters of Metz (1251) and 
Bologna (1252) and its use made obligator>' for the 
whole order. It was also ordained that one copy of 
the liturgical books should be placed at Paris and one 
at Bologna, from which the books for the other con- 
vents should be faitlifully copied. However, it was 
recognized that these books wore not entirely perfect, 
and that there was room for further revision. Though 
this work was done under the direction of John the 
Teuton, the brunt of the revision fell to the lot of 
Humbert of Remains, then provincial of the Paris 
Province. Humbert was elected Master General of 
the Chapter of Buda (12.54) and was asked to direct 
his attention to the question of the order's liturgical 
books. He subjected each of them to a most thorough 
revision, and after two years submitted his work to the 
Chapter of Paris (1256). This and several subsequent 
chapters endorsed the work, effected legislation guard- 
ing against corruption, constitutionally recognized the 
authorship of Humbert, and thus once and for all 
settled a common rite for the Order of Preachers 
throughout the world. 

(b) Preservation. — Clement IV, through the gen- 
eral, John of Vercelli, issued a Bull in 1267 in which 
he lauded the abiUty and zeal of Humbert and forbade 
the making of any changes without the proper author- 
ization. Subsequent papal regulation went much 
further towards preserving the integrity of the rite. 
Innocent XI and Clement XII prohibited the print- 
ing of the books without the permission of the master 
general and also ordained that no member of the order 
should presume to use in his fulfilment of the choral 
obligation any book not bearing the seal of the general 
and a reprint of the pontifical Decrees. Another force 
preservative of the special Dominican Rite was the 
Decree of Pius V (1570), imposing a common rite on 
the universal Church but excepting those rites which 
had been approved for two hundred years. This ex- 
ception gave to the Order of Friars Preachers the 
privilege of maintaining its old rite, a privilege which 



the chapters of the order sanctioned and which the 
members of the order gratefully accepted. It must 
not be thought that the rite has come down through 
the ages absolutely without change. Some slight cor- 
ruptions crept in despite the rigid legislation to the 
contrary. Then new feasts have been added with the 
permission of the Roman Pontiffs and many new edi- 
tions of the liturgical books have been printed. Changes 
in the text, when they have been made, have always 
been effected with the idea of efiminating arbitrary 
mutilations and restoring the books to a perfect con- 
formity with the old exemplars at Paris and Bologna. 
Such were the reforms of the Chapters of Salamanca 
(1551), Rome (1777), and Ghent (1871). Several 
times movements have been started with the idea of 
conforming with the Roman Rite; but these have al- 
ways been defeated, and the order still stands in posses- 
sion of the rite conceded to it by Pope Clement in 1267. 

(c) Sources of the rite. — To determine the sources 
of the Dominican Rite is to come face to face with 
the haze and uncertainty that seems to shroud most 
liturgical history. The thirteenth century knew no 
unified Roman Rite. While the basis of the usages 
of north-western Europe was a Gallicanized-Gre- 
gorian Sacramentary sent by Adrian IV to Charle- 
magne, each little locality had its own peculiar dis- 
tinctions. At the time of the unification of the 
Dominican Rite most of the convents of the order 
were embraced within the territory in which the old 
Galilean Rite had once obtained and in which the 
Gallico-Roman Rite then prevailed. Jordan of 
Saxony, the pioneer in liturgical reform within the 
order, greatly admired the Rite of the Church of 
Paris and frequently assisted at the recitations of the 
Office at Notre-Dame. Humbert of Romains, who 
played so important a part in the work of unification, 
was the provincial of the French Province. These 
facts justify the opinion that the basis of the Domini- 
can Rite was the typical Galilean Rite of the thir- 
teenth century. But documentary evidence that the 
rite was adapted from any one locality is lacking. 
The chronicles of the order state merely that the rite 
is neither the pure Roman nor the pure Galilean, 
but based on the Roman usage of the thirteenth cen- 
tury, with additions from the Rites of Paris and other 
places in which the order existed. Just from where 
these additions were obtained and exactly what 
they were cannot be determined, except in a general 
way, from an examination of each distinctive feature. 

Two points must be emphasized here: (1) the 
Dominican Rite is not an arbitrary elaboration of 
the Roman Rite made against the spirit of the Church 
or to give the order an air of exclusiveness, nor can 
it be said to be more gallicanized then any use of the 
Gallico-Roman Rite of that period. It was an honest 
and sincere attempt to harmonize and simplify the 
widely divergent usages of the early half of the 
thirteenth century. (2) The Dominican Rite, for- 
mulated by Humbert, saw no radical development 
after its confirmation by Clement IV. When Pius 
V made his reform, the Dominican Rite had been fixed 
and stable for over three hundred years, while a con- 
stant liturgical change had been taking place in other 
communities. Furthermore, the comparative sim- 
plicity of the Dominican Rite, as manifested in the dif- 
ferent liturgical books, gives evidence of its antiquity. 

(d) Liturgical books. — The rite compiled by Hum- 
bert contained fourteen books: (1) the Ordinary, 
which was a sort of an index to the Divine Office, 
the Psalms, Lessons, Antiphons, and Chapters being 
indicated by their first words. (2) The Martyrology, 
an amplified calendar of martyrs and other saints. 
(3) The CoUectarium, a book for the use of the 
hebdomidarian, which contained the texts and the 
notes for the prayers, chapters, and blessings. (4) 
The Processional, containing the hymns (text and 
music) for the processions. (5) The Psalterium, con- 



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76 



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taining merely the rsalter. (0) The Lectionary, 
which contained the Sunday homilies, the lessons 
from Sacred Scripture and the lives of the saints. 

(7) The Antiphonary, giving the text and music for 
the parts of the Office sung outside of the Mass. 

(8) The Gradual, which contained the words and the 
music for the parts of the Mass sung by the chou-. 

(9) The Conventual Missal, for the celebration of 
solemn Mass. (10) The Epistolary, containing the 
Epi.^tles for the Mass and the Office. (11) The 
Book of Gospels. (12) The Pulpitary, which con- 
tained the musical notation for the Gloria Patri, 
the Invitatorv, Litanies, Tracts, and the Alleluia. 
(13) The Missal for a private Mass. (14) The 
Breviarj', a compilation from all the books used in 
the choral recitation of the Office, very much reduced 
in size for the convenience of travellers. 

By a process of elimination and synthesis under- 
gone also by the books of the Roman Rite many of 
the books of Humbert have become superfluous while 
several others have been formed. These add noth- 
ing to the original text, but merely provide for the 
addition of feasts and the more convenient recitation 
of the office. The collection of the liturgical books 
now contains: (1) MartjTology; (2) Collectarium; 
(3) Processional; (4) Antiphonary; (5) Gradual; 
(6) Missal for the conventual Mass; (7) Missal for 
the private Mass; (8) Breviary; (9) Vesperal; 

(10) Hora? Diurnae; (11) Ceremonial. The con- 
tents of these books follow closely the books of the 
same name issued by Humbert and which have just 
been described. The new ones are: (1) the Horse 
Diurme; (2) the Vesperal (with notes), adaptations 
from the Breviary and the Antiphonary respectively; 
(3) the Collectarium, which is a compilation from all 
the rubrics scattered throughout the other books. 
With the exception of the Breviary, these books are 
similar in arrangment to the correspondingly named 
books of the Roman Rite. The Dominican Breviary 
is divided into two parts: Part I, Advent to Trinity; 
Part II, Trinity to Advent. 

(e) Distinctive marks of the Dominican Rite. — 
Only the most striking differences between the 
Dominican Rite and the Roman need be mentioned 
here. The most important is in the manner of cele- 
brating a low Mass. The celebrant in the Domini- 
can Rite wears the amice over his head until the be- 
ginning of Ma.ss, and prepares the chalice as soon 
as he reaches the altar. The Psalm "Judica me 
Deus" is not said and the Confiteor, much shorter 
than the Roman, contains the name of St. Dominic. 
The Gloria and the Credo are begun at the centre of 
the altar and finished at the MLssal. At the Offertory 
there is a simultaneous oblation of the Host and the 
chalice and only one prayer, the "Suscipe Sancta 
Trinitas". The Canon of the Mass is the same as the 
Canon of the Roman Rite, but after it are several 
noticeable differences. The Dominican celebrant 
says the "Agnus Dei" immediately after the "Pax 
Domini" and then recites three prayers, "Ha;c 
sacrosancta commixtio", "Domine Jesu Christe", 
and "Corpus et sanguis". Then follows the Com- 
munion, tne yjriest receiving th(! Host from his left 
hand. No prayers are said at the consumption of 
the Precious Bfoo<l, the first prayer after the "Cor- 
pus et Sanguis" I>ein^ the Communion. These are 
the most noticeable differences in the celebration of a 
low Ma«8. In a Hf)\<-mn Mass the chalice is prepared 
just after the celebrant has read the Gospel, seated 
at the Kpistle side of the sanctuary. The chalice 
iH V^rouf^Iit from the altar to flu; pla^;e where the cele- 
V^rant is Heat<-<i by the Kub-<lf'acon, who pours the 
wine and wat^-r into it and r»i)l;uTH it on the altar. 

The Dominican Breviary differs Ijut slightly from 
the Roman. The Offices celebrated are of seven 
cla»w«: — of the srjason (de tempore), of saints (de 
Banctiaj, of vigils, of octaves, votive Offices, Office of 



the Blessed Virgin, and Office of the Dead. In 
point of dignity the feasts are classified as "totum 
duplex", "duplex", "simplex", "of three lessons", 
and "of a memory". The ordinary "totum duplex" 
feast is equivalent to the Roman greater double. 
A "totum duplex" with an ordinary octave (a simple 
or a solemn octave) is equal to the second-class 
double of the Roman Rite, and a "totum duplex" 
with a most solemn octave is like the Roman first- 
class double. A "duplex" feast is equivalent to the 
lesser double and the "simplex" to the semi-double. 
There is no difference in the ordering of tlie canonical 
hours, except that all during Paschal time the Domini- 
can Matins provide for only three i)salms and three 
lessons instead of the customary nine i)sa!ms and nine 
lessons. The Office of the Blessed \'irgin must be 
said on all days on which feasts of the rank of duplex 
or "totum duplex" are not celebrated. The Gradual 
psalms must be said on all Saturdays on which is said 
the votive Office of the Blessed Virgin. The Office 
of the Dead must be said once a week except dur- 
ing the week following Easter and the week follow- 
ing Pentet^ost. Other minor points of difference are 
the manner of making the commemorations, the 
text of the hjTnns, the Antiphons, the lessons of 
the common Offices and the insertions of special 
feasts of the order. There is no great distinction 
between the musical notation of the Dominican 
Gradual, Vesperal, and Antij^honary and the cor- 
responding books of the new Vatican edition. The 
Dominican chant has been faithfully co])ie(l from the 
MSS. of the thirteenth century, wjiicli were in turn 
derivx'd indirectly from the Gregorian Sacramentary. 
One is not surjjrised therefore at the remarkable 
similarity between the chant of the two rites. For 
a more detailed study of the Dominican Rite ref- 
erence may be had to the order's liturgical books. 

MoRTiER, Ilitit. des Tnallres geniraui de VOrdre des Frhrea 
Prgcheurs, I (Paris. 1903), 174, 309-312, ."579 sq.; Cassitto, 
Liturgia Dominicana (Naples, 1804) ; Masetti, Afon. et Antiq. 
vet. discipl. Ord. Prccd. (Rome, 1804); Danzas, Etudes sur lea 
temps prim, de I'ordre de S. Dominique (Paris, 1884); Acta 
Capitulorum Ord. Prwd., ed. Reichert (Rome, 1898-1904); 
Lilt. Encyc. Maoist. Gener. O. P., ed. Reichert .Rome, 1900); 
TuRON, Hist, des hommes ill. de VOrdre de St. Dominique, I, 341; 
Bullarium O. P., passim. IGNATIUS SmITH. 

Franciscan Rite. — The Franciscans, unlike the 
Dominicans, Carmelites, and other orders, have never 
had a peculiar rite properly so called, but, conform- 
ably to the mind of St. Francis of Assisi, have always 
followed the Roman Rite for the celelirat ion of Mass. 
However, the Friars Minor and the Ca{)uchins wear 
the amice, instead of the biretta, over the head, and 
are accustomed to say Mass with tlu'ir feet uncovered, 
save only by sandals. They also enjoy certain 

Erivileges in regard to the time and place of cele- 
rating Mass, and the Missale Romano -Seraphicum 
contains many proper Masses not found in the 
Roman Missal. These are mostly feasts of Fran- 
ciscan saints and blessed, which are not celebrated 
throughout the Church, or other feasts having a 
peculiar connexion with the order, e. g. the Feast of 
the Mysteries of the Way of the Cross (Friday before 
Septuag(!sima), and that of the Seven Joys of the 
Bl(!3se(l Virgin (First Sunday after the octave of the 
Assumption). The same is true in regard to the 
Breviarium Romano-Seraphicum, and Martyrolo- 
giurn Romano-Seraphicum. The Franciscans ex- 
ercisecl great influence in the origin and evolution 
of the Breviarv, and on the revision of the Ru- 
brics of the Miiss. They have also their own 
calendar, or orflo. This calendar may be used not 
only in the churches of the First Order, but also in 
the churches and (ihafx-ls of the Second Order, and 
Third Orfler Regular (if aggregated to the First 
Order) and Secular, as well as those religious in- 
stitutes which have had some connexion with the 
parent body. It may also be used by secular priests 



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or clerics who are members of the Third Order. The 
order has also its own ritual and ceremonial for 
its receptions, professions, etc. 

CcBrem. Romano-Seraph. (Quaracchi, 1908) ; Rit. Romano-Seraph. 
(Quaracchi, 1910); Prom ptuarium Seraph. (Quaracchi, 1910). 

Ferdinand Heckmann. 

Friars Minor Capuchin Rite. — The Friars Minor 
Capuchin use the Roman Rite, except that in the 
Confiteor the name of their founder, St. Francis, 
is added after the names of the Apostles, and in the 
suffrages they make commemorations of St. Francis 
and all saints of their order. The use of incense in 
the conventual mass on certain solemnities, even 
though the Mass is said and not sung, is another 
liturgical custom (recently sanctioned by the Holy 
See) peculiar to their order. Generally speaking, 
the Capuchins do not have sung Masses except in 
parochial churches, and except in these churches 
they may not have organs without the minister 
general's permission. By a Decree of the Sacred 
Congregation of Rites, 14 May, 1890, the minister 
general, when celebrating Mass at the time of the 
canonical visitation and on solemnities, has the privi- 
leges of a domestic prelate of His Holiness. In 
regard to the Divine Office, the Capuchins do not 
sing it according to note but recite it in monotone. 
In the larger communities they generally recite 
Matins and Lauds at midnight, except on the three 
last days of Holy Week, when Tenebra? is chanted 
on the preceding evening, and during the octaves of 
Corpus Christ i and the Immaculate Conception of 
the Blessed Virgin Mary, when matins are recited 
also on the preceding evening with the Blessed 
Sacrament exposed. Every day after Complin 
they add, extra-liturgically, commemorations of the 
Immaculate Conception, St. Francis, and St. An- 
thony of Padua. On the feast of St. Francis after 
second Vespers they observe the service called the 
"Transitus" of St. Francis, and on all Saturdays, 
■ except feasts of first and second class and certain 
privileged feria; and octaves, all Masses said in their 
churches are votive in honour of the Immaculate 
Conception, excepting only the conventual mass. 
They follow the universal calendar, with the addition 
of feasts proper to their order. These additional 
feasts include all canonized saints of the whole 
Franciscan Order, all heali of the Capuchin Reform 
and the more notable heati of the whole order; and 
every year the 5th of October is observed as a com- 
memoration of the departed members of the order 
in the same way as the 2nd of November is observed 
in the universal Church. Owing to the great number 
of feasts thus observed, the Capuchins have the 
privilege of transferring the greater feasts, when 
necessary, to days marked semi-double. According 
to the ancient Constitutions of the Order, the Capu- 
chins T'/ere not allowed to use vestments of rich tex- 
ture, not even of silk, but by Decree of the Sacred 
Congregation of Rites, 17 December, 1888, they must 
now conform to the general laws of the Church in this 
matter. They are, however, still obliged to main- 
tain severe simplicity in their churches, especially 
when non-parochial. 

Ceremoniale Ord. Cap.; Analecta Ord. Cap.; Constil. ord. (Rome). 

Father Cuthbert. 

Premonstratensian Rite. — The Xorbertine rite 
differs from the Roman in the celebration of the Sacri- 
fice of the Mass, in the Divine Office, and in the 
administration of the Sacrament of Penance. (1) 
Sacrifice of the Mass. — The Missal is proper to the 
order and is not arranged like the Roman Missal. 
The canon is identical, with the exception of a slight 
variation as to the time of making the sign of the 
cross with the paten at the "Libera nos". The 
music for the Prefaces etc. differs, though not con- 
siderablv, from that of the Roman Missal. Two 



alleluias are said after the "Ite missa est" for a week 
after Easter; for the whole of the remaining Paschal 
time one alleluia is said. The rite for the celebration 
of feasts gives the following grades: three classes of 
triples, two of doubles, celebre, nine lessons, three 
lessons. No feasts are celebrated during privileged 
octaves. There are so many feasts lower than 
double that usually no privilege is needed for votive 
Masses. The rubrics regulating the various feasts 
of the year are given in the "Ordinarius seu liber 
ca?remoniarum canonici ordinis Pra;monstratensis". 
Rubrics for the special liturgical functions are found 
in the Missal, the Breviary, the Diurnal, the Pro- 
cessional, the Gradual, and the Antiphonary. 

(2) Divine Office.— The Breviary differs from the 
Roman Breviary in its calendar, the manner of recit- 
ing it, arrangement of matter. Some saints on the 
Roman calendar are omitted. The feasts peculiar 
to the Norber tines are: St. Godfried, C, 16 Jan.; 
St. Evermodus, B. C, 17 Feb.; Bl. Frederick, Abbot, 
3 Mar.; St. Ludolph, B. M., 29 Mar.; Bl. Herman 
Joseph, C, 7 Apr.; St. Isfrid, B. C, 15 June; Sts. 
Adrian and James, MM., 9 July; Bl. Hrosnata, 
M., 19 July, 19; Bl. Gertrude, V., 13 Aug.; Bl. 
Bronislava, V., 30 Aug.; St. Gilbert, Abbot, 24 Oct.; 
St. Siardus, Abbot, 17 Nov. The feast of St. Nor- 
bert, founder of the order, which falls on 6 June in 
the Roman calendar, is permanently transferred to 
1 1 July, so that its solemn rite may not be interfered 
with by the feasts of Pentecost and Corpus Christi. 
Other feasts are the Triumph of St. Norbert over 
the sacramentarian heresy of Tanchelin, on the third 
Sunday after Pentecost, and the Translation of St. 
Norbert commemorating the translation of his body 
from Magdeburg to Prague, on the fourth Sunday 
after Easter. Besides the daily recitation of the 
canonical hours the Norbertines are obliged to say 
the Little Office of the Blessed Virgin, except on 
triple feasts and during octaves of the first class. 
In choir this is said immediately after the Divine 
Office. (3) Administration of the Sacrament of 
Penance. — The form of absolution is not altogether 
in harmony with that of the Roman Ritual. The 
following is the Norbertine formula: "Dominus nos- 
ter Jesus Christus te absolvat, et ego auctoritate 
ipsius, mihi licet indignissimo concessa, absolvo te 
in primis, a vinculo excommunicationis ... in quan- 
tum po.ssum et indiges", etc. 

The liturgical books of the Norbertines were re- 
printed by order of the general chapter, held at 
Premontre, in 1738, and presided over by Claude H. 
Lucas, abbot-general. A new edition of the Missal 
and the Breviary was issued after the General 
Chapter of Prague, in 1890. In 1902 a committee 
was appointed to revise the Gradual, Antiphonary, 
etc. This committee received much encouragement 
in its work by the Motu Proprio of Pius X on church 
music. The General Chapter of Tepl, Austria, in 
1908, decided to edit the musical books of the order 
as prepared, in accordance with ancient MSS. by 
this committee. G. Rybrook. 

Servite Rite. — The Order of Servites (see Ser- 
vants OF Mary) cannot be said to possess a separate 
or exclusive rite similar to the Dominicans and 
others, but follows the Roman Ritual, as provided in 
its constitutions, with very slight variations. De- 
votion towards the Mother of Sorrows being the prin- 
cipal distinctive characteristic of the order, there are 
special prayers and indulgences attaching to the 
solemn celebration of the five major Marian feasts, 
namely, the Annunciation, Visitation, Assumption, 
Presentation, and Nativity of our Blessed Lady. 

The feast of the Seven Dolours of the Blessed 
Virgin Mary, celebrated always on the Third Sunday 
of September, has a privileged octave and is en- 
richea with a plenary indulgence ad instar Por- 



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78 



RITES 



tiuncula; that is, as often as a visit is made to a church 
of the order. In common with all friars the Servite 
priests wear an amice ou the head instead of a biretta 
while proceeding to and from the altar. The Mass 
is begun with the first part of the Angelical Salutation, 
and in the Confiteor the words Septcm beati^ patribus 
nostris are inserted. At the conclusion of >iass the 
Salve Regina and the oration Omiiipotens sempiterne 
Deus are recited. In the rei^itation of the Divine 
Office each canonical hour is begun with the Ave 
Maria do\\Ti to the words vcntris tui, Jesus. The 
custom of reciting daily, immediately before Vespers, 
a special prayer called Vigilia, composed of the three 
psalms and three antiphons of the first nocturn of the 
Office of the Blessed \'irgin. followed by three les- 
sons and responses, comes down from the thirteenth 
century, when they were ofTerod in thanksgiving for 
a special favour bestowed ujjon the order by Pope 
Alexander IV (13 May, 1259). The Salve Regina 
is daily chanted in choir whether or not it is the anti- 
phon proper to the season. P. J. Griffin. 

Rites, Congregation of. See Roman Congre- 
gations. 

Rites in the United States. — Since immigration 
from the eastern portion of Europe and from Asia 
and Africa set in with such volume, the peoples who 
(both in union with and outside the imitj^ of the 
Church) follow the various Eastern rites arrived in 
the United States in large numbers, bringing with 
them their priests and their forms of worship. As 
the}' grew in number and financial strength, they 
erected churches in the various cities and towns 
throughout the country. Rome used to be considered 
the city where the various rites of the Church through- 
out the world could be seen grouped together, but in 
the United States they may be observed to a greater 
advantage than even in Rome. In Rome the various 
rites are kept alive for the purpose of educating the 
various national clergj' who study there, and for 
demonstrating the unity of the Church, but there is no 
body of laymen who follow those rites; in the United 
States, on the contrarj-, it is the number and pressure 
of the laity which have caused the establi.shment and 
support of the churches of the various rites. There is 
consequently no better field for studying the various 
rites of the Church than in the chief cities of the 
United States, and such study has the advantage to 
the exact observer of affording an opportunity of 
comparing the dissident churches of those rites with 
those which belong to Catholic unity. The chief 
rites which have established themselves in America 
are these: (1) Armenian, (2) Greek or Byzantine, and 
(3) S>TO-Maronite. There are also a handful of ad- 
herents of the Coptic, Syrian, and Chaldean rites, 
which will also be noticed, and there are occasionally 
priests of the various Latin rites. 

I. The Armenian Rite. — This rite alone, of all 
the rites in the Church, is confined to one people, one 
language, and one alphabet. It Ls, if anything, more 
exclusive than Judaism of old. Other rites are more 
widely extendwl in every way: the Roman Rite is 
spread throughout Latin, Teutonic, and Slavic 
peoples, and it even has two languages, the Latin and 
the Ancient Slavonic, and two alphabets, the Roman 
and the Glagolitic, in which its ritual is written; the 
Gre<;k or Byzantine Rite extends among Greek, 
Slavic, Latin, and Syrian peoples, and its services are 
celebrateiJ in Greek, Slavonic, Rumanian, and Arabic 
with sr^rvice-books in the Greek, Cyrillic, Latin, and 
Arabic alphabets. But the Armenian Rite, whether 
Catholic or Gregorian, is confined exclusively to per- 
sons of the Armenian race, and employs the ancient 
Armenian language and alphabet. The history and 
origin of the race have been given in the article Ar- 
menia, but a word may be said of the language (Hayk, 
as it is called;, and its use in the hturgy. The uuijor- 



ity of the Armenians were converted to Christianity 
bj' St. Gregory the Illuminator, a man of noble 
family, who was made Bishop of Armenia in 302 (see 
Gregory the Illuminator). So thoroughly was 
his work effected that Armenia alone of the ancient 
nations converted to Christianity has preserved no 
pagan literature antedating the Christian literature 
of the people ; pagan works, if they ever existed, seem 
to have perished in the ardour of the Armenians for 
Christian thought and expression. The memory of 
St. Gregorj^ is so revered that the Armenians who are 
opposed to union with the Holy See take pride in 
calling themselves "Gregorians", impljong that they 
keep the faith taught by St. Gregor5\ Hence it is 
usual to call the dissidents "Gregorians", in order to 
distinguish them from the Uniat Catholics. At first 
the language of the Christian liturgy in Armenia was 
S>Tiac, but later they discarded it for their own tongue, 
and translated all the services into Armenian, which 
was at first written in Syriac or Persian letters. 
About 400 St. Mesrob invented the present Armenian 
alphabet (except two final letters which were added 
in the year 1200), and their language, both ancient 
and modern, has been ■nTitten in that alphabet ever 
since. Mesrob al.so translated the New Testament 
into Armenian and revised the entire liturgy. The 
Armenians in their church life have led almost aa 
checkered an existence as they have in their national 
life. At first they were in full communion with the 
Universal Church. They were bitterly opposed to 
Nestorianism, and, when in 451 the Council of 
Chalcedon condemned the doctrine of Eutyches, they 
seceded, holding the opinion that such a definition was 
sanctioning Nestorianism, and have since remained 
separated from and hostile to the Greek Church of 
Constantinople. In 1054 the Greeks seceded in turn 
from unity with the Roman Church, and nearly 
three centuries later the Armenians became reconciled 
with Rome, but the union lasted only a brief period. 
Breaking away from unity again, the majority formed 
a national church which agrees neither with the Greek 
nor the Roman Church; a minority, recruited by con- 
verts to union with the Holy See in the seventeenth 
century, remained united Armenian Catholics. 

The Mass and the whole liturgy of the Armenian 
Church is said in Ancient Armenian, which differs 
considerably from the modern tongue. The lan- 
guage is an offshoot of the Iranian branch of the Indo- 
Germanic family of languages, and probably found 
its earliest written ex-pression in the cuneiform in- 
scriptions; it is unlike the Semitic languages im- 
mediately surrounding it. Among its peculiarities 
are twelve regular declensions and eight irregular 
declensions of nouns and five conjugations of the 
verbs, while there are many difficulties in the way of 
postpositions and the like. It abounds in consonants 
and guttural sounds; the words of the Lord's Prayer 
in Armenian will suffice as an example: "Hair mier, 
vor herghins ies, surp iegitzi anun ko, ieghastze 
arkautiun ko, iegitzin garnk ko, vorbes hierghms iev 
hergri, zhatz mi<!r hanabazort dur miez aissor, iev tog 
miez ezbardis mier, vorbes iev mek togumk merotz 
bardabanatz, iev mi danir zmez i porsutiun, ailperghea 
i chare." The language is written from left to right, 
like Greek, Latin or Engli.sh, but in an alphabet of 
thirtyH'ight neculiar letters which are dissimilar in 
form to anything in the (ire(!k or Latin alphabet, and 
are arranged in a most penilexing order. For in- 
stance, the Armenian alphabet starts off with a, p, 
k, t, z, etc., and ends up with the letter/. It may also 
be noted that the Armenian has changed the con- 
sonantal values of most of the ordinary sounds in 
Christian names; thus George becomes Kevork; 
Sergius, Sarkis; Jacob, Hagop; Joseph, Hovsep; 
Gregory, Krikori; Peter, Bedros, and so on. The 
usual clan a<ldition of the word "son" (ian) to most 
Armenian family names, something like the use of 



RITES 



79 



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mac in the Gaelic languages, renders usual Armenian 
names easy of identification (e. g., Azarian, Hagopian, 
Rubian, Zohrabian, etc.)- 

The book containing the regulations for the ad- 
ministration of the sacraments, analogous to the 
Greek Euchologion or the Roman Ritual, is called 
the "Mashdotz", after the name of its compiler St. 
Mesrob, who was surnamed Mashdotz. He arranged 
and compiled the five great liturgical books used in 
the Armenian Church: (1) the Breviary (Zhamakirk) 
or Book of Hours; (2) The Directory (Tzutzak) or 
Calendar, containing the fixed festivals of the year; 
(3) The Liturgy (Pataragakirk) or Missal, arranged 
and enriched also by John Mantaguni; (4) The Book 
of Hymns (Dagaran), arranged for the principal great 
feasts of the year; (5) The Ritual or "Mashdotz", 
mentioned above. A peculiarity about the Armenian 
Church is that the majority of great feasts falling upon 
weekdays are celebrated on the Sunday immediately 
following. The great festivals of the Christian year 
are divided by the Armenians into five classes: (1) 
Easter; (2) feasts which fall on Sunday, such as Palm 
Sunday, Pentecost, etc.; (3) feasts which are observed 
on the days on which they occur: the Nativity, 
Epiphany, Circumcision, Presentation, and Annun- 
ciation; (4) feasts which are transferred to the follow- 
ing Sunday : Transfiguration, Immaculate Conception, 
Nativity B. V. M., Assumption, Holy Cross, feasts 
of the Apostles, etc.; (5) other feasts, which are not 
observed at all unless they can be transferred to 
Sunday. The Gregorian Armenians observe the 
Nativity, Epiphany, and Baptism of Our Lord on the 
same day (6 January), but the Catholic Armenians 
observe Christmas on 25 December and the Epiphany 
on 6 January, and they observe many of the other 
feasts of Our Lord on the days on which they actually 
fall. The principal fasts are: (1) Lent; (2) the Fast 
of Nineveh for two weeks, one month before the com- 
mencement of Lent — in reality a remnant of the 
ancient Lenten fast, now commemorated only in 
name by our Septuagesima, Sexagesima, and Quin- 
quagesima Sundays; (3) the week following Pentecost. 
The days of abstinence are the Wednesdays and 
Fridays throughout the year with certain exceptions 
(e. g., during the week after the Nativity, Easter, and 
the Assumption). In the Armenian Church Saturday 
is observed as the Sabbath, commemorating the Old 
Law and the creation of man, and Sunday as the 
Lord's Day of Resurrection and rejoicing, commem- 
orating the New Law and the redemption of man. 
Most of the saints' days are dedicated to Armenian 
saints not commemorated in other lands, but the 
Armenian Catholics in Galicia and Transylvania use 
the Gregorian (not the Julian) Calendar, and have 
many Roman saints' days and feasts added to their 
ancient ecclesiastical year. 

In the actual arrangement of the church building 
for worship the Armenian Rite differs both from the 
Greek and the Latin. While the Armenian Church 
was in communion with Rome, it seems to have united 
many Roman practices in its ritual with those that 
were in accord with the Greek or Byzantine forms. 
The church building may be divided into the sanctuary 
and church proper (choir and nave.) The sanctuary 
is a platform raised above the general level of the 
chiu-ch and reached by four or more steps. The altar 
is always erected in the middle of it, and it is again a 
few steps higher than the level of the sanctuary. It 
is perhaps possible that the Armenians originally 
used an altar — screen or iconostasis, like that of the 
Greek churches, but it has long since disappeared. 
Still they do not use the open altar like the Latin 
Church. Two curtains are hung before the sanc- 
tuary : a large double curtain hangs before its entrance, 
extending completely across the space like the Roman 
chancel rail, and is so drawn as to conceal the altar, 
the priest, and the deacons at certain parts of the 



Mass; the second and smaller curtain is used merely to 
separate the priest from the deacons and to cover the 
altar after service. Each curtain opens on both sides, 
and ordinarily is drawn back from the middle. The 
second curtam is not much used. The use of these 
curtains is ascribed to the year 340, when they were 
required by a canon formulated by Bishop Macarius 
of Jerusalem. Upon the altar are usually the Missal, 
the Book of Gospels, a cross upon which the image of 
Our Lord is painted or engraved in low relief, and two 
or more candles, which are lighted as in the Roman 
use. The Blessed Sacrament is usually reserved in a 
tabernacle on the altar, and a small lamp kept burn- 
ing there at all times. In the choir, usually enclosed 
within a low iron railing, the singers and priests stand 
in lines while singing or reciting the OtTice. In the 
East, the worshipper, upon entering the nave of the 
church, usually takes off his shoes, just as the Moham- 
medans do, for the Armenian founds this practice upon 
Ex., iii, 5; this custom is not followed in the United 
States, nor do the Armenians there sit cross-legged 
upon the floor in their churches, as they do in Asia. 
The administration of the sacraments is marked 
by some ceremonies unlike those of the Roman or 
Greek Churches, and by some which are a composite 
of the two. In the Sacrament of Baptism the priest 
meets the child carried in the arms of the nurse at 
the chiu-ch door, and, while reciting Psalms li and 
cxxx, takes two threads (one white and the other 
red) and twists them into a cord, which he afterwards 
blesses. Usually the godfather goes to confession 
before the baptism, in order that he may fulfil his 
duties in the state of grace. The exorcisms and 
renunciations then take place, and the recital of the 
Nicene Creed and the answers to the responses 
follow. The baptismal water is blessed, the anoint- 
ing with oil performed, the prayers for the catechumen 
to be baptized are said, and then the child is stripped. 
The priest takes the child and holds it in the font 
so that the body is in the water, but the head is out, 
and the baptism takes place in this manner: "N., 
the servant of God coming into the state of a catechu- 
men and thence to that of baptism, is now baptized 
by me, in the name of the Father [here he pours a 
handful of water on the head of the child], and of the 
Son [here he pours water as before], and of the Holy 
Ghost [here he pours a third handful]". After this 
the priest dips the child thrice under the water, 
saying on each occasion: "Thou art redeemed by the 
blood of Christ from the bondage of sin, by receiving 
the liberty of sonship of the Heavenly Father, and 
becoming a co-heir with Christ and a temple of the 
Holy Ghost. Amen." Then the child is washed 
and clothed again, generally with a new and beautiful 
robe, and the priest when washing the child says: 
"Ye that were baptized in Christ, have put on Christ, 
Alleluia. And ye that have been illumined by God 
the Father, may the Holy Ghost rejoice in you. 
Alleluia." Then the passage of the Gospel of St. 
Matthew relating the baptism of Christ in the Jordan 
is read, and the rite thus completed. 

The Sacrament of Confirmation is conferred by 
the priest immediately after baptism, although the 
Catholic Armenians sometimes reserve it for the 
bishop. The holy chrism is applied by the priest 
to the forehead, eyes, ears, nose, mouth, palms, 
heart, spine, and feet, each time with a reference to 
the .seal of the Spirit. Finally, the priest lays his 
hand upon and makes the sign of the cross on the 
child's forehead saying: "Peace to thee, saved 
through God." When the confirmation is thus 
finished, the priest binds the child's forehead with the 
red and white string which he twisted at the begin- 
ning of the baptism, and fastens it at the end with a 
small cross. "Then he gives two candles, one red 
and one green, to the godfather and has the child 
brought up to the altar where Communion is given 



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to it by a small drop of the Sacred Blood, or, if it 
be not "at the time of Mass, by taking the Blessed 
Sacrament from the Tabernacle and signing the 
mouth of the child with it in the form of the cross, 
saj'ing in either case: "The plenitude of the Holy 
Ghost"; if the candidate be an adult, full Commu- 
nion is administered, and there the confirmation is 
ended. The formula of absolution in the Sacrament 
of Penance is: "May the merciful God have mercy 
upon you and grant you the pardon of all your sins, 
both confessed and forgotten; and I by virtue of my 
order of priesthood and in force of the power granted 
by the Divine Command: Whosesoever sins you 
remit on earth they are remitted unto them in heaven; 
through that same word I absolve you from all par- 
ticipation in sin, by thought, word and deed, in the 
name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy 
Ghost. And I again restore you to the sacraments 
of the Holy Church; whatsoever good you shall do, 
shall be counted to you for merit and for glory in the 
life to come. May the shedding of the blood of the 
Son of God, which He shed upon the cross and which 
delivered human nature from hell, deliver you from 
your sins. Amen." As a rule Armenians are ex- 
horted to make their confession and communion on 
at least five days in the year: the so-called Daghavork 
or feasts of Tabernacles, i. e., the Epiphany, Easter, 
Transfiguration, Assumption, and Exaltation of the 
Holy Cross. The first two festivals are obligatory, 
and, if an Armenian neglects his duty, he incurs 
excommunication. The Sacrament of Extreme Unc- 
tion (or "Unction with Oil", as it is called) is sup- 
posed to be administered by seven priests in the 
ancient form, but practically it is performed by a 
single priest on most occasions. The eyes, ears, 
nose, lips, hands, feet, and heart of the sick man are 
anointed, with this form: "I anoint thine eyes with 
holy oil, so that whatever sin thou mayst have com- 
mitted through thy sight, thou mayst be saved there- 
from by the anointing of this oil, through the grace 
of our Lord Jesus Christ", and with a similar ref- 
erence to the other members anointed. 

The Divine Liturgy or Mass is of course the chief 
rite among the Armenians, whether Catholic or 
Gregorian, and it is celebrated with a form and cere- 
monial which partakes in a measure both of the Roman 
and Byzantine rites. As we have said, the curtains 
are used instead of the altar-rail or iconosta.sis of 
tho.se rites, and the vestments are also peculiar. 
The Armenians, like the Latins, use unleavened 
bread, in the form of a wafer or small thin round cake, 
for con.secration; but like the Greeks they prepare 
niany wafers, and those not u.sed for con.secration 
in the Mass are given afterwards to the people as 
the antuloron. The wine u.sed mast be solely the 
fermented juice of the bfst grapes obtainable. In the 
Gregorian churrhfs Communion is given to the people 
imder both species, the Ho.st being dipped in the chalice 
before delivering it to the communicant, but in the 
Catholic churches Communion is now given only in 
one species, that of the Body, although there is no 
express prohibition against the older form. On 
Chriutmafl Eye and Easter Eve the .\rmenians cele- 
brate Ma«8 in the evening; the Ma.ss then begins 
with the curtains drawn whilst the introductory 
psalms and prophecif« are sung, but, at the moment 
the great feast is announces! in the Introit, the cur- 
tains are withdrawn and the altar appears with full 
illumination. During I^ent the altar remains entirely 
hidden by the great curtains, and during all the Sun- 
days m I>-nt, except Palm Sunday, Ma-ss is cele- 
brat^fl behmd the drawn curtains. A relio of this 
practice still remains in the Hornan Kite, as shown 
by the veiling of the images and pictures from Passion 
Sunday till Kast^-r Eve. The Annenian vestments 
for Mass are fK-ruliar and splendid. The priest wears 
a crown, exactly in the form of a Greek biahop'fl 



mitre, which is called the Saghavard or helmet. This 
is also worn bj' the deacons attending on a bishop at 
pontifical Mass. The Armenian bishops wear a 
mitre almost identical in shape with the Latin mitre, 
and said to have been introduced at the time of their 
union with Rome in the twelfth century, when they 
relinquished the Greek form of mitre for the priests 
to wear in the Mass. The celebrant is first vested 
with the shapik or alb, which is usually narrower than 
the Latin form, and usually of linen (sometimes of 
silk). He then puts on each of his arms the bazpans 
or cuffs, which replace the Latin maniple; then the 
ourar or stole, which is in one piece; then the goti 
or girdle, then the varkas or amict, which is a large 
embroidered stiff collar with a shoulder covering 
to it; and finally the shoochnr, or chasuble, which is 
almost exactly like a Roman cope. If the celebrant 
be a bishop, he also wears the gonker or Greek epigo- 
nation. The bishops carry a staff shaped like the 
Latin, vv-hile the vartabeds (deans, or doctors of divin- 
ity; analogous to the Roman mitred abbots) carry 
a staff in the Greek form (a staff with two intertwined 
serpents). No organs are used in the Armenian 
church, but the elaborate vocal music of the Eastern 
style, sung by choir and people, is accompanied by 
two metallic instruments, the keshotz and zinzgha 
(the first a fan with small bells; the second similar 
to cymbals), both of which are used during various 
parts of the Mass. The deacon wears merely an alb 
and a stole in the same manner as in the Roman Rite. 
The subdeacons and lower clergy wear simply the alb. 
The Armenian Mass may be divided into three 
parts: Preparation, Anaphora or Canon, and Con- 
clusion. The first and preparatory portion extends 
as far as the Preface, when the catechumens are 
directed by the deacon to leave. The Canon com- 
mences with the conclusion of the Preface and ends 
with the Communion. As soon as the priest is 
robed in his vestments he goes to the altar, washes 
his hands reciting Psalm xxvi, and then going to the 
foot of the altar begins the Mass. After saying the 
Intercessory Prayer, the Confiteor and the Ab.solu- 
tion, which is given with a crucifix in hand, he re- 
cites Psalm xlii (Introibo ad altare), and at every two 
verses ascends a step of the altar. After he has 
intoned the prayer "In the tabernacle of holiness", 
the curtains are drawn, and the choir sings the ap- 
propriate hymn of the day. Meanwhile the cele- 
brant behind the curtain prepares the bread on the 
paten and fills the chalice, ready for the oblation. 
When this is done the curtains are withdrawn and 
the altar incensed. Then the Introit of the day is 
sung, then the prayers corresponding to those of the 
first, second, and third antiphons of the Byzantine 
Rite, while the proper psalms are sung by the choir. 
Then the deacon intones " Proschume " (let us attend), 
and elevates the book of the gospels, which is in- 
censed as he brings it to the altar, making the Little 
Entrance. The choir then sings the Trisagion 
(Holy God, Holy and Mighty, Holy and Immortal, 
have mercy on us) thrice. The Gregorians inter- 
polate after "Holy and Immortal" some words de- 
scriptive of the feast day, such as "who was made 
manifest for us", or "who didst ri.se from the dead", 
but this aridition has been condemned at Rome as 
being a relic of the Patripassian heresy. During the 
Trisagion the; Keshnfz is jingled in accompaniment. 
Then the Greek Ektene or Litany is sung, and at its 
conclusion the reafler reads the Prophecy; then the 
Antiphon before the Epistle is sung, and the epistle 
of the day read. At th(i end of each the choir re- 
sponds Alleluia. Then the deacon announces "Orthi" 
(stand up) and, taking the Gospels, reads or intones 
the gospel of the day. Immediately afterwarrls, the 
Armenian form of the Nicene Creed is said or sung. 
It differs from the creed aa saifl in the Roman and 
Greek Churches in that it has, "consubstantial with 



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the Father by whom all things were made in Heaven 
and in Earth, visible and invisible; who for us men and 
our salvation came down from Heaven, was incarnate 
and was made man and perfectly begotten through 
the Holy Ghost of the most Holy Virgin Mary; he 
assumed from her body, soul, and mind, and all that 
in man is, truly and not figuratively;" and "we be- 
lieve also in the Holy Ghost, not created, all perfect, 
who proceedeth from the Father (and the Son), 
who spake in the Law, in the Prophets and the Holy 
Gospel, who descended into the Jordan, who preached 
Him who was sent, and who dwelt in the Saints," and 
after concluding in the ordinary form adds the sen- 
tence pronounced by the First Council of Nicsea: 
"Those who say there was a time when the Son was 
not, or when the Holy Ghost was not; or that they 
were created out of nothing; or that the Son of God 
and the Holy Ghost are of another substance or that 
they are mutable; the Catholic and Apostolic church 
condemns." Then the Confession of St. Gregory is 
intoned aloud, and the Little Ektene sung. The kiss 
of peace is here given to the clergy. The deacon at 
its close dismi.sscs the catechumens, and the choir 
sings the Hymn of the Great Entrance, when the bread 
and wine are solemnly brought to the altar. "The 
Body of our Lord and the Blood of our Redeemer are 
to be before us. The Heavenly Powers invisible 
sing and proclaim with uninterrupted voice, Holy, 
Holy, Holy, Lord God of Hosts." 

Here the curtains are drawn, and the prie.st takes 
off his crown (or the bishop his mitre). The priest 
incenses the holy gifts and again washes his hands, 
repeating Psalm xxvi as before. After the Saluta- 
tion is sung, the catechumens are dismissed, and the 
Anaphora or Canon begins. The Preface is said 
secretly, only the concluding part being intoned to 
which the choir responds with the Sanctus. The 
prayer before consecration follows, with a comparison 
of the Old and the New Law, not found in either 
Greek or Roman Rite: "Holy, Holy, Holy; Thou art 
in truth most Holy; who is there who can dare to 
describe by words thy bounties which flow down upon 
us without measure? For Thou didst protect and 
console our forefathers, when they had fallen in sin, 
by means of the prophets, the Law, the priesthood, 
and the offering of bullocks, showing forth that which 
was to come. And when at length He came. Thou 
didst tear in pieces the register of our sins, and didst 
bestow on us Thine Only Begotten Son, the debtor 
and the debt, the victim and the anointed, the Lamb 
and Bread of Heaven, the Priest and the Oblation, 
for He is the distributor and is always distributed 
amongst us, without being exhausted. Being made 
man truly and not apparently, and by union without 
confusion. He was incarnate in the womb of the 
Virgin Mary, Mother of God, and journeyed through 
all the passions of human life, sin only excepted, and 
of His own free will walked to the cross, whereby He 
gave life to the world and wrought salvation for us." 
Then follow the actual words of consecration, which 
are intoned aloud. Then follow the Offering and the 
Epiklesis, which differs slightly in the Gregorian and 
Cathohc form; the Gregorian is: "whereby Thou wilt 
make the bread when blessed truly the body of our 
Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ;" and the Catholic 
form: "whereby Thou hast made the bread when 
blessed truly the Body of our Lord and Saviour Jesus 
Christ." As there is actually no blessing or con- 
secration after the Epiklesis the Cathohc form repre- 
sents the correct belief. Then come the prayers for 
the living and the dead, and an intoning by the 
deacons of the Commemoration of the Saints, in 
which nearly all the Armenian saints are mentioned. 
Then the deacon intones aloud the Ascription of Praise 
of Bishop Chosroes the Great in thanksgiving for the 
Sacrament of the Altar. After this comes a long 
Ektene or Litany, and then the Our Father is sung 
XHL— 6 



by the choir. The celebrant then elevates the con- 
secrated Host, saying " Holy things for Holy Persons," 
and when the choir responds, he continues: "Let ua 
taste in holiness the holy and honourable Body and 
Blood of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ who came 
down from heaven and is now distributed among us. " 
Then the choir sings antiphons in honour of the sacri- 
fice of the Body and Blood, and the small curtain is 
drawn. The priest kisses the sacred Victim, saying 
"I confess and I believe that Thou art Christ, the 
Son of God, who has borne the sins of the world." 
The Host is divided into three parts, one of which is 
placed in the chaUce. The choir sing the communion 
hymns as appointed ; the priest and the clergy receive 
the Communion first, and then the choir and people. 
The little curtain is withdrawn when the Communion 
is given, and the great curtains are drawn back when 
the people come up for Communion. 

After Communion, the priest puts on his crown (or 
the bishop his mitre), and the great curtains are again 
drawn. Thanksgiving prayers are said behind them, 
after which the great curtains are withdrawn once 
more, and the priest holding the book of gospels says 
the great prayer of peace, and blesses the people. 
Then the deacon proclaims "Orthi" (stand up) and 
the celebrant reads the Last Gospel, which is nearly 
always invariable, being the Gospel of St. John,i, 
1 sqq.: "In the beginning was the Word, etc."; the 
only exception is from Easter to the eve of Pentecost, 
when they use the Gospel of St. John, xxi, 15-20: 
"So when they had dined, etc." Then the prayer for 
peace and the "Kyrie Eleison" (thrice) are said, the 
final benediction is given, and the priest retires from 
the altar. Whilst Psalm xxxiv is recited or sung by 
the people, the blessed bread is distributed. The 
Catholic Armenians confine this latter rite to high 
festivals only. The chief editions of the Gregorian 
Armenian Missals are those printed at Constantinople 
(1823, 1844), Jemsalem (1841, 1873, and 1884), and 
Etschmiadzin (1873); the chief Catholic Armenian 
editions are those of Venice (1808, 1874, 1895), 
Trieste (1808), and Vienna (1858, 1884). 

Armenian Catholics. — Armenians had come to the 
United States in small numbers prior to 1895. In 
that and the following year the Turkish massacres 
took place throughout Armenia and Asia Minor, and 
large numbers of Armenians emigrated to America. 
Among them were many Armenian Catholics, al- 
though these were not sufficiently numerous to organ- 
ize any religious communities like their Gregorian 
brethren. In 1898 Mgr Stephan Azarian (Stephen 
X), then Catholic Patriarch of Cilicia of the Arme- 
nians, who resided in Constantinople, entered into 
negotiations with Cardinal Ledochowski, Prefect of 
the Congregation of the Propaganda, and through 
him obtained the consent of Archbishop Corrigan of 
New York and Archbishop Williams of Boston for 
priests of the Armenian Rite to labour in their re- 
spective pro\'inces for the Armenian Cathohcs who 
had come to this country. He sent as the first Ar- 
menian missionary the Very Reverend Archpriest 
Mardiros Mighirian, who had been educated at the 
Propaganda and the Armenian College, and arrived 
in the United States on Ascension Day, 11 May, 1899. 
He at first went to Boston where he assembled a small 
congregation of Armenian Catholics, and later pro- 
ceeded to New York to look after the spiritual welfare 
of the Cathohc Armenians in Manhattan and Brook- 
IjTi. He also established a mission station in Worces- 
ter, Massachusetts. In New York and Brooklyn the 
Cathohcs of the Armenian Rite are (Uvdded into those 
who speak Armenian and those who, coming from 
places outside of the historic Armenia, speak the 
Arabic language. At present this missionary is 
stationed at St. Stephen's church in East Twenty- 
eighth Street, since large numbers of Armenians live 
in that vicinity, but has another congregation under 



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his charge in BrookljTi. All these Catholic Armenians 
are too poor to build any church or chapel of their 
own, and use the bas^ement portion of the Latin 
churches. Towards the end of 1906 another Ar- 
menian priest, Rev. Manuel Basieganian, commenced 
mission work in Paterson, Xew Jersey, and now at- 
tends mission stations throughout New England, 
New Jersey, and Eastern Pennsylvania. In 1908 
Rev. Hovsep (Joseph) Keossajian settled in Law- 
rence, Massachusetts, and estabUshcd a chapel in 
St. Mar}-'s Church. He also ministers to the spiritual 
wants of the Armenian Cathohcs at Boston, Cam- 
bridge. East Watertown, Newton, Lynn, Chelsea, 
and Lowell. In 1909 Rev. Moses Mazarian took 
charge of the Armenian mission at Cleveland, Ohio, 
and in the cities throughout the west. None of these 
have been able to build independent Armenian 
churches, but usuallj' hold their services in the Roman 
Catholic churches. Besides the places already men- 
tioned there are slender Armenian Catholic congrega- 
tions at Haverhill, Worcester, Fitchburg, Milford, 
Fall River, Holyoke, and Whiting, in Massachusetts; 
Nashua and Manchester, in New Hampshire; Provi- 
dence, Pawtucket, and Central Falls in Rhode 
Island; New Britain and Bridgeport, in Connecticut; 
Jersey Citj-, West Hoboken, and Newark, in New 
Jersey; and Philadelphia and Chicago. The number 
of Catholic Armenians in the United States is very 
small, being <'stimate(l at about 2000 to 2500 all told. 
So many of them reside among the other Armenians 
and frequent their churches, that there may be more 
who do not profess themselves Catholics, and purely 
Armenian chapels would doubtless bring to light many 
whom the mission priestc on their rounds do not reach. 
Gregorian An?ienians. — Inasmuch as Armenia was 
converted to the faith of St. Gregory the Illuminator, 
the Armenians who are not in union with the Holy 
See pride themselves upon the fact that they more 
truly hold the faith preached by St. Gregory and they 
are accordingly called Gregorians, since the word 
"Orthodox" would be likely to confuse them with 
the Greek.s. By reason of the many schools founded 
in Armenia and in Constantinople by American 
Protestant missionaries, their attention was turned 
to America, and, when the massacres of 189.5-96 took 
place, large numbers came to the United States. 
Many of them belonged to the Protestant Armenian 
Church, and identified them.selves with the Con- 
gregationalists or Presbyterians; but the greater 
number of them belonged to the national Gregorian 
Church. In 1889 Rev. Hovsep Sarajian, a priest 
from Constantinople, was sent to the Armenians in 
Massachusetts, and a church which was built in 
Worcester in 1891, is still the headquarters of the 
Armenian Church in the United States. The emigra^ 
tion increaiiing greatly after the massacres. Father 
Sarajian was reinforced by several other Armenian 
priests; in 1898 he was made bishop, and in 1903 was 
mvf«ted with archiepiscopal authority, having Canada 
and the Unitfd Statf-s umlcr his jurisdiction. Seven 
grf-at pastorates wen; organizr^d to serve as the nuclei 
of future diofcsf-s: at Worcester, Boston, and Law- 
n-nee fMa.ssachu.settH), New York, Providence (Rhode 
Island;, Fresno (California), and Chicago (Illinois). 
To these was a/lded West Hoboken in 1906. There 
are numerous congregations and mi.ssion stations in 
various citic-s. Churches have been built in Worces- 
ter, Fresno, and Went Holxjken; in Boston and Prov- 
idenc<; halls are renU-d, and in other places arrange- 
mentH are often ma/le with Episcopal churches where 
their Bt;r\iceH are held, l^he Gregorian Armenian 
clergy c^>mpnw;s the archbishop, seven resiflent and 
thrf!e missionary prifsls, while th(; number of Gregor- 
ian Armenians is given at 20,(XX) in the United States. 
There are Beveral Armenian societies and two Ar- 
menian newspapers, and also Armenian reading- 
rooms in Beveral places. 



IssAVERDENZ, The Armenian Liturgy (Venice, 1873); Idem, 
The Armenian Ritual (Venice, 1873); Idem, The Sacred Rites 
and Ceremonies of the Armenian Church (Venice, 1888) ; Prince 
Maximilian, Missa Armenica (Ratisbon and New York, 1908); 
Fortescue, The Armenian Church (London, 1873); Asdvad- 
ZADOTJRiANTS, Armenian Liturgy, Armenian and English (Lon- 
don, 1887) ; Brightman, Liturgies Eastern and Western (Oxford, 
1896); NiLLES, Kalendarium Manuale, II (Innsbruck, 1897); U. 
S. Census Bureau, Religious Bodies, pt. II (Washington, 1910). 

II. Byzantine or Greek Rite. — This rite, 
reckoning both the Catholic and Schismatic Churches, 
comes next in expansion through the Christian world 
to the Roman Rite. It also ranks next to the Roman 
Rite in America, there being now (1911) about 156 
Greek Catholic churches, and about 149 Greek 
Orthodox churches in the United States. The 
Eastern Orthodox Churches of Russia, Turkey, 
Rumania, Servia, and Bulgaria, and other places 
where they are found, make up a total of about 
120,000,000, while the Uniat Churches of the same 
rite, the Greek Catholics in Austria, Hungary, Italy, 
Bulgaria, Asia, and elsewhere, amount to upwards of 
7,500,000. The Byzantine Rite has already been 
fully described [see Const.\ntinople, The Rite of; 
Greek Rites; Orthodox Church; Altar (in 
the Greek Church); Archimandrite; Epiklesis; 
Euchologion; Iconostasis], as well as the or- 
ganization and development of the various churches 
using the Greek or Byzantine Rite (see Eastern 
Churches; Greek Church; Russia). Unlike the 
Armenian Rite, it has not been confined to any par- 
ticular people or language, but has spread over the 
entire Christian Orient among the Slavic, Rumanian, 
and Greek populations. As regards jurisdiction and 
authority, it has not been united and homogeneous 
like the Roman Rite, nor has it, like the Latin 
Church, been uniform in language, calendar, or par- 
ticular customs, although the same general teaching, 
ritual, and observances have been followed. The 
principal languages in which the liturgy of the Greek 
Rite is celebrated are (1) Greek; (2) Slavonic; (3) 
Arabic, and (4) Rumanian. It is also celebrated in 
Georgian by a small and diminishing number of wor- 
shippers, and sometimes experimentally in a number 
of modern tongues for missionary purposes; but, as 
this latter use has never been approved, the four 
languages named above may be considered the official 
ones of the Byzantine Rite. A portion of the popula- 
tion of all the nations which use this rite, follow it in 
union with the Holy See, and the.se have by their 
union placed the Byzantine Rite in the position which 
it occupied before the schism of 1054. Thus, the 
Russians, Bulgarians, and Servians, who are schis- 
matic, use the Old Slavonic in their church books and 
services; so hkewi.se do the Catholic Ruthenians, 
Bulgarians, and Servians. Likewise the Rumanians 
of Rumania and Transylvania, who are schismatic, 
use the Rumanian language; in the Greek Rite; but 
the Rumanians of Transylvania, who are Catholic, 
do the same. The Orthodox Greeks of Greece and 
Turkey use the original Greek of their rite; but the 
Italo-Greeks of Italy and Sicily and the Greeks of 
Constantinople, who are CathoHc, use it also. The 
Syro-Arabians of Svria and Egypt, who are schis- 
matic, use the Arabic in the Greek Rite; but the 
Catholic Melchites likewi.se use it. 

The numerous emigrants from these countries to 
America have brought with them their Byzantine 
Rite with all its local peculiarities and its language. 
In some respects the environment of a people pro- 
fessing the Greek Rite in union with the Holy See 
but in close touch with their countrymen of the Roman 
Rite has tended to change; in unimportant particulars 
several of the ceremonies and sometimes particular 
phra.ses of the rite (see Italo-Gkeeks; Melchite.s; 
Ruthe.via.v Rite), but not to a greater extent tluvn 
the various Schismatic Churches have changed the 
language and ceremonies in their several national 
Churches. Where this has occurred in the Greek 



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83 



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Churches united with the Holy See, it has been fiercely 
denounced as latinizing, but, where it has occurred 
in Russia, Bulgaria, or Syria, it is merely regarded by 
the same denouncers as a mere expression of na- 
tionalism. There is in the aggregate a larger number 
of Catholics of the Byzantine Rite in America than 
of the Orthodox. The chief nationalities there which 
are Catholic are the Ruthenians, Rumanians, Mel- 
chites, and Italo-Greeks; the principal Orthodox 
ones are the Russians, Greeks, Syro-Arabians, Ser- 
vians, Rumanians, Bulgarians, and Albanians. The 
history and establishment of each of these has been 
already given (see Greek Catholics in America; 
Greek Orthodox Church ix America). As emi- 
gration from those lands increases daily, and the rep- 
resentatives of those rites are increasing in numbers 
and prosperity, a still wider expansion of the Greek 
Rite in the United States may be expected. Al- 
ready the Russian Orthodox Church has a strong 
hierarchy, an ecclesiastical seminary, and monas- 
teries, supported chiefly by the Holy Synod and the 
Orthodox Missionary Society of Russia, and much 
proselytizing is carried on among the Greek Catho- 
lics. The latter are not in such a favourable position; 
they have no home governmental support, but have 
had to build and equip their own institutions out 
of their own slender means. The Holy See has pro- 
vided a bishop for them, but the Russians have stirred 
up dissensions and made his position as difficult as 
possible among his own people. The Hellenic Greek 
Orthodox Church expects soon to have its own Greek 
bishop, and the Servians and Rumanians also expect a 
bishop to be appointed by their home authorities. 

III. Maronite Rite. — The Maronite is one of the 
Syrian rites and has been closely assimilated in the 
Church to the Roman Rite (see Maroxites). Un- 
like the Syro-Chaldean or the Syro-Catholic rites, 
for they all use the Syriac language in the Mass and 
liturgy, it has not kept the old forms intact, but has 
modelled itself more and more upon the Roman Rite. 
Among all the Eastern rites which are now in com- 
munion with the Holy See, it alone has no Schismatic 
rite of corresponding form and language, but is 
wholly united and Catholic, thereby difTering also 
from the other Syrian rites. The liturgical language 
is the ancient Syriac or Aramaic, and the Maronites, 
as well as all other rites who use Syriac, take especial 
pride in the fact that they celebrate the Mass in the 
very language whi(;h Christ spoke while He was on 
earth, as evidenced by some fragments of His very 
words still preserved in the Greek text of the Gospels (e. 
g. in Matt., xxvii, 46, and Mark, v, 41). The Syriac is 
a Semitic language closely related to the Hebrew, and 
is sometimes called Aramaic from the Hebrew word 
Aram (Northern Syria). As the use of Ancient 
Hebrew died out after the Babylonian captivity, the 
Syriac or Aramaic took its place, very much as 
ItaUan has supplanted Latin throughout the Italian 
peninsula. This was substantially the situation at 
the time of Christ's teaching and the foundation of 
the early Church. Syriac is now a dead language, 
and in the Maronite service and liturgy bears the 
same relation to the vernacular Arabic as the Latin 
in the Roman Rite does to the modern languages of the 
people. It is written wth a peculiar alphabet, reads 
from right to left like the Hebrew or Arabic languages, 
but its letters are unlike the current alphabets of 
either of these languages. To simplify the Maronite 
Missals, Breviary, and other service books, the ver- 
nacular Arabic is often employed for the rubrics and 
for manjy of the best-known prayers; it is written, not 
in Arabic characters, but in Syriac, and this mingled 
language and alphabet is called Karshuni. The Epis- 
tle, Gospel, Creed, and Pater Noster are nearly always 
given in Karshuni, instead of the original Arabic. 

The form of the Liturgy or Mass is that of St. 
James, so called because of the tradition that it orig- 



inated with St. James the Loss, Apostle and Bishop 
of Jerusalem. It is the type form of the Syriac Rite, 
but the Maronite Use has accommodated it more and 
more to the Roman. This form of the Liturgy of 
St. James constitutes the Ordinary of the Mass, 
which is always said in the same manner, merely 
changing the epistles and gospels according to the 
Christian year. But the Syrians, whether of the 
Maronite, Syrian, Catholic, or Syro-Chaldaic rite, 
have the peculiarity (not found in other liturgies) 
of inserting different anaphoras or canons of the Mass, 
composed at various times by different Syrian saints; 
these change according to the feast celebrated, 
somewhat analogously to the Preface in the Roman 
Rite. The principal anaphoras or canons of the 
Mass used by the Maronites are: (1) the Anaphora 
according to the Order of the Holy Catholic and 
Roman Church, the Mother of all the Churches; 
(2) the Anaphora of St. Peter, the Head of the Apos- 
tles; (3) the Anaphora of the Twelve Apostles; (4) 
the Anaphora of St. James the Apostle, brother of 
the Lord; (5) the Anaphora of St. John the Apostle 
and Evangelist; (6) the Anaphora of St. Mark the 
Evangelist; (7) the Anaphora of St. Xystus, the 
Pope of Rome; (8) the Anaphora of St. John sur- 
named Maro, from whom they derive their name; 
(9) the Anaphora of St. John Chrysostom; (10) the 
Anaphora of St. Basil; (11) the Anaphora of St. 
Cyril; (12) the Anaphora of St. Dionysius; (13) the 
Anaphora of John of Harran, and (14) the Anaphora 
of Alarutha of Tagrith. Besides these they have also 
a form of liturgy of the Presanctified for Good Friday, 
after the Roman custom. Frequent use of incense 
is a noticeable feature of the Maronite Mass, and 
not even in low Mass is the incense omitted. In 
their form of church building the Maronites have 
nothing special like the Greeks with their iconostasis 
and square altar, or the Armenians with their cur- 
tains, but build their churches very much as Latins 
do. While the sacred vestments are hardly dis- 
tinguishable from those of the Roman Church, in 
some respects thoy approach the Greek form. The 
alb, the girdle, and the maniple or cuffs on each hand, 
a peculiar form of amict, the stole (sometimes in 
Greek and sometimes in Roman form), and the or- 
dinary Roman chasuble make up the vestments worn 
by the priest at Mass. Bishops use a cross, mitre, 
and staff of the Roman form. The sacred vessels 
used on the altar are the chalice, paten or disk, and 
a small star or asterisk to cover the consecrated Host. 
They, like us, use a small cross or crucifix, with a 
long silken banneret attached, for giving the blessings. 
The Maronites use unleavened bread and have a 
round host, as in the Roman Rite. 

The Maronite Mass commences with the ablution 
and vesting at the foot of the altar. Then, standing 
at the middle of the sanctuary, the priest recites 
Psalm xlii, "Introibo ad altare", moving his head in 
the form of a cross. He then ascends the altar, 
takes the censer and incenses both the uncovered 
chalice and paten, then takes up the Host 
and has it incensed, puts it on the paten and 
has the corporals and veils incensed. He next 
pours wine in the chahce, adding a little water, and 
then incenses it and covers both host and chalice 
with the proper veils. Then, going again to the foot 
of the altar, he says aloud the first prayer in Arabic, 
which is followed by an antiphon. The strange 
Eastern music, with its harsh sounds and quick 
changes, is a marked feature of the Maronite Rite. 
The altar, the elements, the clergy, servers, and 
people are incensed, and the Kyrie Eleison (Kurrili- 
son) and the "Holy God, Holy strong one etc." 
are sung by choir and people. Then comes the Pater 
Noster in Arabic, with the response: "For thine is 
the kingdom and the power and the glory, world 
without end, Amen." The celebrant and deacon 



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84 



RITES 



Intone the SjTiapte for peace, which is followed by a 
Bhort form of the Gloria in excelsis: "Glory be to 
God on high, and on earth peace and good hope to 
the sons of men etc." The Phrumiur is then said; 
this is an introductory prayer, and always comes 
before the Sedro. which is a prayer of praise said aloud 
bj- the priest standing before the altar while the censer 
is* swung. It is constructed by the insertion of verses 
into a more or less constant framework, commemora- 
tive of the feast or season, and seems to be a survival 
of the old psalm verses with the Gloria. For in- 
stance, a sedro of Our Lady will commemorate her 
in many ways, something like our litany, but more 
poetically and at length ; one of Our Lord will celebrate 
Him in His nativity, baptism etc. Then come the 
commemorations of the Prophets, the Apostles, the 
martyrs, of all the saints, and lastly the commemora- 
tion of the departed: " Be ye not sad, all ye who sleep 
in the dust, and in the decay of your bodies. The 
living Body which you have eaten and the saving 
Blood which you have drunk, can again vivify all of 
you, and clothe your bodies with glory. O Christ, 
Who hast come and given peace by Thy Blood to the 
heights and the depths, give rest to the souls of Thy 
servants in the promised life everlasting!" The 
priest then prays for the living, and makes special 
intercession by name of those living or dead for whom 
the Mass is offered. He blesses and offers the sacred 
elements, in a form somewhat analogous to the 
Offertory in the Roman Rite. Another phrumiun 
and the great Sedro of St. Ephraem or St. James is 
said, in which the whole sacrifice of the Mass is fore- 
shadowed. The psalm preparatory to the Epistle 
in Arabic is recited, and the epistle of the day then 
read. The Alleluia and gradual psalm is recited, 
the Book of Gospels incensed, and the Gospel, also 
in Arabic, intoned or read. The versicles of thanks- 
giving for the Gospel are intoned, at several parts 
of which the priest and deacon and precentor chant 
in unison. The Nicene Creed, said in unison by 
priest and deacon, follows, and immediately after the 
celebrant washes his hands saying Psalm xxvi. This 
ends the Ordinary of the Mass. 

The Anaphora, or Canon of the Mass, is then begun, 
and varies according to season, place, and celebrant. 
In the Anaphora of the Holy Catholic and Roman 
Church, which is a typical one, the Mass proceeds 
with the prayers for peace very much as they stand 
at the end of the Roman Mass; then follow prayers 
of confe.ssion, adoration, and glor>', which conclude 
by givnng the kiss of peace to the deacon and the other 
cferg>'. The Preface follows: "Let us lift up our 
thoughts, our conscience and our hearts! I^. They 
are lifted up to Thee, O Lord! P. Let us give 
thanks to the Lord in fear, and adore Him with 
trembling. I^. It is meet and just. P. To Thee, 
O God of Abraham and Isaac and Jacob, O glorious 
and holy King of Israel, for ever! I^. Glory be to 
the Father and the Son and the Holy Ghost, now and 
forever, world without end. I^. Before the glorious 
and divine mysteries of our Redeemer, with the 
pleasant things which are imposed, let us implore 
the mercy of the Lord! I^. It is meet and just" 
(and the Preface continues secretly). Then the 
Sanctus is sung, and the Consecration immediately 
follows. The words of Consecration are intoned 
aloud, the choir answering "Amen". After the 
succeeding prayer of commemoration of the Resur- 
rection and hope of the Second Coming and a prayer 
for mercy, the Epiklfisis is said: "How tremendous 
is thin hour and how awful this moment, my beloved, 
in which the Holy and Life-giving Spirit comes down 
from on high and descends upon this Eucharist which 
w placed in this sanctuary for our reconciliation. 
With silence and fear stand and pray! Salvation to 
Ufl and the peace of God the Father of all of us. I^t 
118 cry out and say thrice: Have mercy on us, O 



Lord, and send down the Holy and Life-giving Spirit 
upon us! Hear me, O Lord! and let Thy living and 
Holy Spirit descend upon me and upon this sacrifice! 
and so complete this mystery, that it be the Body of 
Christ our God for our redemption!" The prayers 
for the Pope of Rome, the Patriarch of Antioch, and 
all the metropolitans and bishops and orthodox pro- 
fessors and believers of the Catholic Faith imme- 
diately follow. This in turn is followed by a long 
prayer by the deacon for tranquillity, peace, and the 
commemoration of all the saints and doctors of the 
early Church and of Syria, including St. John Maro, 
with the petition for the dead at the end. Then comea 
the solemn offering of the Body and the Blood for 
the sins of priest and people, concluding with the 
words: "Thy Body and Thy Holy Blood are the way 
which leads to the Kingdom!" The adoration and 
the fraction follow; then the celebrant elevates the 
chalice together with the Host, and saj^s: "O de- 
sirable sacrifice which is offered for us! O victim of 
reconciliation, which the Father obtained in Thy own 
person! O Lamb, Who wast the same person as the 
High Priest who sacrificed!" Then he genuflects 
and makes the sign of the Cross over the chalice: 
"Behold the Blood which was shed upon Golgotha 
for my redemption ; because of it receive my supplica- 
tion". The "Sanctus fortis" is again sung, and the 
celebrant lifts the Sacred Body on high and says: 
" Holy things for holy persons, in purity and holiness! " 
The fraction of the Host follows after several prayers, 
and the priest mingles a particle with the Blood, 
receives the Body and the Blood himself, and gives 
communion to the clergy and then to the people. 
When it is finished he makes the sign of the Cross 
with the paten and blesses the people. 

Then follow a synapte (litany) of thanksgiving, 
and a second signing of the people with both paten 
and chalice, after which the priest consumes all the 
remaining species saying afterwards the prayers at 
the purification and ablution. The prayer of blessing 
and protection is said, and the people and choir 
sing: "Alleluia! Alleluia! I have fed upon Thy 
Body and by Thy living Blood I am reconciled, and 
I have sought refuge in Thy Cross! Through these 
may I please Thee, O Good Lord, and grant Thou 
mercy to the sinners who call upon Thee! " Then 
they sing the final hymn of praise, which in this 
anaphora contains the words: "By the prayers of 
Simon Peter, Rome was made the royal city, and she 
shall not be shaken!" Then the people all say or 
sing the Lord's Prayer; when it is finished, the final 
benediction is given, and the priest, coming again to 
the foot of the altar, takes off his sacred vestments and 
proceeds to make his thanksgiving. 

The principal editions of the Maronitc missals and service 
boolcs for the deacons and those assisting at the altar are The 
Book of Sacrifice according to the Rite of the Maronile Church of 
Antioch (Kozhayya, 1816, 1838, and 188.5; Beirut, 1888), and 
The Book of the Ministry according to the Rile of the MaroniU 
church of Antioch (Kozhayya, 185.5). 

Maronites in America. — The Maronites are chiefly 
from the various districts of Mount Lebanon and from 
the city of Beirut, and were at first hardly distin- 
guishable from the other Syrians and Arabic-speaking 
persons who canu; to America. At first they were 
merely ptidlars and small traders, chiefly in religious 
and devotional articles, but they soon got into other 
lines of business and at present possess many well- 
established business enterprises. Not only are they 
established in the United States, but they have also 
spread to Mexico and Canada, and have several 
fairly large colonies in Brazil, Argentine, and Uruguay. 
Their numbcjrs in the United States are variously es- 
timated from 10(),00() to 120,000, including the native 
born. Many of them have become prosperous mer- 
chants and are now American citizens. Several 
Maronite families of title (Emir) have emigrated and 
made their homes in the United States; among them 



RITES 



85 



RITES 



are the Emirs Al-Kazen, Al-Khouri, Abi-Saab, and 
others. There is also the well-known Arabic novelist 
of the present day, Madame Karam Hanna (Afifa 
Karam) of Shreveport, Louisiana, formerly of 
Amshid, Mount Lebanon, who not only writes enter- 
taining fiction, but touches on educational topics 
and even women's rights. Nahum Mokarzel, a grad- 
uate of the Jesuit College of Beirut, is a clever writer 
both in Arabic and English. The Maronites are 
established in New York, the New England States, 
Pennsylvania, Minnesota, and Alabama. The first 
Maronite priest to visit the United States was Rev. 
Joseph Mokarzel, who arrived in 1879 but did not 
remain. Very Rev. Louis Kazen of Port Said, 
Egypt, came later, but, as there were very few of his 
countrymen, he likewise returned. On 6 August, 
1S90, ihe Rev. Butrosv Korkemius came to establish 
a permanent mission, and after considerable difficulty 
rented a tiny chapel in a store on \\'a.shington Street, 
New York City. He was accompanied by his nephew, 
Rev. Joseph Yasbek, then in deacon's orders, who 
was later ordained to the priesthood by Archbishop 
Corrigan, and founded the Maronite mission in 
Boston; he is now Chor-Bishop of the Maronites 
and practically the head of that rite in America. 

A church was later established in Philadelphia, 
then one in Troy and one in Brooklyn, after which 
the Maronites branched out to other cities. At 
present (1911) there are fifteen Maronite churches in 
the United States: in New York, Brooklyn, Troy, 
Buffalo, Boston, Lawrence, Springfield, Pliiladelphi'a, 
Scranton, St. Paul, St. Louis, Birmingham, Chicago, 
Wheeling, and Cleveland. Meanwliile new con- 
gregations are being formed in smaller cities, and are 
regularly visited by missionary priests. The Maro- 
nite clergy is composed of two chor-bishops (deans 
vested with certain episcopal powers) and twenty- 
three other priests, of whom five are Antonine monks. 
In Mexico there are three Maronite chapels and four 
priests. In Canada there is a Maronite chapel at 
New Glasgow and one resident priest. There are 
only two Arabic-English schools, in New York and 
St. Louis, since many of the Maronite children go to 
the ordinary Catholic or to the public schools. 
There are no general societies or clubs with religious 
objects, although there is a Syrian branch of the St. 
Vincent de Paul Society. About fifteen years ago 
Nahum A. Mokarzel founded and now publishes in 
New York City the daily newspaper, "Al Hoda" 
(The Guidance), which is now the best known 
Arabic newspaper in the world and the only illus- 
trated one. His brother also publi-shes an Arabic 
monthly magazine, "Al Alam ul Jadid" (The New 
World), which contains modern Arabic literature and 
translations of American and English writers. There 
are also two Maronite papers published in Me.\ico. 
The Maronites also have in New York a publishing 
house on a small scale, in which novels, pamphlets, 
and scientific and religious works are printed in 
Arabic, and the usual Arabic literature sold. 

Dandini, Reisebemerkungen tiber die Maroniten (Jena, 1903); 
Istafan-ai^Dawaihi, a History of the Maronites (Beirut, 1890) ; 
Nau, Opuscules Maronites (Paris, 1899-1900); Kohler, Die 
kathol. Kirchen des Morgenlandes (Darmstadt, 1896); Prince 
Maximiuan, Missa Maronitica (Ratisbon and New York, 1907); 
AzAR, Les Maronites (Cambrai, 1852); Etheridqe, The S;/ri(in 
Churches (London, 1879) ; Silbernagl, Verfassung u. gegen- 
waniger Bestand samllicher Kirchen des Orients (Ratisbon, 1904). 

IV. Other Oriextal Rites. — The rites already 
described are the principal rites to be met with in 
the United States; but there are besides them a few 
representatives of the remaining Eastern rites, al- 
though these are perhaps not sufficiently numerous 
to maintain their own churches or to constitute 
separate ecclesiastical entities. Among these smaller 
bodies are: (1) the Chaldean Catholics and the 
schismatic Christians of the same rite, known as 
Nestorians; (2) the Syrian Catholics or Syro-Catholics 
and their correlative dissenters, the Jacobites, and 



(3) finally the Copts, Catholic or Orthodox. All of 
these have a handful of representatives in America, 
and, as immigration increa.ses, it is a question how 
great their numbers will become. 

(1) Chaldean or Syro-Chaldean Catholic Rite.— 
Those who profess this rite are Eastern Syrians, 
coming from what was anciently Mesopotamia, but 
is now the borderland of Persia. Thev ascribe 
the origin of the rite to two of the early' disciples, 
Addeus and Maris, who first preached the Gospel 
in their lands. It is really a remnant of the early 
Persian Church, and it has always used the Syriac 
language in its hturgy. The principal features of 
the rite and the celebration of the jVIass have already 
been described (see Addeus .a.nd Maris, Liturgy of). 
The peculiar Syriac which it uses is known as the 
eastern dialect, as distinguished from that used in 
the Maronite and Syro-Catholic rites, which is the 
western dialect. The method of writing this church 
Syriac among the Chaldeans is somewhat different 
frorn that used in writing it among the western 
Syrians. The Chaldeans and Nestorians use in their 
church books the antique letters of the older versions 
of the Syriac Scriptures which are called "astran- 
gelo", and their pronunciation is somewhat different. 
The Chaldean Church in ancient times was most 
flourishing, and its history under Persian rule was a 
bright one. Unfortunately in the sixth century it 
embraced the Nestorian heresy, for Nestorius on 
being removed from the See of Constantinople went 
to Persia and taught his views (see Ne.storius and 
Nestoria.vism; Persia). The Chaldean Church 
took up his heresy and became Nestorian (see 
Chaldean Christians). This Nestorian Church 
not only extended throughout Mesopotamia and 
Persia, but penetrated also into India (Malabar) and 
even into China. The inroads of Mohammedanism 
and its isolation from the centre of unity and from 
intercommunication with other Catholic bodies 
caused it to diminish through the centuries. In the 
sixteenth century the Church in Malabar, India, 
came into union with the Holy See, and this induced 
the Nestorians to do likewise. The conversion of 
part of the Nestorians and the reunion of their an- 
cient Church with the Holy See began in the seven- 
teenth century, and has continued to the present day. 
The Chaldean Patriarch of Babylon (who really haa 
liis see at Mossul) is the chief prelate of the Chaldean 
Catholics, and has under him two archbishops 
(of Diarbekir and Kerkuk) and nine bishops (of 
Amadia, Gezireh, Mardin, Mossul, Sakou, Salmas, 
Seert, Sena, and Urmiah). The Malabar Christiana 
have no regular Chaldean hierarchy, but are governed 
by vicars Apostolic. The number of Chaldean Catho- 
lics is estimated at about 70,000, while the cor- 
responding schismatic Nestorian Church has about 
140,000 (see Asia; Chaldean Christians). 

There are about 100 to 150 Chaldean Catholics in 
the United States; about fifty live in Yonkers, New 
York, while the remainder are scattered in New York 
City and vicinity. The community in Yonkers is 
cared for by Rev. Abdul Masih (a married priest from 
the Diocese of Diarbekir), who came to this country 
from Damascus some six years ago. He says Mass 
in a chapel attached to St. Mary's Catholic Church, 
and some Nestorians also attend. At present (1911) 
there are two other Chaldean priests in this country: 
Rev. Joseph Ghariba, from the Diocese of Aleppo, 
who is a travelling missionary for his people, and Rev. 
Gabriel Oussani, who is professor of church history, 
patrology, and Oriental languages in St. Joseph's 
Seminary at Dunwoodie near Yonkers, and from 
whom some of these particulars have been obtained. 
There are also said to be about 150 Nestorians in the 
United States; the majority of these hve and work 
in Yonkers, New York. They have no priest of their 
own, and, where they do not attend the Cathohc 



RITSCHLIANISM 



86 



RITSCHLIANISM 



Rite, are drifting into modern Protestantism. 
Several of them have become members of the Epis- 
copal Church, and they are looked after by Dr. 
Abraham Yohannan, an'Armenian from Persia, now 
a minister in the Episcopal Chm-ch and lectm-er on 
modern Persian at Columbia University. They have 
no church or chapel of their own. 

(2) Syro-Catholic Rite.— This rite is professed by 
those S\Tiac Cliristians who were subjects of the an- 
cient Patriarchate of Antioch; these are spread 
throughout the plains of Syria and Western Mesopo- 
tamia, whereas the Maronites live principally on 
Mount Lebanon and the sea coast of Syria (see 
Asia; E.a.stern Churches). The Syriac Mass and 
liturgj- is, like the Maronite (which is but a variation 
of it)," the Liturgv of St. James, Apostle and Bishop 
of Jerusalem. P'or this reason, but principally for 
the reason that Jacob Baradaeus and the greater part 
of the Syriac Church (see Barad.eus, Jacob) em- 
braced the Monophysite heresy of Eutyches (see 
RIoNOPHYSiTES AND Monophysitism), the schis- 
matic branch of this rite are called Jacobites, although 
they call themselves Suriani or Syrians. Thus we 
have in the tliree Syrian rites the historic remem- 
brance of the three greatest heresies of the early 
Church after it had become well-developed. Nes- 
torians and Chaldeans represent Nestorianism and the 
return to Catholicism; Jacobites and Syro-Catholics 
represent Monophysitism and the return to Cathol- 
icism; the Maronites represent a vanished Mono- 
thehtism now wholly Catholic (see Monothelitism 
AND MoNOTHELiTEs). The Syro-Catholics like the 
Maronites vary the Ordinary of their Mass by a large 
number of anaphoras or canons of the Mass, con- 
taining changeable forms of the consecration service. 
The Syro-Catholics confine themselves to the an- 
aphoras of St. John the Evangelist, St. James, St. 
Peter, St. John Chrysostom, St. Xystus the Pope 
of Rome, St. Matthew, and St. Basil; but the schis- 
matic Jacobites not only use these, but have a large 
number of others, some of them not yet in print, 
amounting perhaps to thirty or more (see Syria; 
Syrian Rite, E.-vst). The epistles, gospels, and many 
well-known prayers of the Mass are said in Arabic in- 
stead of the ancient Syriac. The form of their church 
vestments is derived substantially from the Greek or 
Byzantine Rite. Their church hierarchy in union with 
the Holy See consists of the Syrian Patriarch of An- 
tioch with three archbishops (of Bagdad, Damascus, 
and Horns) and five bishops (of Aleppo, Beirut, 
Gezireh, Mardin-Diarbekir, and Mossul). The num- 
ber of Syro-Catholics is about 25,000 families, and of 
the Jacobites about 80,000 to S.5,000 persons. 

There are about 60 persons of the Syro-Catholic 
Rite in the eastern part of the United States, of whom 
forty live in Brooklyn, New York. They are mostly 
from the Diocesf; of Aleppo, and their emigration 
thither began only about five years ago. They have 
organized a church, although there is but one priest 
of thf'ir rite in the United States, Rev. Paul Kassar 
from Ale})[)o, an alumnus of the Propaganda at Rome. 
He i.H a mission priest engagfid in looking after his 
c<juntr>'men and resides in BrfKjklyn, but he is only 
here upon an ext<!nded leave of absence from the 
diocjisa. There are alsfj sfjme thirty or forty Syro- 
JacjbiUjs in the Unitc;d States; they are mostly from 
Mardin, Aleppo, and Northern Syria, and have no 
priest or chapel of their own. 

(3j Coptic Rite. — There is only a handful of Copts 
in this country — in New York City perhaps a dozen 
individuals. Oriental theatrical pieces, in which an 
Eastern setting is required, has attracted some of 
them thither, principally from Egypt. They have 
no priest, either Catnolic or Orthodox, and no place 
of worship. As to their Church and its organization, 
see Eabtehn Churches; Egypt: V. Coptic Church. 
Andkew J. Shipman. 



Ritschlianism, a jxHuhar conception of the nature 
and scope of Cliristianity, widely held in modern 
Protestantism, especially in Germany. Its founder 
was the Protestant theologian, Albrecht Ritschl (b. 
at Berlin, 25 March, 1822; d. at Gottingen, 20 March, 
1889). Having completed his studies in the gymna- 
sium at Stettin, where his father resided as general 
superintendent of Pomerania, Ritschl attended the 
University of Bonn, and was for a time captivated by 
the "Biblical supernaturalism " of his teacher, K. J. 
Nitzsch. Mental dissatisfaction caused him to leave 
Bonn in 1841, and he continued his studies under 
Julius M tiller and Tholuck in the University of Halle. 
Disabused here also as to the teachings of his pro- 
fessors, he sought and found peace in the reconcilia- 
tion doctrine of the Tiibingen professor, Ferdinand 
Christian Baur, through whose writings he was won 
over to the philosophy of Hegel. On 21 May, 1843, 
he graduated Doctor of Philosophy at Halle with the 
dissertation, "Expositio doctrina) Augustini de 
creatione mundi, peccato, gratia" (Halle, 1843). 
After a long residence in his parents' house at Stettin, 
he proceeded to Tubingen, and there entered into 
personal intercourse with the celebrated head of the 
(later) Tubingen School, Ferdinand Christian Baur. 
He here wrote, entirely in the spirit of this theologian, 
"Das Evangelium Marcions und das kanonische 
Evangelium des Lukas" (Tubingen, 1846), wherein 
he attempts to prove that the apocryphal gospel 
of the Gnostic Marcion forms the real foundation of 
the Gospel of St. Luke. Having qualified as Privat- 
docent at Bonn on 20 June, 1846, he was appointed 
professor extraordinary of Evangelical theology on 
22 December, 1852, and ordinary professor on 10 July, 
1859. Meanwhile he had experienced a radical 
change in the earlier views which he had formed under 
Baur's influence; this change removed him farther 
and farther from the Tubingen School. 

In 1851 he had withdrawn his hypothesis concerning 
the origin of the Gospel of St. Luke as untenable, and 
in 1856 he had a public breach with Baur. Hence- 
forth Ritschl was resolved to tread his own path. 
In the second edition of his "Die Entstehung der 
altkatholischen Kirche" (Bonn, 1857; 1st ed., 1850), 
he rejected outright Baur's sharp distinction between 
St. Paul and the original Apostles — between Paul- 
inism and Petrinism — by maintaining the thesis that 
the New Testament contains the religion of Jesus 
Christ in a manner entirely uniform and disturbed 
by no internal contradictions. At Gottingen, whither 
he was called at lOaster, 1864, his peculiar ideas first 
found full realization in his "Die christliche Lehre 
von der Rechtfertigung und Versohnung" (3 vols., 
Bonn, 1870-4; 4th ed., 1895-1903). His practical 
conception of Christianity was described first in his 
lecture on "Christliche VoUkommenheit" (Gottingen, 
1874; 3rd ed., 1902) and then in his "Unterricht in 
der christlichen Religion" (Bonn, 1875; 6th ed., 
1903), which was intended as a manual for the 
gymnasium, h\ii proved very unsatisfactory for prac- 
tical purposes. In his small, but inii)ortant, work, 
" Theologie und Metaphysik" (Bonn, 18S1; 3rd ed., 
Gottingen, 1902), he dc^nies the influence of phi- 
losophy in the formation of theology. In addition to 
numerous smaller writings, which were re-edited after 
his death under the title "Gcsammelte Aufsatze" 
(2 vols., Gottingen, 1893-0), lie coinjjiled a "Ge- 
Bchichte des Pietismus" (3 vols., Bonn, 1880-6), based 
upon a wide study of the sources. Pietism itself, as 
it appeared in Calvinistic and Lutheran circles during 
the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, he con- 
demns as an abortion of modern Protestantism caused 
by the false Catholic ideal of piety. His last and 
incomplete work, "Fides implicita, oder eine Unter- 
Buchung iiber K6hlerglauben, Wissen und Glauben, 
fJlauben und Kirche" (Bonn, 1890), appeared .shortly 
after his death. After 1888 he suffered from heart 



RITSCHLIANISM 



87 



RITSCHLIANISM 



disease, of which he died in the following year. Al- 
though Ritschl was violently attacked during his 
lifetime not only by the orthodox party, but also by 
the Erlangen school named after Hofmann, he at- 
tached to himself a large circle of enthusiastic follow- 
ers with Liberal leanings, who are included under the 
name of Ritschlianists. The hterary organs of 
Ritschlianism in Germany are the " Theologische 
Literaturzeitung", the "Zeitschrift fur Theologie 
und Kirche", and the "Christliche Welt". 

To understand and rightly appraise the rather 
abstruse train of thought in the doctrine of justifica- 
tion, which constitutes the focus of Ritschl's theolog- 
ical system, we must go back to the epistemology on 
which the whole edifice rests. Influenced by the phi- 
losophy of Kant rather than of Lotze, Ritschl denies 
human reason the power to arrive at a scientific knowl- 
edge of God. Consequently religion cannot have an 
intellectual, but merely a practical-moral foundation. 
Religious knowledge is essentially distinct from scien- 
tific knowledge. It is not acquired by a theoretical 
insight into truth, but, as the product of religious faith, 
is bound up with the practical interests of the soul. 
Religion is practice, not theory. Knowledge and faith 
are not only distinct domains; they are independent 
of and separated from each other. While knowledge 
rests on judgments of existence (Seinsurleile), faith 
proceeds on independent "judgments of value" 
(Werturteile), which affirm nothing concerning the 
essence or nature of Divine things, but refer simply 
to the usefulness and fruitfulncss of religious ideas. 
Anticipating to some extent the principles of Prag- 
matism put forward in a later generation by W. James, 
Schiller, etc., Ritschl declared that knowledge alone 
valuable which in practice brings us forward. Not 
what the thing is "in itself", but what it is "for us", 
is decisive. 80 far Ritschl is not original, since 
Schleiermacher had already banished metaphysics 
from Christian philosophy, and had explained the 
nature of religion subjectively as springing from the 
feeling of our absolute dependence on God. Ritschl's 
teaching is distinguished from that of the Berlin 
scholar especially by the fact that he seeks to establish 
a better Biblical and historical foundation for his 
ideas. In the latter respect he is the promoter of the 
so-called historical-critical method, of the application 
of which many Ritschlianists of the present day are 
thorough masters. 

Like Schleiermacher, Ritschl connects mankind's 
subjective need of redemption with Jesus Christ, the 
"originator of the perfect spiritual and moral reli- 
gion". Since we can determine the historical reality 
of Christ only through the faith of the Christian com- 
munity, the religious significance of Jesus is really 
independent of His biography and investigation into 
His life. A convinced Ritschlianist seems to be ready 
to persevere in his Christianity, even though radical 
criticism were to succeed in setting aside the historical 
existence of Christ. He could be a Christian without 
Christ, as there could be a Tibetan Buddhist without 
an historical Buddha (cf. "Christliche Welt", 1901, 
n. 35). Ritschl himself never wished to separate 
Christianity from the Person of Christ. Since, as 
Ritschl especially emphasizes in reply to Baur, the 
original consciousness of the early Christian com- 
munity reveals itself with perfect consistency in the 
writings of the New Testament, theology must in its 
investigation of the authentic contents of the Christian 
religion begin with the Bible as source, for the more 
thorough understanding of which the ancient Chris- 
tian professions of faith furnish an indirect, and the 
s5rmbolical books of Protestants (Luther) a direct, 
guidance. The Reformation rightly elevated the 
Pauline justification by faith to the central place in 
Christian doctrine, and in the West carried it to a 
successful conclusion. As the necessary doctrine of 
salvation through Christ, this doctrine of justification 



is thus alone obligatory for theology and Church, 
while the other convictions and institutions of the 
earliest Christian community are of a subsidiary 
nature. For this reason, therefore, Luther himself 
recognized the Bible as the Word of God only in so 
far as it "makes for Christ". Since the Christian faith 
exists only through personal experience or subjective 
acquaintance with justification and reconciliation, the 
objects of faith are not presented to the mind from 
without through a Divine revelation as an authorita- 
tive rule of faith, but become vividly present for the 
Christian only through subjective ex-perience. The 
revelation of God is given only to the believer who 
religiously lays hold of it by experience, and recog- 
nizes it as such. 

Justifying faith especially is no mere passive atti- 
tude of man towards God, but an active trust in Him 
and His grace, evincing itself chiefly in humility, 
patience, and prayer. It is by no means a dogmatical 
belief in the truth of Revelation, but it possesses 
essentially a thoroughly practico-moral character. 
Ritschlianism can thus speak without any incon- 
sistency of an "undogmatic Christianity" (Kaftan). 
The harmonizing of the free-religious moral activity 
of the Christian with dependence on God is proclaimed 
by Ritschl the "master-question of theology". This 
fundamental problem he solves as follows: The re- 
turning sinner is at first passively determined by God, 
whereupon justification achieves its practical success 
in reconciliation and regeneration, which in their 
turn lead to Christian activity. Justification and 
reconciliation are so related that the former is also 
the forgiveness of sin and as such removes man's 
consciousness of guilt (i. e., mistrust of God), while the 
latter, as the cessation of active resistance to God, 
introduces a new direction of the will calculated to 
develop Christian activity in the true fulfilment of 
one's vocation. These two — justification and recon- 
ciliation — form the basis of our sonship as children 
of God. This justification, identical with forgiveness 
of sin, is, however, no real annihilation of sin, but a 
forensic declaration of righteousness, inasmuch as God 
regards the believing sinner, in spite of his sins, as just 
and pleasing in consideration of the work of Christ. 

A special characteristic of Ritschlianism lies in the 
assertion that justifying faith is possible only within 
the Christian community. The Church of Christ (by 
which, however, is to be understood no external in- 
stitution with legal organization) is on the one hand the 
aggregate of all the justified believers, but on the 
other hand has, as the enduring fruit of the work of 
Christ, a duration and existence prior to all its mem- 
bers, just as the whole is prior to its parts. Like the 
children in the family and the citizens in the state, 
the believers must also be bom in an already existing 
Christian community. In this alone is God preached 
as the Spirit of Love, just as Jesus Himself preached, 
and in this alone, through the preaching of Christ 
and His work, is that justifying faith rendered po.ssible, 
in virtue of which the individual experiences regenera- 
tion and attains to adoption as a son of God (cf. 
Conrad, "Begriff und Bedeutung der Gemeinde in 
Ritschl's Theologie" in "Theol. Studien und Krit.", 
1911, 230 sqq.). It is plain that, according to this 
view. Christian baptism loses all its importance m 
the real door to the Church. 

\NTiat is Ritschl's opinion of Jesus Christ? Does 
he consider Him a mere man? If we set aside the 
pious flourishes with which he clothes the form of the 
Saviour, we come speedily to the conviction that he 
does not recognize the true Divinity of Jesus Christ. 
As the efficacious bearer and transmitter of the Divine 
Spirit of Love to mankind Jesus is "superordinate" 
to all men, and has in the eternal decree of God a 
merely ideal pre-existence. He is therefore, as for 
the earliest community so also for us, our "God and 
Saviour" only in the metaphorical sense. All other 



RITTER 



88 



RITUAL 



theological questions — such as the Trinity, the meta- 
physical Divine sonship of Christ, original sin, 
eschatology — possess an entirely secondary impor- 
tance. This selt-limitation is specially injurious to the 
doctrine concerning God: all the Divine attributes, 
except such as are practico-moral, are set aside as 
unknowable. The essence of God is love, to which all 
His other attributes may be traced. Thus, His 
omnipotence is another phase of love inasmuch as the 
world is nothing else than the means for the establish- 
ment of the Kingdom of God. Even the Divine 
justice ends in love, especially in God's fidelity to 
the chosen people in the Old Testament and to the 
Christian community in the New. Every other 
explanation of the relation between the just God and 
sinful mankind — such as the juridical doctrine of 
satisfaction taught by St. Anselm of Canterbury — is 
called by Ritschl "sub-Christian". Only the sin 
against the Holy Ghost, which renders man incapable 
of salvation, calls forth the anger of God and hurls 
him into everlasting damnation. Other e\'ils decreed 
by God are not puni.shments for sin, but punishments 
intended for our instruction and improvement. Sin 
being conceivable only as personal guilt, the idea of 
original .sin is morally inconceivable. 

Although Ritschlianism has undergone manifold 
alterations and developments in one direction or 
another at the hands of its learned representatives 
(Hamack, Kaftan, Bender, Sell, and so on), it has 
remained unchanged in its essential features. The 
Liberal and modern-positive theology of Germany 
is distinctly coloured with Ritschlianism, and the 
efforts of orthodox Protestantism to combat it have 
met with poor success. More than a decade ago 
Adolf Zahn ("Abriss ciner Geschichte der evan- 
gelischen Kirche im 19. Jahrhundert", 3rd ed., 
Stuttgart, 1893) passed the sharp judgment on 
Ritschhanism, that it was "a rationalist scepticism 
and Pelagian moralism, vainly decked out in the 
truths of the Reformers, the threadbare garment 
of Lutheranism, for purposes of deceit; the clearest 
sign of the complete exhaustion and impoverish- 
ment of Protestantism, which at the end of the nine- 
teenth century again knows no more than the com- 
mon folk have ever known: 'Do right and fear no 
man'." The Cathohc critic will probably see in the 
scorn for metaj)hysics and the elimination of the 
int^-llectual factor the chief errors of Ritschlian 
theology. The separation of faith and knowledge, 
of theoiogj' and metaphysics, has indeed a long and 
gkxjmy history behind it. The philosophy of the 
Renaissance, with its doctrine of the "double truth", 
erected the fir.«t separating wall between faith and 
knowledge; this division was increased by Spinoza, 
when he assigned to faith the role of concerning itself 
with j)ifi dogmntn, but entrusted to pl)iIosof)hv alone 
the investigation of truth. Finally a|)i)( ared Kant, 
who cut the la-st threads which still held together 
thwlogy and metaphysics. IJy denying the demon- 
Htrability of the existence of God through reason, he 
consist/'ntly effected the complete segregation of 
faith anri knowledge into two ".sei)aratc liouseliolds". 
In this he was followeri by Schleiermaclicr and Ritschl. 
Since; rr-cent Modernism, with its Agnosticism and 
Immanentism, a/lopts the same attitude, it is, 
whether avowedly or not, the death-knell not only 
of ChriHtianity, but of evr-ry objective religion. 
Con.sequently, the n-giilations of I'ius X against 
Modernism represe-nt a conU-st in which the vital 
int<'rf!«tH of the Catholic religion are at stake. Ah 
the foremfwt champion of tlio powers and rights of 
reawni in its relations with faith, Catholicism is the 
def<.ri<l»T of the law of causality whidi leads to the 
knowl#-«|gc (,f rne1ai)hysical and Divine truths, the 
guardian of a conKtant, eternal, and unalterable 
truth, and the outspoken focr of every ff»rni of Scep- 
ticism, Criticism, Relativism, and' PragmatiHm— 



always in the interests of Christianity itself, since, 
without a rational foundation and substructure, 
Revelation and faith would hang unsupported in the 
air. In this statement the Catholic opposition to 
Ritschhanism in one of the most fundamental points 
of difference is sufficiently characterized. 

O. Ritschl, Albert RiUchVs Leben (Leipzig, 1892-()). Concern- 
ing the system consult: Fricke, Mel iphysik u. Dogmalik in ihrem 
gegenseitigen Verhdllnis unter besonderer Beziehung auf die 
Rilschl'sche Theologie (Leipzig, 1882); Thikotter, Darstdlung 
u. Beurteilung der Theologie A. Ritschl's (Leipzig, 1887); Flugel, 
A. Ritschl's philosoph. Ansichten (Langensalza, 1886); Lipsiu.s, 
Die Rilschl'sche Theolotie (Leipzig, 1888) ; Harino, Zu Ritschl's 
VersShnungslehre (Zurich, 1888) ; Herrmann, Der evangel. Glaube 
u. die Theologie A. Ritschl's (Marburg, 1890); Pfleiderer, 
Die Rilschl'sche Theologie (Brunswick, 1891); Bertrand, L'ne 
nouvelle conception de la Redemption. La doctrine de la justifi- 
cation el de la reconciliation dans le systems theologique de Ritschl 
(Paris, 1891); Goyau, L'Allemagne religieuse (Paris, 1897), 94 
sqq.; Garvie, The Ritschlian Theology (Edinburgh, 1899); Kat- 
TENBUSCH, Von Schleiermacher zu Ritschl (Halle, 1903) ; Schoen, 
Les origines hiUor. de la theoL de Ritschl (Paris, 1893) ; Fabre, Les 
principes philosophiques de la theol. de Ritschl (Paris, 1894) ; von 
KuGELCHEN, Grundriss der Ritschl'schen Dogmatik (Gottingen, 
1903) ; Swing, The Theology of A. Ritschl (New York, 1901) ; Fabri- 
civs, Die Entioickelung in R.'s Theol. von 1874-1889 (Leipzig, 1909); 
Herrmann, tr. Matheson and Stewart, Faith and Morals: I. 
Faith as Ritschl Defined if; II. The Moral Law, as Understood in 
Romanism and Protestantism (London, 1910). Cf. also Sanday, 
Christologies Ancient and Modern (Oxford, 1910), 81 sqq. For 
refutation consult: Strange, Der dogmatische Erlrag der Ritschl'- 
schen Theologie nach Kaftan (Leipzig, 1906) ; Schader, Theo- 
zentrische Theologie, I (I^eipzig, 1909); Edghill, Faith and Fad. 
A Study of Ritschlianism (London, 1910) (a fundamental work). 
See also: O. Ritschl in Realencykl. fiir prot. Theol. (Leipzig, 
1906), s. V. Ritschl, Albrecht Benjamin; American Journal of 
Theol. (Chicago, 1906), 423 sqq.; Kiefl, Der geschichtl. Christus 
u. die moderne Philosophie (Mainz, 1911), .51 sqq. 

Joseph Pohle. 

Ritter, Joseph Ignatius, historian, b. at Schwein- 
itz, Silesia, 12 April, 17S7; d. at Breslau, 5 Jan., 
1857. He pursued his philosophical and theological 
studies at the University of Breslau, was ordained 
priest in 1811, and for several years was engaged in 
pastoral work. An annotated translation of St. 
John Chrysostom's treatise on the priesthood not 
only obtained for him the doctorate in theology, but 
also attracted the attention of the Prassian ministry, 
which in 1823 named him ordinarj'^ professor of church 
history and patrology at the University of Bonn. 
Here he made the acquaintance of Hermes, and be- 
came favourably disposed towards his system. He 
was in 1830 named professor and canon at Breslau. 
As administrator of this diocese (1840-43), he atoned 
for his earlier Hermesian tendencies by his fearless 
Catholic policy, notably in the question of mixed 
marriages. Later he published tracts defending the 
Church against the attacks of Ronge, the founder of 
the so-called German Catholics. Also worthy of 
commendation is his beneficence, exercised par- 
ticularly towards deserving students. His i)rincipal 
writings which bear on church history anfl canon 
law are: "Handbuch der Kirchengcscliichte", 
Elberfeld and Bonn, lS2f)-33; sixth editidu by lOnnen, 
Bonn, 1862; "Irenicon oder Briefc zur Foixlerung des 
Friedens zwischen Kirche u. Staat", Leipzig, 1840; 
"Der Capitularvicar", Munster, 1842; "Geschichte 
der Dioce.se Breslau", Breslau, 184.'i. With J. W. J. 
Braun he; brought out- a new (-(jition of Pellicia's work, 
"De Christiana- ecclcsia- polit la", Cologne, 1829-38. 

Bellamy, La Theohgi,: Cilh. au XIX" slide (Paris, 1904), 36. 

N. A. Weber. 

Ritual. — The Ritual (Riluale Romanum) is one 
of the f)flici:il books of the Roman Rite. It contains 
all the services performed by a ])riest that arc not in 
the Missal and Breviary and has also, for convenience, 
some that are in those books. It is the latest and 
still the least uniform book of our rite. 

When first ritual functions were written in Imoks, 
the Sacramentary in tin; \\'est, the Euchologioii in 
the East contained all the priest's (and bishop's) 
part of whatever functions they performed, not only 
th(! holy Liturgy in the strict sense, but all other 
eacrainents, blessings, sacramentals, and ritea of 



RITUAL 



89 



RITUAL 



I 



every kind as well. The contents of our Ritual and 
Pontifical were in the Sacramentaries. In the East- 
ern Churches this state of things still to a great ex- 
tent remains. In the West a further development 
led to the distinction of books, not according to the 
persons who use them, but according to the services 
for which they are used. The Missal, containing the 
whole Mass, succeeded the Sacramentary. Some 
early Missals added other rites, for the convenience 
of the priest or bishop; but on the whole this later 
arrangement involved the need of other books to 
supply the non-Eucharistic functions of the Sacra- 
mentary. These books, when they appeared, were 
the predecessors of our Pontifical and Ritual. The 
bishop's functions (ordination, confirmation, etc.) 
filled the Pontifical, the priest's offices (baptism, 
penance, matrimony, extreme unction, etc.) were 
contained in a great variety of little handbooks, 
finally replaced by the Ritual. 

I'he Pontifi(;al emerged first. The book under 
this name occurs already in the eighth century 
(Pontifi(!al of Egbert). From the ninth there is a 
multitude of Pontificals. For the priest's functions 
there was no uniform book till 1614. Some of these 
are contained in the Pontificals; often the chief ones 
were added to Missals and Books of Hours. Then 
special books were arranged, but there was no kind 
of uniformity in arrangement or name. Through the 
Middle Ages a vast number of handbooks for priests 
having the care of souls was written. Every local 
rite, almost every diocese, had such books; indeed 
many were compilations for the convenience of one 
priest or church. Such books were called by many 
names — Manuale, Liber agendarum, Agenda, Sacrn- 
mentale, sometimes Rituale. Specimens of such 
medieval predecessors of the Ritual are the Mannnle 
Curalorum of Roeskilde in Denmark (first i)rinted 
1513, ed. J. Freisen, Paderborn, 1898), and the 
Liber Agendarum of Schleswig (printed 1416, Pader- 
born, 1898). The Roeskilde book contains the 
blessing of salt and water, baptism, marriage, bless- 
ing of a house, visitation of the sick with viaticum 
and extreme unction, prayers for the dead, funeral 
service, funeral of infants, prayers for pilgrims, 
blessing of fire on Holy Saturday, and other blessings. 
The Schleswig book has besides much of the Holy 
Week services, and that for All Souls, Candlemas, and 
Ash Wednesday. In both many rites differ from the 
Roman forms. 

In the sixteenth century, while the other liturgical 
books were being revised and issued as a uniform 
standard, there was naturally a desire to substitute 
an official book that should take the place of these 
varied collections. But the matter did not receive 
the attention of the Holy See itself for some time. 
First, various books were issued at Rome with the 
idea of securing uniformity, but without official sanc- 
tion. Albert Castellani in 1537 published a Sacer- 
dolale of this kind; in 1579 at Venice another version 
appeared, arranged by Francesco Samarino, Canon 
of the Lateran; it was re-edited in 1583 by Angelo 
Rocca. In 1586 Giulio Antonio Santorio, Cardinal 
of St. Severina, printed a handbook of rites for the 
use of priests, which, as Paul V says, "he had com- 
posed after long study and with much industry and 
labour" (Apostolicce Sedis). This book is the foun- 
dation of our Roman Ritual. In 1614 Paul V 
published the first edition of the official Ritual by the 
Constitution "Apostolica; Sedis" of 17 June. In this 
he points out that Clement VIII had already issued 
a uniform text of the Pontifical and the Coerimoniale 
Episcoporum, which determines the functions of 
many other ecclesiastics besides bishops. (That is 
still the case. The Coerimoniale Episcoporum forms 
the indispensable complement of other liturgical 
books for priests too.) "It remained", the pope 
continues, "that the sacred and authentic rites of the 



Church, to be observed in the administration of 
sacraments and other ecclesiastical functions by those 
who have the care of souls, should also be included 
in one book and published by authority of the Apos- 
tolic See; so that they should carry out their office 
according to a public and fixed standard, instead of 
following so great a multitude of Rituals". 

But, unlike the other books of the Roman Rite, 
the Ritual has never been imposed as the only stand- 
ard. Paul V did not abolish all other collections 
of the same kind, nor command every one to use 
only his book. He says: "Wherefore we exhort in 
the Lord" that it should be adopted. The result 
of this is that the old local Rituals have never been 
altogether abolished. After the appearance of the 
Roman edition these others were gradually more and 
more conformed to it. They continued to be used, 
but had many of their prayers and ceremonies modi- 
fied to agree with the Roman book. This applies 
especially to the rites of baptism. Holy Communion, 
the form of absolution, extreme unction. The 
ceremonies also contained in the Missal (holy water, 
the processions of Candlemas and Palm Sunday, etc.), 
and the prayers also in the Breviary (the Office for 
the Dead) are necessarily identical with those of 
Paul V's Ritual; these have the absolute authority 
of the Missal and Breviary. On the other hand, 
rnany countries have local customs for marriage, the 
visitation of the sick, etc., numerous special blessings, 
processions and sacramentals not found in the Roman 
book, still printed in various diocesan Rituals. It 
is then by no means the case that every priest of the 
Roman Rite uses the Roman Ritual. Very many 
dioceses or provinces still have their own local hand- 
books under the name of Rituale or another (Ordo 
administrandi sacramenta, etc.), though all of these 
conform to the Roman text in the chief elements. 
Most contain practically all the Roman book, and 
have besides local additions. 

The further history of the Rituale Romanum is this: 
Benedict XIV in 1752 revised it, together with the 
Pontifical and Ccerimoniale Episcoporum. His new 
editions of these three books were published by the 
Brief "Quam ardenti" (25 March, 1752), which 
quotes Paul V's Constitution at length and is printed, 
as far as it concerns this book, in the beginning of 
the Ritual. He added to Paul V's text two forms for 
giving the papal blessing (V, 6; VIII, 31). Mean- 
while a great number of additional blessings were 
added in an appendix. This appendix is now nearly 
as long as the original book. Under the title Bene- 
diclionale Romanum it is often issued separately. 
Leo XIII approved an edilio typica published by 
Pustet at Ratisbon in 1884. This is now out of date. 
The Ritual contains several chants (for processions, 
burials. Office of the Dead, etc.). These should be 
conformable to the Motu Propria of Pius X of 22 
Nov., 1903, and the Decree of the Sacred Congre- 
gation of Rites of 8 Jan., 1904. All the Catholic 
liturgical publishers now issue editions of this kind, 
approved by the Congregation. 

The Rituale Romanum is divided into ten "titles" 
(tiiuli); all, except the first, subdivided into chapters. 
In ea(;h (except I and X) the first chapter gives the 
general rules for the sacrament or function, the others 
give the exact ceremonies and prayers for various 
cases of administration. Titulus I (caput unicum) 
is "of the things to be observed in general in the ad- 
ministration of sacraments"; II, About baptism, 
chap, vi gives the rite when a bishop baptizes, vii 
the blessing of the font, not on Holy Saturday or 
Whitsun Eve; III, Penance and absolutions from 
excommunication; IV, Administration of Holy Com- 
munion (not during Mass); V, Extreme Unction, 
the seven penitential psalms, litany, visitation and 
care of the dying, the Apostolic blessing, commenda- 
tion of a departing soul; VI, Of funerals. Office of 



RITUALISM 



90 



RITUALISTS 



the Dead, absolutions at the grave on later days, 
funerals of infants; VII, Matrimony and churching 
of women; VIII, Blessings of holy water, candles, 
houses (on Holy Saturday), and many others; then 
blessings reserved to bishops and priests who have 
special faculties, such as those of vestments, ciboriums, 
statues, foundation stones, a new church (not, of 
course, the consecration, which is in the Pontifical), 
cemeteries, etc.; IX, Processions, for Candlemas, 
Palm Sunday, Rogation Days, Corpus Christ i, etc.; 
X, Exorcism and forms for filling up parochial books 
(of baptism, confirmation, marriage, status animarum, 
the dead). The blessings of tit. VIII are the old 
ones of the Ritual. The appendix that follows tit. 
X contains additional forms for blessing baptism- 
water, for confirmation as administered by a mission- 
ary priest, decrees about Holy Communion and the 
"Forty Hours" devotion, the litanies of Loreto and 
the Holj- Name. Then follow a long series of bless- 
ings, not reserved; reserved to bishops and priests 
they delegate, reserved to certain religious orders; 
then more blessings (no\-issima?) and a second appen- 
dix containing yet another collection. These ap- 
pendixes grow continuall}'. As soon as the Sacred 
Congregation of Rites approves a new blessing it is 
added to the next edition of the Ritual. 

The Milanese Rite has its own ritual (Rituale 
Amhrosianutn, published by Giacomo Agnelli at the 
Archiepiscopal Press, Milan). In the Byzantine 
Rite the contents of our ritual are contained in the 
Evxo\6yLov. The Armenians have a ritual (Mashdotz) 
like ours. Other schismatical Churches have not yet 
arranged the various part s of this book in one collection. 
But nearly all the Uniats now have Rituals formed on 
the Roman model (see Liturgical Books, § IV). 

Babcffaldi, Ad rituale romanum commentaria (Venice, 1731); 
Catalan:, Rituale romanum . . . perpetuis commentariis 
eiornalum (Rome, 1757) ; Zaccaria, Bibliotheca Ritualis (Rome, 
1770); Thalhofer, Handbuch der kalh. Liturgik, II (Freiburg, 
1893), 509-36. ADRIAN FORTESCUE. 

Ritualism. See Ritualists. 

Ritualists. — The word "Ritualists" is the term 
now most commonly employed to denote that ad- 
vanced section of the High Church party in the An- 
glican Estah)lishment, which since about 1860 has 
adhered to and developed further the principles of the 
earlier Tractarian Movement. Although this desig- 
nation is one that is not adopted but rather resentwl 
by the persons to whom it is applied, it cannot exactly 
be called a nickname. "Ritualism" in the middle of 
the nineteenth centur>' not uncommonly meant the 
study or practice of ritual, i. e. ecclesiastical ceremo- 
nial; while those who favoured ritualism were apt to 
be called "ritualists". For example, the Rev. J. Jebb, 
in a pubhcation of 1856 entitled "The Principle of 
Ritualism Defended", defines ritualism equivalently 
as "a sober and chastened regard for the outward 
accessories of worship", and insists further that "we 
nee<^l srjmething more than a lawyer's mind to examine 
fairly eccUjsiastical questions. The Church requires 
that divines and ritualists should be called into 
counsel". It was only some time later, about 1865 or 
1806, that the word came to be used as the name of a 
party and was printed with a capital letter. 

Unlike many other party names which have grown 
up in the coursf; of cxjntroversy, the word "Ritualists" 
drxis ver>' fairly indicate the original, if not the most 
fundamental, charact^iristic which has divided those 
so designated from their fellow-IIigh-Churchmen. 
The movement headed by Newman and his friends 
ha/J b<«n primarily doctrinal. Pusey always stated 
that the leaders hari rather discouraged as too con- 
spicuous anything in the way of ceremonies, fearing 
that they might awaken prejudice and divert atten- 
tion from more imp^jrtant issues. Nevertheless the 
Bj'mpathifjs awakened for the traditions of a Catholic 
past, and esixMjially the revival of faith in the Real 



Presence and the Eucharistic Sacrifice, could not fail 
in the long run to produce an effect upon the externals 
of worship. Many of the followers were more ven- 
turous than the leaders approved. Moreover, the 
conversion of Newman and other prominent Trac- 
tarians, while somewhat breaking up the party and 
arresting the progress of events at Oxford, had only 
transferred the movement to the parish churches 
throughout the country, where each incumbent was in 
a measure free to follow his owm light and to act for 
himself. ^ The Rev. W. J. E. Bennett, Vicar of St. 
Paul's, Knightsbridge, became notorious for a number 
of innovations in ritual, notably in such details as the 
use of altar lights, cross, and coverings which brought 
him into conflict with his bishop (in 1850) and led in 
the end to his resigning his benefice. In 1859 still 
greater sensation was caused by the "Romish" cere- 
monial of the Rev. Bryan King at St. George's in the 
East. The roughs of the district, with some violent 
Evangelicals, for months together continued to inter- 
rupt the services with brawling and rioting. The 
Enghsh Church Union, however, founded at about 
this period to defend the interests of the High Church 
movement, lent effective aid, and public opinion 
turned against the authors of these disturbances. 

During the j^ears that followed ceremonial innova- 
tions, imitating more and more pronouncedly the 
worship of the Catholic Church, spread throughout 
the country. A regular campaign was carried on, 
organized on the one side by the English Church 
Union and on the other by the Church Association, 
which latter was called into existence in 1865 and 
earned amongst its opponents the nickname of the 
"Persecution Company Limited". The lovers of 
ornate ceremonial were for the most part sincerely 
convinced that they were loyal to the true principles 
of Anglicanism, and that they were rightly insisting 
on the observance of the letter of the law embodied in 
the so-called "Ornaments Rubric ", which stands at the 
head of the Morning Service in the Book of Common 
Prayer. It could not of course be denied that the 

{)ractices which the Tractarians were introducing had 
ong been given up in the Church of England. But 
though these had fallen completely into abeyance, the 
party contended that the letter of the Prayer Book 
made it a duty to revive them. It may be said indeed 
that it is round the Ornaments Rubric that the whole 
ritualistic controversy has turned down to the present 
day. For this reason a somewhat full account of it is 
indispensable. 

The first Prayer Book of Edward VI, which came 
into use on 9 June, 1549, has the following rubric at 
the beginning of the Mass: "Upon the day and at the 
time appointed for the administration of the Holy 
Communion, the Priest that shall execute the holy 
ministry shall put upon him the vesture appointed for 
that ministration, that is to say a white Alb plain, 
with a Vestment or Cope." This first Prayer Book 
of Edward VI remained in use for three years when 
it was supplanted by the second Prayer Book of 
Edward VI (1 Nov., 1552). In this, under the in- 
fluences of Continental reformers, the rubric just 
quoted was expunged and the following substituted: 
"And here is to be noted that the Minister at the time 
of the Communion, and at all other times in his minis- 
tration, shall use neither Albae, Vestment or Cope". 
After the accession of Elizabeth a revised Prayer Book 
was issued in 1559, which contained the rubric in the 
following form: "And here it is to be noted that the 
minister at the time of the Communion and at all 
other times in his ministration shall use such orna- 
ments in the Church as were in use by authority of 
Parliament in the second year of the reign of King 
Edward VI according to the Act of Parliament set in 
the beginning of the book." In spite of a brief sup- 
pre.ssion un(l(!r the Ix)ng I^arliament and during the 
Commonwealth, the same rubric was restored in sub- 



RITUALISTS 



91 



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I 



etantially identical terms in the Prayer Book of 1662 
which remains in force to-day. Now it must not of 
course be forgotten that the word "ornaments" is 
used in a technical sense which has been defined by 
the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council to include 
"all the several articles used in the performance of the 
rites and services of the Church". Vestments, books, 
cloths, chahces, and patens must be regarded as church 
ornaments. In modem times even organs and bells 
are held to fall under this denomination. Further 
there can be no doubt that if the reference to the 
second year of Edward VI be strictly interpreted, 
much Catholic ceremonial was then still retained em- 
bracing such adjuncts as lights, incense, vestments, 
crosses, etc. There is considerable controversy re- 
garding the precise meaning of the rubric, but, how- 
ever we regard it, it certainly gives much more latitude 
to the lovers of ritual than was recognized by the 
practice of the English Church in 1850. 

Although of recent years the innovators have gone 
far beyond those usages which could by any possibility 
be covered by a large interpretation of the Ornaments 
Rubric, it seems clear that in the beginning the new 
school of clergy founded them.selves upon this and 
were not exactly accused of doing what was illegal. 
Their position, a position recognized in 1851 by the 
bishops them.selves, was rather that of wishing "to 
restore an unusual strictness of ritual observance". 
Their tendencies no doubt were felt to be "popish", 
but they were primarily censured by the Protestant 
party as "ultra-rubricians". The first appeal to 
legal tribunals in the Westerton v. Liddell case (Mr. 
Liddell was the successor of Mr. Bennett) terminated, 
after appeal to the Judicial Committee of the Privy 
Council, substantially in favour of the Ritualists. It 
was decided that the Ornaments Rubric did establish 
the legality of a credence table, coloured frontals and 
altar coverings, candlesticks and a cross above the 
holy table. This gave confidence to the party in other 
directions and between the j-ears 1857 and 1866 there 
was a considerable extension of ritual usages such as 
the Eucharistic vestments, altar lights, flowers, and 
incense, while the claim was generally made that they 
were all perfectly lawful. 

With the year 1866 began a period of almost inces- 
sant controversy. Six specific practices, known as 
the "Six Points", were about this time recognized as 
constituting the main features in the claims of the less 
extreme Ritualists. They were: (1) the eastward 
position (i. e. that by which the minister in con- 
secrating turns his back to the people); (2) the use of 
incense; (3) the use of altar lights; (4) the mixed 
chalice; (5) the use of vestments; (6) the use of wafer 
bread. A committee of the Lower House of Convoca- 
tion in 1866 ex-pressed a strong opinion that most of 
these things should not be introduced into parish 
churches without reference to the bishop. A royal 
commission followed (1867-70), but came to no very 
clear or unanimous decision except as regards the 
inexpediency of tolerating any vesture which departs 
from what had long been the established usage of the 
English Church. Meanwhile the Dean of Arches, 
and, after appeal, the Privy Council, delivered judg- 
ment in the Mackonochie case and between them 
decided against the legality of the elevation, use of 
incense, altar lights, ceremonially mLxed chalice, and 
against any position of the minister which would hide 
the manual acts from the communicants. Even 
more important was the judgment of the same Judicial 
Committee of the Privy Council in the Purchas Case 
(Ap. 1871), which besides confirming these previous 
decisions, even as against the opinion of the Dean of 
Arches, declared in more unequivocal terms the illegal- 
ity of wafer-bread and of all Eucharistic vestments. 
The reaction among the High Church party against 
this sweeping condemnation was considerable, and it is 
probably true that much of the strong feeling which 



has existed ever since against the Judicial Committee 
as a court of appeal is traceable to this cause. Many 
of the Ritualists not only refuse to acknowledge the 
jm-isdiction of a secular court in church matters, but 
they declare themselves justified in withholding 
obedience from their bishops as long as the bishops 
are engaged in enforcing its decrees. The passing of 
the Pubhc Worship Regulation Act in 1874 which, as 
Disraeli stated in Parliament, was meant "to put 
down the Ritualists", seems only to have led to in- 
creased litigation, and the Risdale judgment in 1877 
by which the Committee of the Privy Council, after 
elaborate argument by counsel on either side, recon- 
sidered the question of Eucharistic vestments and the 
eastward position, reaffirming the condemnation of 
the former but pronouncing the latter to be lawful, 
providing that it did not render the manual acts in- 
visible to the congregation, gave encouragement to 
the Ritualists by showing that earlier decisions were 
not irreversible. In any ca,se there were no signs of 
any greater disposition to submit to authority. The 
committal of four clergymen to prison in the years 
1878-81 for disobedience to the order of the courts 
whose jurisdiction they challenged, only increased the 
general irritation and unrest. In 1888 came another 
sensation. Proceedings were taken before the Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, sitting with episcopal assessors 
against Dr. King, Bishop of Lincoln, for various 
ritualistic practices. In his judgment, subsequently 
confirmed by the Priy>^ Council, Archbishop Benson 
sanctioned under carefully defined conditions the 
eastward position, mixed chalice, altar lights, the 
ablutions, and the singing of the Agnus Dei, but for- 
bade the signing of the cross in the air when giving 
the absolution and the benediction. 

Naturally the effect of these alternate relaxations 
and restrictions was not favourable to the cause of 
sober uniformity. The movement went on. The 
bishops had probably grown a little weary in repres- 
sing an energy which was much more full of conviction 
than their own, and in the years which followed, 
especially in the Diocese of London, under Bishop 
Temple, a large measure of licence seems to have been 
granted or at any rate taken. The rapid spread of 
"romanizing" practices, though in their extreme 
form they were confined to a comparatively small 
number of churches, began to attract general atten- 
tion, while causing profound uneasiness to Evangeli- 
cals and Nonconformists. In 1898 Sir William 
Harcourt started a vigorous campaign against 
ritualistic lawlessness by a series of letters in the 
"Times", and almost concurrently Mr. John Kensit 
and his followers appealed to another phase of public 
opinion by their organized interruptions of the 
services in the churches they disapproved of. It was 
felt once again that something must be done and this 
time the remedy took the form of the so-called 
"Lambeth Hearings", when the Archbishops of Can- 
terbury and York, after listening to legal and expert 
argument, delivered a joint "opinion" upon certain 
burning questions, to wit (a) the use of incense and 
processional lights, and (b) the practice of reserva- 
tion. On 31 July, 1899, they jointly pronounced the 
use of incense to be inadmissible, and on 1 May, 1900, 
in two independent "opinions", they concurred in 
forbidding any form of reservation of the consecrated 
elements. Very little was effected by this or by a 
series of Church Discipline Bills which were intro- 
duced into Parliament, but which died stillborn. 
Consequently in 1904 a royal commission was ap- 
pointed "to inquire into the alleged prevalence of 
breaches or neglect of the Law relating to the conduct 
of Divine Service in the Church of England and to 
the ornaments and fittings of churches." The com- 
mission, after collecting an immense mass of evidence 
from ecclesiastics and laymen of every shade of opin- 
ion, not forgetting the agents employed by the 



RITUALISTS 



92 



RITUALISTS 



Church Association to keep watch on the services in 
rituaUstic churches, issued a voluminous report in 1906. 

Although the commission has accomplished little 
more than the propounding of certain suggestions 
regarding the reconstitution of the ecclesiastical 
courts, suggestions which have not yet been acted 
upon, the "Report" is a document of the highest im- 
portance for the evidence which it contains of the 
developments of Ritualism. The commissioners 
single out certain practices which they condemn as 
being graver in character and of a kind that demand 
immediate suppression. No doubt the numerical 
proportion of the churches in which the clergy go to 
these lengths is small, but the number seems to be 
increasing. The practices censured as of special 
gravity and significance, are the following: "The 
interpolation of prayers and ceremonies belonging 
to the Canon of the Mass. The use of the words 
'Behold the Lamb of God' accompanied by the 
exhibition of a consecrated wafer or bread. Res- 
ervation of the sacrament under conditions which 
lead to its adoration. Mass of the prcsanctified. 
Corpus Christ i processions with the sacrament. 
Benediction with the sacrament. Celebration of 
the Holy Eucharist with the intent that there should 
be no communicant except the celebrant. Hymns, 
prayers and devotions involving invocation or a 
confession to the Blessed Virgin or the saints. The 
observance of the festivals of the Assumption of 
the Blessed Virgin Mary and of the Sacred Heart. 
The veneration of images and roods." These 
practices are described as having an exceptional 
character because they are at once (1) in flagrant 
contradiction with the teaching of the Articles and 
Prayer Book; (2) they are illegal, and (3) their 
illegality does not depend upon any judgment of the 
Pri\-y' Council. Similar objection is taken to any ob- 
servance of All Souls' Day or of the festival of Corpus 
Chri.«ti which implies the "Romish" doctrine con- 
cerning i)urgatorj' or transubstantiation. 

But while it is quite true that the number of 
churches in which these extremes are practised is 
small, it is important to remember that private 
oratories, communities, and sisterhoods, which last 
commonly follow forms of devotion and ritual w^hich 
cannot externally be distinguished from those pre- 
vailing in the Catholic Church, were not in any way 
touched by these investigations of the commissioners. 
It is in such strongholds that the ritualistic spirit 
is nurtured and propagated, and there is as yet no 
sign that the feeling which animated this revival of 
the religious life is less earnest than of yore. 

Again everj'thing seems to point to the conclusion 
that if extreme prac;tices have not spread more widely 
this is due le.ss to any distaste for such iiractices in 
themselves than to a shrinking from the unpleasant- 
ness engendered V)y open conflict with ecclesiastical 
authority. Where comparative impunity hjus been 
wcured, :is for example by the ambiguity of the Or- 
nament. s Rubric, a notable an<l increasing proportion 
of the clergy ha%'e axlvanced to the very limits of 
what was likely to be tolerated in the way of ritualis- 
tic development. It has been stated by Archbishop 
Davidson that before IS.^0 the use of vestments in a 
public church wa.s known hardly anywhere. In 1901 
carefully compiled statistics showed that Eucharis- 
tic vestments of some kind Cother than the stole au- 
thorized by long tra/iitionji were used in no less than 
lo'Jti churches of the provinces of York and Canter- 
bur>'. that is aVxtut twelve per cent of the whole; 
and the number has increased since. A slighter but 
not altogether contemptible indication of the drift 
of opinion when unchecked by authority is to be 
found in the familiar "Roman collar". I^ss than 
^f^y^yf^i^rn ago, at the time of the "Roman aggres- 
sion" it was regarded in Engliind as the distinctive 
feature of the dress of a Catholic priest, an article 



which by its very name manifested its proper usage. 
Not long afterwards it was gradually adopted by 
certain High Church clergymen of an extreme type. 
At the present day it is the rule rather than the ex- 
ception among English ecclesiastics of all shades of 
opinion, not excepting even the Nonconformists. 

With regard to the present position and principles 
of the Ritualists we shall probably do well with 
Monsignor R. H. Benson (Non-Catholic Denomina- 
tions, pp. 29-58) to recognize a distinction between 
two separate schools of thought, the moderate and the 
extreme. On the one hand all the members of this 
party seem to agree in recognizing the need of some 
more immediate court of appeal to settle disputed 
questions of dogma and ritual than can be afforded 
by the "Primitive Church" which the early Trac- 
tarians were content to invoke in their difficulties. 
On the other hand while both sections of the Ritual- 
ists are in search of a "Living Voice" to guide them, 
or at any rate of some substitute for that Living 
Voice, the}' have come to supply the need in two quite 
different ways. To the moderate Rituali.sts it has 
seemed sufficient to look back to the Book of Common 
Prayer. This, it is urged, was drawn uj) in full view 
of the situation created by "Roman abuses", and 
though it was not intended to be a complete and final 
guide in every detail of doctrine and discipline, 
the fact that it was originally issued to men already 
trained in Catholic principles, justifies us in supplying 
deficiencies bj^ setting a Catholic interpretation upon 
all doubtful points and omissions. The Ritualist 
of this school, who of course firmly believes in the 
continuity of his Church with the Church of England 
before the Reformation, thinks it his duty to "behave 
and teach as a Marian priest, conforming under 
Elizabeth, would have behaved and taught when the 
Prayer Book was first put into his hands: he must 
supply the lacump and carry out the imperfect 
directions in as 'Catholic' a manner as possible" 
(Benson, op. cit., p. 32). Thus interpreted, the 
Prayer Book supplies a standard by which the rulings 
of bishops and judicial committees may be measured, 
and, if necessary, set aside; for the bishops themselves 
are no less bound by the Prayer Book than are the 
rest of the clcrgj-, and no command of a bishop need 
be obeyed if it transgress the directions of this higher 
written authority. The objections to which this 
solution of the difficulty is oj^en must be sufficiently 
obvious. Clearlj' the text of this written authority 
itself needs inter])retation and it must seem to the 
unprejudiced mind that uiion contested points the 
interpretation of the Ijishops and other officials of the 
Establishment is not only l)etter authorized than that 
of the individual Ritualist, but that in almost every 
case the intrri)retation of the latter in view of the 
Arti(:les, canons, homilies, and other official utter- 
ances is strained and unnatural. Moreover there is 
the undeniable fact of desuetude. To apj)eal to such 
an ordinance as the "Ornameiils Ruliric" as evi- 
dently binding, after it has been in i)ractice neglected 
by all orders of the Church for nearly three hundred 
years, is contrary to all ecclesiastical as well as civil 
presumptions in matters of external observance. 

The extreme party among the Ritualists, though 
they undoubtedly go beyond their more moder^e 
brethren in their sympathy with Catholic ])ractice8 
and also in a very definitely formulated wish for 
"Reunion" (see Union' of Chki.stendom), do not 
greatly differ from them in matters of doctrine. 
.Slany adopt .such dcvot ions as the ro.sary and benedic- 
tion, some iiriitate Catholic; practice so far as to recite 
the Canon of the Mass in Latin, a few profess even 
to hold the infallibility of the Roman Pontiff and to 
recreive (of course with excei)tion of the necessity of 
external conununion with Rome) all doctrines defined 
and taught by him. But the more fundamental 
diflference which divides the Ritualists into two classes 



RITUALISTS 



93 



RITUALISTS 



is probably to be found in their varying conceptions 
of the authority to which they profess allegiance. 
Giving up the appeal to the Prayer Book as a final 
rule, the extreme party find a substitute for the 
Living Voice in the consensus of the Churches which 
now make up Catholic Christendom — that is prac- 
tically speaking in the agreement of Canterbury, 
Rome, and Moscow — if Moscow may be taken as the 
representative of a number of eastern communions 
which do not in doctrinal matters differ greatly from 
one another. Where these bodies are agreed either 
explicitly or by silence, there, according to the theory 
of this advanced school, is the revealed faith of Chris- 
tendom; where these bodies differ among themselves, 
there we have matters of private opinion which do not 
necessarily command the assent of the individual. 

It is difficult perhaps for anyone who has not been 
brought up in a High Church atmosphere to under- 
stand how such a principle can be applied, and how 
Ritualists can profess to distinguish between beliefs 
which are de fide and those which are merely specula- 
tive. To the outsider it would seem that the Church 
of Canterbury has quite clearly rejected such doc- 
trines as the Real Presence, the invocation of saints, 
and the sacrificial character of the Eucharist. But 
the Ritualist has all his life been taught to interpret 
the Thirty-Nine Articles in a "Catholic" sense. 
When the Articles say that transubstantiation is 
repugnant to the plain words of Scripture, he is 
satisfied to believe that some misconception of tran- 
substantiation was condemned, not the doctrine 
as defined a little later by the Council of Trent. 
When the Articles speak of "the sacrifices of Masses 
— for the quick and the dead" as "blasphemous 
fables and dangerous deceits", he understands that 
this repudiation was only dire(;ted against certain 
popular "Romish errors about the multiplication 
of the effe(!t3 of such Masses, not against the idea 
of a propitiatory sacrifice in itself. Again the state- 
ment that "tlie Romish doctrine concerning . . . In- 
vocation of Saints is a fond thing vainly invented", 
for him amounts to no more than a rejection of cer- 
tain abuses of extreme romanizers who went perilously 
near to idolatry. In this way the Church of England 
is exonerated from the ajiparent repudiation of these 
Catholic beliefs, and the i)resumption stands that she 
accepts all Catholic doctrine which she does not ex- 
plicitly reject. Hence as Rome and Moscow and 
Canterbury (in the manner just explained) profess 
the three beliefs above specified, such beliefs are to be 
regarded as part of the revealed faith of Christendom. 
On the other hand such points as papal infallibility, 
indulgences, and the proc^ession of the Holy Ghost, 
which are admittedly reje(!ted by one or more of the 
three great branches of the Catholic Chiu-ch, have 
not the authority of the Living Voice behind them. 
They may be true, but it cannot be shown that they 
form part of the Revelation, the acceptance of which 
is obligatory upon all good Christians. 

With this fundamental view are connected many 
other of the strange anomalies in the modern Ritualist 
position. To begin with, those who so think, feel 
bound to no particular reverence for the Church of 
their baptism or for the bishops that represent her. 
By her negative attitude to so many points of Catholic 
doctrine she has paltered with the truth. She has by 
God's Providence retained the bare essentials of 
Cathohcity and preserved the canonical succession of 
her bishops. Hence English Catholics are bound to 
be in communion with her and to receive the sacra- 
ments from her ministers, but they are free to criticize 
and up to a certain point to disobey. On the other 
hand the Ritualist believes that each Anglican bishop 
possesses jurisdiction, and that this jurisdiction, par- 
ticularly in the matter of confessions, is conferred 
upon every clergyman in virtue of his ordination. 
Further the same jurisdiction inherent in the canon- 



ically appointed bishop of the diocese requires that 
English Catholics should be in communion with him, 
and renders it gravely sinful for them to hear Mass in 
the churches of the "Italian Mission" — so the Ritual- 
ist is prone to designate the Churches professing obe- 
dience to Rome. This participation in ahen services is 
a schismatical act in England, while on the other hand 
on the Continent, an "English Cathohc" is bound to 
respect the jurisdiction of the local ordinary by hear- 
ing Mass according to the Roman Rite, and it becomes 
an equally schismatical act to attend the services of 
any English Church. 

The weak points in this theory of the extreme Rit- 
uaUst party do not need insisting upon. Apart from 
the difficulty of reconciling this view of the supposed 
"Catholic" teaching of the Established Church with 
the hard facts of history and with the wording of the 
Articles, apart also from the circumstance that nothing 
was ever heard of any such theory until about twenty- 
five years ago, there is a logical contradiction about 
the whole assumption which it seems impossible to 
evade. The most fundamental doctrine of all in this 
system (for all the other beliefs depend upon it) is pre- 
cisely the principle that the Living Voice is constituted 
by the consensus of the Churches, but this is itself a 
doctrine which Rome and Moscow explicitly reject 
and which the Church of England at best professes 
only negatively and imperfectly. Therefore by the 
very test which the Ritualists themselves invoke, this 
principle falls to the ground or at any rate becomes a 
matter of opinion which binds no man in conscience. 

The real strength of Ritualism and the secret of the 
steady advance, which even in its extreme forms it 
still continues to make, hes in its sacramental doctrine 
and in the true devotion and self-sacrifice which in so 
many cises follow as a consequence from this more 
spiritual teaching. The revival of the celibate and 
ascetic ideal, more particularly in the communities of 
men and women living under religious vows and con- 
secrated to prayer and works of charity, tends strongly 
in the same direction. It is the Ritualist clergy who 
more than any other body in the English Church have 
thrown themselves heart and soul into the effort to 
spiritualize the lives of the poor in the slums and to 
introduce a higher standard into the missionary work 
among the heathen. Whatever there may be of 
affectation and artificiality in the logical position of 
the Ritualists, the entire sincerity, the real self-denial, 
and the apostolic spirit of a large proportion of both 
the clergy and laity belonging to this party form the 
greatest asset of which Anglicanism now disposes, 
(For those aspects of Ritualism which touch upon 
Anglican Orders and Reunion, see Anglican Orders 
and Union of Christendom.) 

For a concise Catholic view of Ritualism at the present day, 
more particularly in its relations to the other parties in the Church 
of England, see Benson, Non-Catholic Denominations (London, 
1910). An excellent historical sketch of the movement may be 
found in Thureau-Danoin, La renaissance catholique en Angle- 
terre au XIX' «i^cie (Paris, 1901-8), especially in the third 
volume. The most important Anglican account is probably 
Wabre-Cornish, History of the English Church in the Nineteenth 
Century (London, 1910), especially Part II; a good summary ia 
also provided by Holland in the Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia 
of Religious Knowledge (New York, 1910), s. v. Ritualism. 

The best materials for the history of the movement may be 
found in the Blue Books issued by the various royal commissions 
more especially the Report and the four accompanying volumes 
of minutes of evidence printed for the royal commission on ec- 
clesiastical discipline in 190fi. The letters and other documents 
published in such complete biographies as those of Pusey, Bishop 
S. Wilberforce, Archbishop Tait, Bishop Wilkinson, Archbishop 
Benson, Lord Shaftesbury, Charles Lowder, and others, are also 
very useful. See also Spencer Jones, England and the Holy See 
iLondon,1902);M\LLOCK, Doctrine and Doctrinal Disruption {Lon- 
don, 190S) ; MacColl, The Royal Commission and the Ornaments 
Rubric (London, 1906); Moves, Aspects of Anglicanism (London, 
1906); Dolling, Ten Years in a Portsmouth Slum (London, 1898); 
MacColl, Lawlessness, Sacerdotalism and Ritualism (London, 
1875); Roscoe, The Bishop of Lincoln's Case (London, 1891); 
Sanday, The Catholic Movement and the Archbishop's Decision (Lon- 
don, 1899) ; ToMLiNSON, Historical Grounds of the Lambeth Judg- 
ment (London, 1891), and in general The Reunion Magazine and 
the now extinct Church Review. HERBERT ThURSTON. 



RIVINQTON 



94 



RIZAL 



Rivingrton, Luke, b. in London, May, 1838; d. 
in London, 30 May, 1899; fourth son of Francis 
Ri\-ington, a well-kno\rn London publisher. He was 
educated at Highgate Grammar School and Magdalen 
College, Oxford. After his ordination as an Anglican 
clerg>-man in 1862, he became curate of St. Clement's, 
Oxford, leaving there in 1867 for All Saints's, Mar- 
garet Street, London, where he attracted attention as 
a preacher. Faihng in his efforts to found a rehgious 
community at Stoke, Staffordshire, he joined the 
Cowley Fathers and became superior of their house 
in Bombay'. Becoming unsettled in his religious 
con\'ictions he \nsited Rome, where in 1888 he was 
received into the Church. His ordination to the 
priesthood took place on 21 Sept., 1889. He re- 
turned to England and settled in Bayswater, not 
undertaking any parochial work, but devoting 
himself to preaching, hearing confessions, and writing 
controversial works. The chief of these were "Au- 
thoritv; or a plain reason for joining the Church 
of Rome" (1888); "Dust" a letter to the Rev. 
C. Gore on his book "Roman Catholic Claims" 
(1888); "Dependence; or the insecurity of the 
Anglican Position" (1889); "The Primitive Church 
and the See of Peter" (1894); "Anglican Fallacies; 
or I^rd Halifax on Reunion" (1895); "Rome and 
England or Ecclesiastical Continuity" (1897); "The 
Roman Primacj' a. d. 430-51" (1899) which was 
practically a new edition of "The Primitive Church 
and the See of Peter". He also wrote several 
pamphlets and brought out a new edition of Bishop 
Milner's "End of Religious Controversy". This 
was for the Catholic Truth Society of which he was 
long a member of the committee, and a prominent 
figure at the annual conferences so successfully or- 
ganized by the society. His pamphlets include 
" Primitive and Roman " (1894) a reply to the notice 
of his book "The Primitive Church" in the "Church 
Quarterly Review"; "The Conversion of Cardinal 
Newman" (1896) and "Tekel" (1897) in which he 
criticized the reply of the Archbishops of Canterbury 
and York to Pope Leo XIII after the condemnation 
of Anglican Orders. In 1897 the pope conferred on 
him an honorar>' doctorate in divinity. During his 
latter years he lived near St. James church, Spanish 
Place, devoting himself to his literary work and the 
instruction of inquirers in the Catholic Faith. 

The Tablet (3 and 10 June, 1899) ; Catholic Book Notes (15 June, 
1899): GiLLOW, BM. Diet. Eng. Cath.; Annual Register (London, 

1899). Edwin Burton. 

Rizal, Jos6 Mercado, Filipino hero, physician, 
poet, novelist, and sculptor; b. at Calamba, Province of 
La Lagima, Luzon, 19 June, 1861; d. at Manila, 
30 Df'cember, 1896. On his father's side he was 
dcat'cndoA from Lam-co, who came from China to 
settle in the Philippines in the latter part of the 
sevent^-enth century. His mother was of P'ilipino- 
ChineH<vSpani.sh origin. Rizal studied at the Jesuit 
College of the At^;nc<j, Manila, where he received the 
d^KFce of Ba^;helor of Arts with highest honours 
before he ha^^i cx)mpleUid his sixteenth year. He con- 
tinufjd his studies in Manila for four years and then 
proceeded to Spain, where he devoted himself to 
philosfiphy, literature, and medicine, with ophthal- 
mology an a speciality. In Madrid he became a 
Freemason, and thus became associated with men 
like Zorilla, Sagasta, Ca«telar, and Balaguer, promi- 
nent in Spanish politics. Here and in France he 
bf^an to imbibe the political ideas, which later cost 
him his life. In Gennany he was enrolled as a law 
student in the University of Heidelburg and became 
acquainU^ with Virchow and Blumentritt. In 
Berlin was published his novel "Noli me tangere" 
(1886) charar;t/'rized, perhaps too extravagantly, 
by W. D. Howfllfi as "a great novel" written by one 
"bom with a gift m far beyond that of any or all 



of the authors of our roaring Uterary successes". 
Several editions of the work were published in 
Manila and in Spain. There is a French translation 
(" Bibhotheque sociologique", num. 25, Paris, 1899), 
and two abbre\dated Enghsh translations of little 
value: "An Eagle's Flight" (New York, 1900), and 
"Friars and FUipinos (New York, 1902). The 
book satirizes the friars in the Philippines as well as 
the Filipinos. Rizal's animosity to the friars was 
largely of domestic origin. The friars were the land- 
lords of a large hacienda occupied by his father; 
there was vexatious litigation, and a few years later, 
by Weyler's order, soldiers destroyed the buildings 
on the land, and various members of the family were 
exiled to other parts of the Islands. 

Rizal returned to the PhiUppines in 1887. After 
a stay of about six months he set out again for 
Europe, passing through Japan and the United 
States. In London he prepared his annotated edi- 
tion of Morga's "Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas" which 
he completed in Paris (1890). In Belgium he pub- 
Ushed (Ghent, 1891; Manila, 1900) "El FiUbus- 
terismo", a sequel to "NoU me tangere". Its 
animus may be judged from its dedication to three 
Filipino priests who were executed for complicity 
in the Cavite outbreak of 1872. In 1891 he arrived 
in Hong-Kong, where he practised medicine. The 
following year he came to Manila, but five days 
before his arrival a case was filed against him for 
' ' anti-rehgious and anti-patriotic propaganda " . On 7 
July the governor-general ordered Rizal's deporta- 
tion to Mindanao. The reasons given were the 
finding in his baggage of a package of leaflets, "satir- 
izing the friars and tending to de-catholicize and so 
de-nationahze the people"; and the "publication 
of 'El Filibusterismo' dedicated to the memory of 
three traitors — condemned and executed by com- 
petent authority — and whom he hails as martyrs". 
Rizal spent four years in peaceful exile in Dapitan, 
Mindanao, when he volunteered his services to the 
governor to go to Cuba as a surgeon in the Spanish 
Army. The offer was accepted. When he arrived in 
Spain, he was arrested and brought back to Manila, 
where he was charged with founding unlawful associa- 
tions and promoting rebellion, and .sentenced to be shot. 

Rizal had given up the practice of his religion long 
years before. But now he gladly welcomed the minis- 
trations of the Jesuit Fathers, his former professors, and 
he wrote a retractation of his errors and of Masonry 
in particular. On the morning of his execution he 
assisted at two Masses wath great fervour, received 
Holy Communion and was married to an Irish half- 
caste girl from Hong-Kong with whom he had co- 
habited in Dapitan. Almost the last words he spoke 
were to the Jesuit who accoinpariicd him: "My great 
pride, Father, ha-s brought me here." SO December, 
the day of his execution, has been made a national 
holiday by the American (jovcirninent and .S50,000 
appropriated for a monument to his memory; a new 
province, adjacent to Manila, is called Rizal; the 
two centavo postage stamp and two peso bill — the 
denominations in most common use — bear his picture. 
Whether he was unjustly executed or not, is dis- 
puted; his plea in his own defen.sc is undoubtedly 
a strong one (cf. Retana). The year of his death was 
a year of great uprising in the Islands and feeling 
ran high. Whatever may be said about his sentence, 
its fulfilment was a political mistake. Rizal, it is said, 
did not favour separation from Spain, nor the expul- 
sion of the friars. Nor did he wish to accompli.sh his 
ends — reforms in the Ciovernment — by revolutionary 
methods, but by the education of his countrymen and 
their formation to habits of industry. 

liesides the works mentioned above, Rizal wrote a 
number of poems and essays in Spanish of literary 
merit, some translations and short papers in German, 
PYench, English, and in his native dialect, Tagalog. 



ROBBER 



95 



ROBERT 



A complete list of his writings is given in Retana, 
"Vida y escritos del Dr. Rizal" (Madrid, 1907). 

Ckaiq, The Story of Jose Rizal (Manila, 1909); El Dr. Rizal y 
su obra in La Juventud (Barcelona, Jan., Feb., 1897); Pi, La 
muerte cristiana del Dr. Rizal (Manila, 1910); Craig, Los errores 
de Retana (Manila, 1910.) 

Philip M. Finegan. 
Robber Council of Ephesus. See Ephesus. 

Robbia, Andrea della, nephew, pupil, assistant, 
and sharer of Luca's secrets, b. at Florence, 1431; d. 
1528. It is often difficult to distinguish between his 
works and Luca's. His, undoubtedly, are the medal- 
lions of infants for the Foundling Hospital, Florence, 
and the noble Annunciation over the inner entrance; 
the Meeting of S. Francis and S. Dominic in the loggia 
of S. Paolo; the charming Madonna of the Architects, 
the Virgin adoring the Divine Child in the Crib and 
other pieces in the Bargello; the fine St. Francis at 
Assisi; the Madonna della Querela at Viterbo; the 
high altar (marble) of S. Maria delle Grazie at Arezzo; 
the rich and variegated decora- 
tions of the vaulted ceiling, 
porch of Pistoia Cathedral, and 
many other works. 

Andrea had several sons, of 
whom Giovanni, Girolamo, Luca 
the Younger, and Ambrogio are 
the best known. Giovanni exe- 
cuted the famous reliefs for the 
Ospedale del Ceppo, Pistoia; and 
Girolamo worked much in 
France, where he died. The 
Della Robbia school gradually 
lost power and inspiration, the 
later works being often over- 
crowded with figures and full of 1^7 
conflicting colour. Uif 

See bibl. of Robbia, Luca di Simone ^ . 

DELLA. M. L. Handley. 



Robbia, Luca di Simonk 
DELLA, sculptor, b. at Florence, 
1400; d. 1481. He is believed 
to have studied design with a 
goldsmith, and then to ha\c 
worked in marble and bronzi 
under Ghiberti. He was earl\ 
invited to execute sculptures t< t 
the Cathedral of S. Maria del 
Fiore and the Campanile. The 
latter — representing Philosophy 
Arithmetic, Grammar, Orpheus, 
and Tubalcain (1437) — are st 
in character. For the organ-gallery of the cathe- 
dral he made the famous panels of the Cantorie, 
groups of boys singing and playing upon musical in- 
struments (1431-8), now in the Museo del Duomo. 
For the north sacristy he made a bronze door; figures 
of angels bearing candles and a fine glazed earthen- 
ware relief of Christ rising from the tomb over the 
entrance are also of his execution. Above the en- 
trance to the southern sacristy he made the Ascension 
(1446). From this time on, Luca seems to have worked 
almost entirely in his new ware. The medium 
was not unknown, but by dint of experimenting he 
brought his material to great perfection. The colours 
are brilliant, fresh, and beautiful in quality, the blue 
especially being quite inimitable. The stanniferous 
glaze, or enamel, contained various minerals and was 
Luca's own secret; in the firing, it became exceed- 
ingly hard, durable, and bright. Luca's design is 
generally an architectural setting with a very few 
figures, or half figures, and rich borders of fruits and 
flowers. He excels in simplicity and loveliness of 
composition. His madonnas have great charm, 
dignity, and grace. In the earlier productions colour 
is used only for the background, for the stems and 



LUC.V DELM. IlOBBI.\ 

Detail from the fresco by Vasari, in the 
Palazzo Vecchio, Florence 

somewhat Gothic 



leaves of lilies, and the eyes; an occasional touch of 
gold is added in coronal or lettering. Later Luca 
used colour more freely. The Delia Robbia earthen- 
wares are so fresh and beautiful and so decorative 
that even in Luca's time they were immediately in 
great request. They are seen at their best in Florence. 
A few of the principal ones are: the crucifix at S. 
Miniato and the ceiling of the chapel in which it is 
found; the medallions of the vault (centre, the Holy 
Ghost; corners, the Virtues) in the chapel of Cardinal 
Jacopo of Portugal, also at S. Miniato; the decora- 
tions of the Pazzi chapel at Sta. Croce; the armorial 
bearings of the Arti at Or San Michele; the Madonna 
of S. Pierino; the exquisite street lunette of Our Lady 
and Angels in the Via dell' Agnolo ; the tomb of Bishop 
Benozzo Federighi at the Sta. Trinity ; and, in the 
Bargello, the Madonna of the Roses, the Madonna 
of the Apple, and a number of equally fine reliefs. 
Of his works outside Florence may be mentioned: 
the Madonna at Urbino; the tabernacle at Im- 
pruneta, the vault panels of S. 
Giobbe, Venice (sometimes said 
to be by the school only) ; medal- 
lions of Justice and Temperance, 
Museum of Cluny, Paris; arms 
of Rened'Anjou, London, South 
Kensington Museum, and other 
works in Naples, Sicily, and else- 
where. The admirable and 
much disputed group of the 
Visitation at S. Giovanni Fuor- 
civitas, Pistoia, is attributed 
both to Luca and to Andrea. 

Barbet de Jouy, Les Della Robbia 
(Paris, 1855); MOntz, Hist, de I'Art 
■pendant la Renaissance (Paris, 1895); 
Reymond, Les Della Robbia (Florence, 
1897); Crutwell, Luca and Andrea 
Delia Robbia (London, 1902). 

M. L. Handley. 

Robert, Saint, founder of 
the Abbey of Chaise-Dieu in 
Auvergne, b. at Aurillac, Au- 
vergne, about 1000; d. in Au- 
vergne, 1067. On his father's 
side he belonged to the family 
of the Counts of Aurillac, who 
had given birth to St. G<iraud. 
He studied at Brioude near the 
basilica of St-Julien, in a school 
open to the nobility of Auvergne 
by the canons of that city. Hav- 
ing entered their community, 
and being ordained priest, Robert distinguished him- 
self by his piety, charity, apostolic zeal, eloquent 
discourses, and the gift of miracles. For about forty 
years he remained at Cluny in order to live under the 
rule of his compatriot saint, Abb6 Odilo. Brought 
back by force to Brioude, he started anew for Rome in 
order to consult the pope on his project. Benedict IX 
encouraged him to retire with two companions to the 
wooded plateau south-east of Auvergne. Here he built 
a hermitage under the name of Chaise-Dieu (CasaDei). 
The renown of his virtues having brought him numer- 
ous disciples, he was obliged to build a monastery, 
which he placed under the rule of Saint Benedict 
(1050). Leo IX erected the Abbey of Chaise-Dieu, 
which became one of the most flourishing in Christen- 
dom. At the death of Robert it numbered 300 monks 
and had sent multitudes all through the centre of 
France. Robert also founded a community of women 
at Lavadieu near Brioude. Through the elevation of 
Pierre Roger, monk of Chaise-Dieu, to the sovereign 
pontificate, under the name of Clement VI, the abbey 
reached the height of its glory. The body of Saint 
Robert, preserved therein, was burned by the Hugue- 
nots during the religious wars. His work was de- 
stroyed by the French Revolution, but there remain 




ROBERT 



96 



ROBERT 



for the admiration of tourists, the vast church, cloister, 
tomb of Clement VI, and Clementine Tower. The 
feast -dav of St. Robert is 24 April. 

L^BBE.'BiW. nora. II. 6.37. 646, 659; Ada SS., April, III. 
318-34; M^BiLLOX, Ada S.O.S. Benedidi, VI. ii, 188-222; 
Annalts O.S. Benedicti. V, 1-9, 80-110; Branche, Lfs monaslires 
d'Autergnr. 97-117. 129—14; Mossier, Les Saints d'Aurergne, I 
(P'arU. 1900). 412-47. A. FoURXET. 

Robert Johnson (Richardson), Blessed. See 
Thomas Ford. Blessed. 

Robert Laurence, Blessed. See John HotTGHTON, 
Blessed. 

Robert of Arbrissel, itinerant preacher, founder of 
Fontevrault, b. c. 1047 at Arbrissel (now Arbressec) 
near Rhetiers. Brittany; d. at Or.san, probably 1117. 
Robert studied in Paris during the pontificate of Greg- 
or>- VII, perhaps under Anselm of Laon and later 
displayed consitlerable theological knowledge. The 
date and place of his ordination are unknown. In 
10S9 he was recalled to his native Diocese of Rennes 
by Bishop Sylvester de la Guerche, who desired to 
reform his flock. As archpriest, Robert devoted 
himself to the suppression of simony, lay investiture, 
clerical concubinage, irregular marriages, and to 
the healing of feuds. This reforming zeal aroused 
such enmity that upon Sylvester's death in 1093, 
Robert was "compelled to leave the diocese. He went 
to Angers and there commenced ascetic practices 
which he continued throughout his life. In 1095 
he became a hermit in the forest of Craon (s. w. of 
Laval), living a life of severest penance in the com- 
pany of Bernard, afterwards founder of the Congre- 
gation of Tiron. Vitalis, founder of Savigny, and others 
of considerable note. His piety, eloquence, and 
strong personality attracted many followers, for 
whom in 1096 he founded the monastery of Canons 
Regular of La Ro6, becoming him.self the first abbot. 
In the same year Urljan II summoned him to Angers 
and appointed him a "preacher {seminiverhus, cf. 
Acts 17, 18) second only to himself with orders to 
travel everywhere in the performance of this duty" 
(Vita Baldrici). 

There is no evidence that Robert assisted Urban 
to preach the Crusade, for his theme was the abandon- 
ment of the world and especially poverty. Living 
in the utmo.st destitution, he addressed himself to 
the poor and would have his followers known only 
as the "poor of Christ", while the ideal he put for- 
ward was "In nakedness to follow Christ naked upon 
the Cross". His eloquence, heightened by his 
strikingly a,scetic appearance, drew crowds every- 
where. Those who desired to embrace the monastic 
state under his leaxlership he sent to La Ro6, but the 
Canons objected to the number and diversity of the 
postulants, and between 1097 and 1100 Robert for- 
mally resigned his aVjbacy, and founded Fontevrault 
(q. v.). His disciples were of every age and condi- 
tion, including even lepers and converted prostitutes. 
Robert e/)ntinued his mi.ssionary journeys over the 
whole of We.Ktem France till the end of his life, but 
little is known of this period. At the Council of 
Poitiers, Nov., llfX), he supported the papal legates 
in exr/jmmunicating Philip of France on account of 
his lawless union with Bertrafle de Mont fort; in 
1110 he atfentlf^l the Coiincil of Nantes. Knowledge 
of his approaf;liing deatli cau.sed him to take steps to 
ensure the permanence of his foundation at Fonte- 
vrault. He impose/l a vow of stability on his monks 
and summoned a Chapter (September, 1116) to settle 
the form of government. Yroxn Ha>itebruy(>re, a priory 
founded by the |M;nitent Bertraxie, he went to Orsan, 
another prior>' of Fontevrault, where he died. The 
"Vita Andrea,'" gives a detailed account of his last 
year of life. 

\\()\)cx\ was never canonized. The accusation made 
against him by Geoffrey of Venclome of exf reme indis- 
cretion in his choice of exceptional ascetic practices (see 



P. L., CLVII, 182) was the source of much controversy 
during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. 
Other evidence of eccentric actions on Robert's part 
and scandals among his mixed followers may have 
helped to give rise to these rumors. The Fontcvrists 
did everything in tlieir power to discredit the attacks 
on their founder. The accusatory letters of Marbodius 
of Rennes and Geoffrey of Vendome were without suf- 
ficient cause declared to be forgeries and the MS. 
letter of Peter of Saumur was made away with, prob- 
ably at the instigation of Jeanne Baptiste de Bourbon, 
Abbess of Fontevrault. This natural daughter of 
Henry IV applied to Innocent X for the beatification 
of Robert, her request being supported by Louis XIV 
and Henrietta of England. Both this attempt and one 
made about the middle of the nineteenth century 
failed, but Robert is usually given the title of "Bles- 
sed". The original recension of tlie Rule of Fonte- 
vrault no longer exists; the only surviving writing of 
Robert is his letter of exhortation to Ermengarde of 
Brittany (ed. Petignv in "Bib. der6cole des Chartes", 
1854, V, iii). 

Acta SS., Feb., Ill, 593 sqq., contains two ancient lives by 
Baldric of Dol and the monk Andrew; Petigny, Robert 
d'Arbissel et Geffroi de Venddme in Bib. de Vfcole des Chartes; 
Walter, Erslen Wanderprediger Frankreichs, I (Leipzig, 1903), 
a modern scientific book; Idem, Excurs, II (1906); Boehmkr in 
Theologische Lileraturzeitung, XXIX, col. 330, 396, a hostile 
review. RaymUND WebSTER. 

Robert of Courgon (De Cursone, De Cursim, 
CuRsus, etc.), cardinal, b. at Kedleston, England; 
d. at Damietta, 1218. After having studied at Ox- 
ford, Paris, and Rome, he became in 1211 Chancellor 
of the University of Paris; in 1212 he was made 
Cardinal of St. Stephen on the Ca;lian Hill; in 1213 
he was appointed legate a latere to preach the crusade, 
and in 1215 was placed at the head of a commission 
to inquire into the errors prevalent at the University 
of Paris. He took an active part in the campaign 
again.st heresy in France, and accompanied the army 
of the Crusaders into Egypt as legate of Honorius 
III. He died during the siege of Damietta. He is 
the author of several works, including a "Summa" 
devoted to questions of canon law and ethics and 
dealing at length with the question of usury. His 
interference in the affairs of the University of Paris, 
in the midst of the confusion arising from the intro- 
duction of the Arabian translations of Aristotle, 
resulted in the proscription (1215) of the metaphysical 
as well as the physical treatises of the Stagyrite, 
together with the summaries thereof (Summa? de 
eisdem). At the same time, his rescript (Denifle, 
"Chartul. Univ. Paris", I, 78) renews the condemna- 
tion of the Pantheists, David of Dinant, and Amaury 
of Bene, but permits the u.se, as texts, of Aristotle's 
" Ethics" and logical treat ises. The rescript also con- 
tains several enactments relating to academic discipline. 

Denifle, Chartul. Univ. Paris. 1 (Paris, 1889), 72, 78; Db 
WuLF, //v.4. of Medieval Phil., tr. Coffey (New York, 1909), 252. 

William Turner. 

Robert of Geneva, antipope under the name of 
Clement VII, b. at (Jeneva, 1342; d. at Avignon, 16 
Sept., 1394. He was the son of Count Amadeus III. 
Appointed prothonotary Apostolic in 1359, he became 
Bishop of Th<;rouanne in 1361, Archbishop of Cam- 
brai in 1368, and cardinal 30 May, 1371. As papal 
legate in Up[)er Italy (1376-78), in order to put down 
a rebellion in the Pontifical States, he is said to have 
authorized the m{i,ssacre of 4000 persons at Cesena, 
and was consequently called "the executioner of 
Cesena". Elected to the papacy at Fondi, 20 Sept., 
1378. by the French cardinals in opposition to Urban 
VI, he was the first antipope of the (jlnjat Schism. 
France, Scotland, Castih;, Aragon, Navarre, Portugal. 
Savoy, some minor German states, Denmark, ana 
Norway acknowledged his authority. Unable to 
maintain himself in Italy he took up his residence at 
Avignon, when; he became completely dependent 



ROBERT 



97 



ROBERT 



on the French Court. He created excellent cardinals, 
but donated the larger part of the Pontifical States 
to Louis II of Anjou, resorted to simony and extortion 
to meet the financial needs of his court, and seems 
never to have sincerely desired the termination of 
the Schism. 

Baluze, Vita Paparum Avenionensium, I (Paris, 1693), 486 
sqq.; Salembier, The Great Schism of the West (tr. New York, 
1907), passim. N, A. Weber. 

Robert of Jumieges, Archbishop of Canterbury 
(1051-2). Rohcit ClKiinpart was a Norman monk of 
St. Ouen at lioucn and was prior of that house when 
in 1037 he was elected Abbot of Jumieges. As abbot 
he began to build the fine Xorman abbey-church, and 
at this time he was able to be of service to St. Edward 
the Confessor, then an exile. When Edward returned 
to England as king in 1043 Robert accompanied him 
and was made Bishop of London in 1044. In this 
capacity he became the head of the Norman party in 
opposition to the Saxon party under Godwin, and 
exerted supreme influence over the king. In 1051 
Robert was appointed Archbishop of Canterbury' and 
went to Rome for his pall, but the appointment was 
very unpopular among the English clergy who re- 
sented the intrusion of a foreigner into the metro- 
politan see. For a time he was successful in opposing 
Godwin even to the extent of instigating his exile, 
but when Godwin returned in 1052 Robert fled to 
Rome and was outlawed by the Witenagemot. The 
pope reinstated him in his see, but he could not regain 
possession of it, and ^\'illiam of Normandy made his 
continued exclusion one of his pretexts for invading 
England. The last years of his life were spent at 
Jumieges, but the precise date of his death has not 
been ascertained, though Robert de Torigni states it 
as 26 May, 1055. The valuable liturgical MS. of the 
"Missal of Robert of Jumieges", now at Rouen, was 
given by him, when Bishop of London to the abbey 
at Jumieges. 

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, ed. Thorpe, R. S. (London, 
1861); Vita Eadwanli in LcaRD, Lives of Edward the Confessor, 
R. S. (London, 1858); William of Malmesbury, Gesta Ponti- 
ficum; P. L., CXLL 1441, giving one of his charters; Wilso:<, 
The Missal of Robert of Jumieges (London, 1896); Hook, Lives 
of the Archbishops of Canterbury (London, 1865-75); Hcnt in 
Diet. Nat. Biog.; Searle, Anglo-Saxon Bishops, Nobles, and 
Kings (Cambridge, 1899) ; Obituary of the Abbey of Jumiiges in 
Recueil des Hisloriens, XXIII (Rouen, 1872), 419. 

Edwin Burton. 
Robert of Lincoln. See Grosseteste. 

Robert of Luzarches (Lus), b. at Luzarches near 
Pontoise towards the end of the twelfth century; 
is said to have been summoned to Paris by Philip 
Augustus who employed him in beautifying the city, 
and to have had a share in the work on Notre Dame. 
The real fame of this master is, however, connected 
with the cathedral of Notre Dame in Amiens. The 
old cathedral was destroyed by fire in 1218 and Bishop 
Evrard de Fouilloy had it rebuilt in Gothic style. 
An inscription made in 1288 in the "labyrinth" of 
the floor (now removed) testified that the building 
had been begun in 1220, and names "Robert, called 
of Luzarches", as the architect, and as his successors, 
Thomas de Cormont and the latter's son. The work 
was completed in later centuries. Viollet-le-Duc 
sees a fact of great significance in the employment of 
the layman, Robert; but it is not accurate that in 
Romanesque times the architects were always bish- 
ops, priests, or monks; or, on the other hand, that 
since the Gothic period the Church relinquished the 
direction of church-building so entirely as is now be- 
lieved. Robert was not long employed on the cathe- 
dral. Under the successor of Bishop Evrard, who 
apparently died in 1222, Cormont appears as the 
architect. Before 1240 the work had grown up to the 
vault. About 1270 Bishop Bernard put a choir 
window in the provisionally completed cathedral. 
An intended alteration of the original plan was not 
XIII.— 7 



used in the finished building, so that the whole re- 
mains a splendid monument to Robert. In his day 
it was already called the "Gothic Parthenon". 
Gracefully built and better lighted than several of the 
large churches of France, there is yet, especially about 
the fa9ade, a majestic severity. It is more spacious 
than Notre Dame in Paris and considerably larger 
than the cathedral of Reims. The former is effec- 
tive tlirough its quiet simplicity, which amounts to 
austerity; the latter is less rich in the modelling 
of choir, windows, and triforium. But Robert's 
creation became a standard far and near, tlirough 
France and beyond, on account of the successful 
manner in which weight and strength are counter- 
balanced and of the consistently Gothic style. The 
design presents a middle aisle and two side aisles, 
though the choir has five aisles and the tran.sept has 
the width of seven aisles. The choir is flanked by 
seven chapels; that in the centre (the Lady chapel) 
projecting beyond the others in French style. The 
majestic and harmonious interior is surpassed in 
beauty by few cathedrals. The nave is about 470 
ft. in length, 164 ft. in breadth (213 ft. in the transept), 
and 141 ft. in height. A poet writes aptly, "Fabrica 
nil demi patitur nee sustinet addi" (It is not possible 
to add anything to or to take anything from it). 

G. GlETMANN. 

Robert of Melun (De Melduno; Melidensis; 
Meliduxus), an English philosopher and theologian, 
b. in England about 1100; d. at Hereford, 1167. He 
gets his surname from Melun, near Paris, where, 
after having studied under Hugh of St. Victor and 
probably Abelard, he taught philosophy and theology. 
Among his pupils were John of Salisbury and Thomas k 
Becket. Through the influence of the latter he was 
made Bishop of Hereford in 1163. Judging from the 
tributes paid him by John of Salisbury in the "Me- 
talogicus" (P. L., CXCIX), Robert must have en- 
joyed great renown as a teacher. On the question 
of Universals, which agitated the schools in those 
days, he opposed the nominaUsm of Roscelin and 
seemed to favour a doctrine of moderate realism. 
His principal work, "Summa Theologiae" or "Summa 
Sententiarum" is .still in MS., except portions which 
have been published by Du Boulay in his "Historia 
Univ. Paris", ii, 585 sqq. He also wrote "Quajstiones 
de Divina Pagina" and "Quaestiones de Epistoha 
Pauli", both of which are kept in the Bibliotheque 
Nationale. Those who have examined the "Summa" 
pronounce it to be of great value in tracing the his- 
tory of scholastic doctrines. 

Materials for the History of Thomas Becket in Rer. Britt. SS. 
contains valuable data; De Wulf, Hist, of Medieval Phil., tr. 
Coffey (New York, 1909), 210; Haureac, Hist, de la phil. scol. 
(Paris, 1872), 490 sqq. WiLLIAM TURNER. 

Robert of Molesme, Saint, b. about the year 
1029, at Champagne, France, of noble parents who 
bore the names of Thierry and Ermengarde; d. at 
Molesme, 17 April, 1111. When fifteen years of age, 
he commenced his novitiate in the Abbey of Montier- 
la-Celle, or St. Pierre-la-Celle, situated near Troyes, 
of which he became later prior. In 1068 he succeeded 
Hunaut II as Abbot of St. Michael de Tonnerre, in the 
Diocese of Langres. About this time a band of seven 
anchorites who lived in the forest of Collan, in the 
same diocese, sought to have Robert for their chief, 
but the monks, despite their constant resistance to his 
authority, insisted on keeping their abbot who enjoyed 
so great a reputation, and was the ornament of their 
house. Their intrigues determined Robert to resign 
his charge in 1071, and seek refuge in the monastery 
of Montier-la-Celle. The same year he was placed 
over the priory of St. Ayoul de Provins, which de- 
pended on Montier-la-Celle. Meantime two of the 
hermits of Collan went to Rome and besought Gregory 
VII to give them the prior of Provins for their supe- 



ROBERT 



98 



ROBERTS 



rior. The pope granted their request, and in 1074 
Robert initiated the hermits of Collan in the monastic 
life. As the location at Collan was found unsuitable, 
Robert founded a monastery at Molesme in the valley 
of Langres at the close of 1075. To Molesme as a 
guest came the distinguished canon and doctor 
Xecxyl&irc) of Reims, Bruno, who, in 1082, placed him- 
self under the direction of Robert, before founding the 
celebrated order of the Chart reux. At this time the 
primitive discipline was still in its full vigour, and the 
religious lived by the labour of their hands. Soon, 
however, the monastery became wealthy through a 
number of donations, and with wealth, despite the 
vigilance of the abbot, came laxity of discipline. 
Robert endeavoured to restore the primitive strict- 
ness, but the monks showed so much resistance that 
he abdicated, and left the care of his community to 
his prior, Alberic, who retired in 1093. In the follow- 
ing year he returned with Robert to Molesme. On 29 
Nov., 1095, Urban II confirmed the institute of 
Molesme. In 109S Robert, still unable to reform his 
rebellious monks, obtained from Hugues, Archbishop 
of Lyons and Legate of the Holy See, authority to 
found a new order on new lines. Twenty-one religious 
left Molesme and set out joyfully for a desert called 
Citeaux in the Diocese of Chalons, and the Abbey of 
Citeaux (q. v.) was founded 21 March, 1098. 

Left to themselves, the monks of Molesme appealed 
to the pope, and Robert was restored to Molesme, 
which thereafter became an ardent centre of monastic 
life. Robert died 17 April, 1111, and was buried 
with great pomp in the church of the abbey. Pope 
Honorius III by Letters Apostolic in 1222 authorized 
his veneration in the church of Molesme, and soon 
after the veneration of St. Robert was extended to the 
whole Church by a pontifical Decree. The feast was 
fixed at first on 17 April, but later it was transferred 
to 29 April. The Abbey of Molesme existed up to the 
French Revolution. The remains of the holy founder 
are preserved in the parish church. 

VOa S. Roberti, Abbalis Molismensis, auclore monacho molismensi 
lab Adone, atjb. sire. XII; Exordium Cisterciensis Cenobii; Cui- 
ONABD, Leu Monuments primitifs de la Regie Cistercienne (Dijon, 
1878j; William OF Malmesbcry, Bk. I.De rebus gestis Anglorum, 
P. L.,CLXXIX; Lacren-t, Carl, de Molesme, Bk. I (Paris, 1907). 

F. M. Gild AS. 

Robert of Newminster, Saint, b. in the dis- 
trict of Craven, Yorkshire, probably at the village 
of Gargrave; d. 7 June, 1159. He studied at the 
University of Paris, where he is said to have composed 
a commentarj' on the Psalms; became parish priest at 
Gargrave, and later a Benedictine at Whitby, from 
where, with the abbot's permission, he joined the 
founders of the Cistercian monastery of Fountains. 
About 1138 he headed the first colony sent out from 
Fountains and established the Abbey of Newminster 
near the castle of Ralph de Merlay, at Morpeth in 
Northumberland. During his abbacy three colonies 
of monks were sent out; monasteries were founded: 
Pipfjwel! (1143), Roche (1147) and Sawley (1148). 
Capgrave's life tells that an accusation of misconduct 
was brought against him by his own monks and that 
he went abroa/1 (1147-8), to defend himself before 
St. Bernard, but doubt has been cast upon the truth 
of this Htx)r>', which may have ariwm from a desire 
to a«w>ciate tlie English saint personally with the 
greaUtfit of the Cistercians. His tomb in the church 
of NewmmKter became an object of pilgrimage; 
hlH fe^aKt is kept on 7 .June. 

/»j*i ,S.S Jiin.-. II, 47-8; Dawairnh, The Cintercian Saint,, of 
Bn^Uirul 'lyjri'lori, 1814); Hakdt. Denrriptive Catalogue. II, 282; 
MCLLEK, III. Robert ron Newmtnnler jn CUtercienner Chronik, V 
{Mehrerau. ]Hmn ChnrtuUirium AbbaluK de Novo Mona^tleric 

(Hums. K,.,. ,H78). Raymund Webster. 

Robert Pullus (Pullen, Puli.an, Pully), car- 
dinal. Knghsh philosopher and theologian, of the 
twelfth century, b. m England about 1080; d. 1)47- 
50. He secmH U) have studied in Paris in the firet 



decades of the twelfth century. In 1153 he began to 
teach at O.xford, being among the first of the cele- 
brated teachers in the schools which were afterwards 
organized into the University of Oxford. After the 
death of Henry II he returned to Paris; thence he 
went to Rome, where he was appointed cardinal and 
Chancellor of the Apostolic See. His influence was 
always on the side of orthodo.xy and against the en- 
croachments of the rationalistic tendency represented 
by Abelard. This we know from the biography of 
St. Bernard \^Titten by William of St. Thierry, and 
from his letters. Robert wrote a compendium of 
theology, entitled "Sententiarum Theologicarum Libri 
Octo", which, for a time, held its place in the schools 
of Western Europe as the official text book in theology. 
It was, however, supplanted by the "Libri Senten- 
tiarum" of Peter the Lombard, compared with 
whom Robert seems to have been more inclined to 
strict interpretation of ecclesiastical tradition than 
to yield to the growing demands of the dialectical 
method in theology and philosophy. The Lombard, 
however, finally gained recognition and decided the 
fate of scholastic theology in the thirteenth century. 
Robert's "Summa" was first published by the Bene- 
dictine Dom Mathoud (Paris, 1055). It is reprinted 
in Migne (P. L., CLXXXVI, 639 sqq.). 

Hauh]6au, Hist, de la phil. scol, I (Paris, 1872), 483 sqq. 

William Turner. 

Roberts, John, Venerable, first Prior of St. 
Gregory's, Douai (now Downside Abbey), b. 1575-6; 
martyred 10 December, 1610. He was the son of John 
and Anna Roberts of Trawsfynydd, Merionethshire, 
N. Wales. He matriculated at St. John's College, 
Oxford, in February, 1595-6, but left after two years 
without taking a degree and entered as a law student 
at one of the Inns of Court. In 1.598 he travelled on 
the continent and in Paris, through the influence of a 
Catholic fellow-countryman, was converted. By the 
advice of John Cecil, an English priest who afterwards 
became a Government spy, he decided to enter the 
English college at Valladolid, where he was admitted 
18 October, 1.598. The following year, however, he 
left the college for the Abbey of St. Benedict, Vallado- 
lid; whence, after some months, he was sent to make 
his novitiate in the great Abbey of St. Martin at 
Compostella wiiere lie made his profession towards the 
end of 1600. Ilis studios coiiiplctcd he was ordained, 
and set out for England 2(5 Dcccinbcr, 1602. Although 
observed by a Government spy, Roberts and his com- 
panions succeeded in entering the country in April, 
1603; but, his arrival being known, he was arrested 
and banished on 13 May following. He reached Douai 
on 24 May and soon managed to return to England 
where belaboured zealously among the plague-stricken 
people in London. In 1604, while embarking for Spain 
with four postulants, he was again arrested, but not 
being recognizcil as a priest was soon released and 
banished, but returned again at once. On 5 Novem- 
ber, 1605, while Justice Grange was searching the 
house of Mrs. Percy, first wife of Thomas Percy, who 
was involved in the Gunpowder Plot, he found K()l)ert8 
there and arrested him. Though acciuittcd of any 
complicity in the plot itself, Roberts was imprisoned 
in the Gatehouse at Westminster for seven months 
and then exiled anew in July, 1606. 

This time he was absent for some fourteen months, 
nearly all of which he spent at Douai where he founded 
a house for the English Benedictine monk.s who had 
entered various Spanish monasteries. This was the 
beginning of the monastery of St. Gregory at Douai 
which still exists as Down.side Abbey, near Bath, 
England. In October, 1607, Roberts returned to 
England, was again arrested in December and placed 
in the Gatehouse, from which he contrived to escape 
after some months. He now lived for about a year in 
London and was again taken some time before May, 



ROBERT 



99 



ROCABERTI 



1609, in which month he was taken to Newgate and 
would have been executed but for the intercession of 
de la Broderie, the French ambassador, whose petition 
reduced the sentence to banishment. Roberts again 
visited Spain and Douai, but returned to England 
within a year, knowing that his death was certain if 
he were again captured. This event took place on 2 
December, 1610; the pursuivants arriving just as he 
was concluding Mass, took him to Newgate in his 
vestments. On 5 December he was tried and found 
guilty under the Act forbidding priests to minister in 
England, and on 10 December was hanged, drawn, 
and quartered at Tyburn. The body of Roberts was 
recovered and taken to St. Gregory's, Douai, but dis- 
appeared during the French Revolution. Two fingers 
are still preserved at Downside and Erdington Abbeys 
respectively and a few minor relics exist. At Erding- 
ton also is a unique contemporary engraving of the 
martyrdom which has been reproduced in the " Dov\ti- 
side Review" (XXIV, 286). The introduction of the 
cause of beatification was approved by Leo XIII in his 
Decree of 4 December, 1886. 

The earlier accounts given by Challoner, Dod (Dodd), Plow- 
den, and Foley are misleading, as they confound John Roberts 
the Benedictine with an earlier priest of the same name. This has 
been shown conclusively by Camm, whose work is the best on the 
subject. Yepes, Coronicn general de la Orden de San Benito, IV 
(Valladoiid, 1613), folios 58-63; Pollen, Acts of English Martyrs 
(London, 1891), 143-70; Camm, A Benedictine Martyr in England, 
Being the Life . . . of Dom John Roberts O.S.B. (London, 
1897) ; Idem, The Martyrdom of V. John Roberts in Downside 
Review, XXIV, 286; Bishop, The Beginning of Douai Convent and 
The First Prior of St. Gregory's in Downside Review, XVI, 21; 
XXV, 52; FuLLERTON, Life of Luisa de Carvajal (London, 

1873). G. Roger Hudleston. 



See Thomas Johnson, 



Robert Salt, Blessed. 

Blessed. 

Robertson, James Burton, historian, b. in Lon- 
don 15 Nov., 1800; d. at Dublin 14 Feb., 1877, son 
of Thomas Robertson, a landed proprietor in Grenada, 
West Indies, where* he .spent his boyhood. In 1809 
his mother brouglit him to England, and placed him 
at St. Edmund's College, Old Hall (1810), where he 
remained nine years. In 1819 he began his legal 
studies, and in 1825 was called to the bar, but did 
not practise. For a time he studied philosophy and 
theology in France under the influence of his friends 
Lamennais and Gerbct. In 1835 he published his 
translation of Frederick Schlegel's "Philosophy of 
History", which passed through many editions. 
From 1837 to 1854 he lived in Germany or Belgium. 
During this time he translated Miihler's "Symbol- 
ism", adding an introduction and a life of Mohler. 
This work considerably influenced some of the Ox- 
ford Tractarians. In 1855 Dr. Newman nominated 
Robertson as professor of geography and modern 
history in the Catholic University of Ireland. In 
this capacity he published two series of lectures (1859 
and 1864), as well as "Lectures on Edmund Burke" 
(1869), and a translation of Dr. Hergenrother's 
"Anti Janus" (1870) to which he prefixed a history 
of Gallicanism. He also wrote a poem, "The Prophet 
Enoch" (1859), and contributed several articles to 
the " Dublin Review ". His services to literature ob- 
tained for him a pension from the Government in 
1869, and the degree of Doctor of Philosophy from 
Pius IX (1875). He is buried in Glasnevin cemetery. 

Tablet (24 Feb., 1877); Gillow in Bibl. Did. Eng. Cath.; The 
Edmundum, II, no. 8 (1895). EdwIN BuRTON. 

Robinson, Christopher, Venerable, martyr, b. 
at Woodside, near Westward, Cumberland, date un- 
known; executed at Carlisle, 19 Aug., 1598. He was 
admitted to the English College at Reims in 1589, and 
was ordained priest and sent on the mission in 1592. 
Two years later he was a witness of the condemnation 
and execution of the venerable martyr John Boste(q. v.) 
at Durham, and wrote a very graphic account of this, 
which has been printed from a seventeenth-century 
transcript in the first volume of the "Catholic Record 



Society's Pubhcations" (London, 1905), pp. 85-92. 
His labours seem to have been mainly in Cumberland 
and Westmoreland; but nothing is knowm about 
them. Eventually he was arrested and imprisoned at 
Carlisle, where Bishop Robinson, who may have been 
a relative, did his best to persuade him to save his life 
by conforming; but the priest remained constant, and 
being condemned, under 27 Eliz., c. 2, for being a 
priest and coming into the realm, suffered the last 
penalty with such cheerful constancy that his death 
was the occasion of many conversions. 

Challoner, Missionary Priests, I, no. 114; Gillow, Bibl. 
Diet. Eng. Cath., s. v.; Wilson in Victoria History of Cumberland, 
II (London, 1905), 87. JoHN B. WaINEWRIGHT. 

Robinson, John, Venerable. See Wilcox, 
Robert, Venerable. 

Robinson, William Callyhan, jurist and educa- 
tor, b. 26 July, 1834, at Norwich, Conn.; d. 6 Nov., 
1911, at Washington, D. C. After preparatory studies 
at Norwich Academy, Williston Seminary, and Wes- 
leyan University, he entered Dartmouth College from 
which he was graduated in 1854. He then entered 
the Theological Seminary of the Protestant Episcopal 
Church, was graduated in 1857, and ordained to the 
Episcopalian Ministry, in which he served first at 
Pittston, Pa. (1857-8), and then at Scran ton. Pa. 
(1859-62). He was received into the Catholic 
Church in 1863, was admitted to the Bar in 1864, and 
was lecturer and professor in law in Yale University 
(1869-95). For two years (1869-71) he was judge 
of the City Court and later (1874-6) judge of the 
Court of Common Pleas at New Haven, Conn. In 
1874 also he served as member of the Legislature. 
From Dartmouth College he received (1879) the de- 
gree LL.D., and from Yale University the degree M.A. 
(1881). He married, 2 July, 1857, Anna Elizabeth 
Haviland and, 31 March, 1891, Ultima Marie Smith. 
His thorough knowledge of law made him eminent as 
a teacher and enabled him to render important service 
to the Church. In 1895 he was appointed professor 
in the Catholic University of America, where he or- 
ganized the School of Social Sciences and remained as 
Dean of the School of Law until his death. Besides 
articles contributed to various periodicals, he wrote: 
"Life of E. B. Kelly" (1855); "Notes of Elementary 
Law" (1876); "Elementary Law" (Boston, 1876); 
"Clavis Rerum" (1883); "Law of Patents" (3 vols., 
Boston, 1890); "Forensic Oratory" (Boston, 1893); 
"Elementsof American Jurisprudence" (Boston, 1900). 

Catholic University Bulletin (Deo., 1911); Catholic Educational 
Review (Dec. 1911). E. A. PaCE. 

Rocaberti, Juan TomXs de, theologian, b. of a 
noble family at Perelada, in Catalina, c. 1624; d. at 
Madrid, 13 June, 1699. Educated at Gerona he en- 
tered the Dominican convent there, receiving the 
habit in 1640. His success in theological studies at 
the convent of Valencia secured for him the chair of 
theology in the university. In 1666 he was chosen 
provincial of Aragon, and in 1670 the General Chapter 
elected him general of the order. He became en- 
deared to all who came in contact with him. No one, 
perhaps, held him in greater esteem than Clement X. 
The celebrated Dominican Contenson dedicated to 
him his "Theologia mentis et cordis". He obtained 
the canonization of Sts. Louis Bertrand and Rose of 
Lima, the solemn beatification of Pius V, and the 
annual celebration in the order of the feast of BI. 
Albert the Great and others. In 1676 he was ap- 
pointed by Charles II first Archbishop of Valencia 
and then governor of that province. In 1695 he was 
made inquisitor-general of Spain. 

Rocaberti is best known as an active apologist of 
the papacy against Gallicans and Protestants. His 
first work in this sense was "De Romani pontificis 
auctoritate" (3 vols., Valentia, 1691-94). His most 
important work is the "Bibliotheca Maxima Pouti- 



ROCAMADOUR 



100 



ROCH 



ficia" (21 vols., Rome, 1697-99). In this monu- 
mental work the author collected and published in 
alphabetical order, and in their entirety, all the impor- 
tant works dealing with the primacy of the Holy See 
from an orthodox point of view, beginning with Abra^ 
ham Bzovius and ending with Zacharias Boverius. An 
excellent summiu-y is given in Hurter's "Nomenclator". 

QuETir-EcHARD, Script, ord. Prnd., II (Paris, 1721). 630, 827; 
TocRON, Hist, des horn. ill. de I'ordre Dom., V (Pans, 1748), 
714-26; HrRTER, Somendator, II; Annee Dominicaine, XII, 
785. H. J. SCHROEDER. 

Rocamadour, communal chief town of the canton 
of Gramat, district of Gourdon. Department of Lot, 
in the Diocese of Cahors and the ancient province 
of Quercy. This \-illage by the wonderful beauty of 
its situation merits the attention of artists and excites 
the curiosity of archaeologists; but its reputation is 
due especially to its celebrated 
sanctuarj- of the BlessedVirgin 
which for centuries has at- 
tracted pilgrims from every 
count rj', among them kings, 
bishops, and nobles. 

A curious legend purport- 
ing to explain the origin of 
this pilgrimage has given rise 
to controversies between criti- 
cal and traditional schools, 
especially in recent times. Ac- 
cording to the latter, Rocama- 
dour is indebted for its name 
to the founder of the ancient 
sanctuary, St. Amadour, who 
was none other than Zacheus 
of the Gospel, husband of St. 
Veronica, who wiped the 
Sa\nour's face on the way to 
Calvar>'. Driven forth from 
Palestine by persecution, 
Amadour and Veronica em- 
barked in a frail skiff and, 
guided by an angel, landed 
on the coast of Aquitaine, 
where they met Bishop St. 
Martial, another disciple of 
Christ who was preaching 
the Gospel in the south-west 
of Gaul. After journeying to 
Rome, where he witnessed the 

martyrdoms of Sts. Peter and Saint 

Paul, Arnafiour, having re- G- Martinetti, Church of 
turned to P>ance, on the death of his spouse, withdrew 
to a wild spot in Quercy where he built a chapel in hon- 
our of the Blfsscd Virgin, near which he died a little 
later. Thismarvf'IlouHaccount,likemostother similar 
Icgenrls, unfortunately does not make its first appear- 
ance till long after the agf; in which the chief actors are 
deemefl to have lived. The name of .4madour occurs in 
no df)cument previous to the compilation of his Acts, 
which on careful examination and on an application 
of the rules of the curHim to the text cannot be judged 
older than the twelfth century. It is now well es- 
tabliHhed that St. Martial, Amaflour's contemporary 
in the legend, lived in the third not the first century, 
and Rome hiw never included him among the members 
of the ArK>Kt/>lic Oillege. The mention, therefore, 
of St. Martial in the Acts of St. Ama<lour wo)ilrl alone 
suffice, even if other proof were wanting, to prove them 
a forgery. The untrustworthiness of the legend ha,s 
Iwl wm\o. recent authors to suggest that Amadour 
wafl an unknown hermit or possibly St. Arnator, 
Bishop of Auxr-rre, but this is mere hypothesis, with- 
out any hist/jrical briKJH. Although the origin f)f th<! 
sanctuary of R^K-arna^iour, lost in antimiity, is thus 
first w;t down along with fabulous tnwlitions whif:h 
cannot bear the light f.f sound criticism, yet it is 
undoubted that this sprit, hallf)wefl by the prayers of 
innumerable multitudes of pilgrims, is worthy of our 




veneration. After the religious manifestations of 
the Middle Ages, Rocamadour, as a result of war 
and revolution, had become almost deserted. Re- 
cently, owing to the zeal and activity of the bishops 
of Cahors, it seems to have revived and pilgrims are 
beginning to crowd there again. 

De Gissey, Hist, et miracles de N. D. de Roc-Amadour au pays 
de Quercy (Tulle, 1666); Caillau, Hist. cril. el relig. de N. D. de 
Roc-Amadour (Paris, 1834); Idem, Le Jour de Marie ou le guide 
du pklerin de Roc-Amadour (Paris, 1836); Servois, Notice et 
extraits du recueil des miracles de Roc-Amadour (Paris, 1856); 
LiEUTAUD, La Vida de S. Amadour, texte provenQal du XIV' s. 
(Cahors, 1876); BouRRifcREs, Saint Amadour et Sainle Vironique, 
disciples de Notre Seigneur et apdtres des Gaules (Paris, 1895); 
Enard, Lettre pastorale sur I'hist. de Roc-Amadour . . . 
(Cahors, 1899); Rdpin, Roc-Amadour, Stude hist, et archiol. 
(Paris, 1904), an excellent work containing the definitive history 
of Roc-Amadour; Albe, Les miracles de N. D. de Roc-Amadour 
au XII' s., texte el traduction des manuscrits de la Bibliothique 
nationale (Paris, 1907). corroborating the work of Rupin. 

L^ON Clugnet. 

Rocca, Angelo, founder of 
the Angelica Library at Rome, 
b. at Rocca, now Arecevia, 
near Ancona, 1545; d. at 
Rome, 8 April, 1620. He was 
received at the age of seven 
into the Augustinian monas- 
tery at Camerino (hence also 
called Camcrs, Camerinus), 
studied at Perugia, Rome, 
Venice, and in 1577 graduated 
as doctor in theology from 
Padua. He became secretary 
to the superior-general of the 
Augustinians in 1579, was 
placed at the head of the Vati- 
can printing-office in 1585, and 
entrusted with the superin- 
tendence of the projected edi- 
tions of the Bible and the writ- 
ings of the Fathers. In 1595 
he was appointed sacristan in 
the papal cluipel, and in 1605 
became titular Bishop of Ta- 
gaste in Numidia. The pub- 
lic library of the Augustinians 
at Rome, formally established 
23 October, 1614, perpetuates 
his name. It is mainly to his 
efforts that we owe the edition 
RocH of the Vulgate published dur- 

the Saviour, Jerusalem ing the pontificate of Clem- 
ent VIII. He also edited the works of Egidio 
Colonna (Venice, 1581), of Augustinus Triumphus 
(Rome, 1.582), and wrote: " Bibliotheca; theological 
et scripturalis epitome" (Rome, 1594); "De Sacro- 
sancto Christi corpore romanis pontificibus iter 
conficientibus pra>ferendo comment arius" (Rome, 
1599); "De canonizatione sanctorum commentarius" 
(Rome, 1601); "Do campanis" (Rome, 1612). An 
incomplete collection of his works was published in 
1719 and 1745 at Rome: "Thesaurus pontificiarum 
sacrarumque antiquitatum necnon rituum praxium 
et caeremoniarium". 

Obsinoer. liibl. August (Ingolstadt, 1768), 754-64; Chalmers, 
Gen. Biog. Did., s. v. 

N. A. Weber. 

Roch, Saint, b. at Montpellier towards 1295; d. 
1.327. His father was governor of that city. At his 
birth St . Roch is said to have been found mir.aculously 
markcfl on the breast with a red cross. Deprived of 
his parents wh(!n about twenty years old, he dis- 
tributed his fortune among the poor, handed over to 
his uncle the government of Montpellier, and in the 
disguise of a mendicant pilgrim, set out for Italy, but 
stoi)j)ed at Arjua[)('nclente, which was stricken by the 
j)lagiie, and (levf)ted liimself to the plague-.stricken, 
curing them with the sign of the cro.ss. \\t\ next 
visited Ccscna and other neighbouring cities and then 



ROCHAMBEAU 



101 



ROCHESTER 



Rome. Everywhere the terrible scourge disappeared 
before his miraculous power. He visited Mantua, 
Modena, Parma, and other cities with the same 
results. At Piacenza, he himself was stricken with 
the plague. He withdrew to a hut in the neighbour- 
ing forest, where his wants were supplied by a gentle- 
man named Gothard, who by a miracle learned the 
place of his retreat. After his recovery Roch returned 
to France. Arriving at Montpellier and refusing to 
disclose his identity, he was taken for a spy in the 
disguise of a pilgrim, and cast into prison by order of 
the governor,— his owTi uncle, some writers say, —where 
five years later he died. The miraculous cross on his 
breast as well as a document found in his possession 
now served for his identification. He was accordingly 
given a public funeral, and numerous miracles at- 
tested his sanctity. 

In 1414, during the Council of Constance, the 
plague having broken out in that city, the Fathers of 
the Council ordered public prayers and processions in 
honour of the saint, and immediately the plague 
ceased. His relics, according to Wadding, were 
carried furtively to Venice in 1485, where they are 
still venerated. It is commonly held that he belonged 
to the Third Order of St. Francis; but it cannot be 
proved. Wadding leaves it an open question. Urban 
VIII approved the ecclesiastical office to be recited 
on his feast (16 August). Paul III instituted a con- 
fraternity, under the invocation of the saint, to have 
charge of the church and hospital erected during 
the pontificate of Alexander VI. The confraternity 
increased so rapidly that Paul IV raised it to an arch- 
confraternity, with powers to aggregate similar con- 
fraternities of St. Roch. It was given a cardinal- 
protector, and a prelate of high rank was to be its 
immediate superior (see Reg. et Const. Societatis S. 
Rochi). Various favours have been bestowed on it 
by Pius IV (C. Regimini, 7 March, 1561), bv Gregorj- 
XIII (C. dated 5 Januar>% 1577), by Gregory XIV 
(C. Paternar. pont., 7 i\iarch, 1591), and by other 
pontiffs. It still flourishes. 

Wadding, Annates Min. (Rome, 1731), VII, 70; IX, 251; 
Acta SS. (Venice, 1752), 16 August; Gallia Christiana, VI ad an. 
1328: AsDR±, Hist, de S. Roch (Carpentras, 1854); Ch.^vanne, 
S. Roch. Hist, compute, etc. (Lyons, 1876); CoFKiNifcnES, 
S. Roch, etudes histor. sur Montpellier au XIV' siecle (Montpellier, 
1855); Bevion.vni, Vita del Taumaturgo S. Rocco (Rome, 1878); 
Vita del gloriosa S. Rocco, figlio di Giovanni principe di Agntopoli, 
ora delta Montpellieri, con la storica relazione del suo corpo (Venice, 
1751); Butler, Lives of the Saints, 16 August; Leon, Lives of 
the Saints of the Three Orders of S. Francis (Taunton, England, 
1886); Piazza, Opere pie di Roma (Rome, 1679). 

Gregory Cleary. 

Rochambeau, Jean - Baptiste - Donatien de 
ViMEUH, Coi.NT DE, marshal, b. at Vendome, France, 
1 July, 1725; d. at Thorc, 10 May, 1807. At the 
age of sixteen he entered the army and in 1745 be- 
came an aid to Louis Philippe, Duke of Orleans, sub- 
sequently commanding a regiment. He served with 
distinction in several important battles, notably those 
of Minorca, Crevclt, and Minden, and wa.s wounded 
at the battle of Lafeldt. When the French monarch 
resolved to despatch a military force to aid the .Amer- 
ican colonies, in the Revolutionary War, Rochambeau 
was created a lieutenant-general and placed in com- 
mand of a body of troops which numbered some 6000 
men. It was the smallness of this force that made 
Rochambeau at first averse to taking part in the Amer- 
ican War, but his sympathy with the colonial cause 
compelled him eventually to accept the command, and 
he arrived at Newport, Rhode Island July, 1780, 
and joined the American army under Washington, 
on the Hudson a few miles above the city of New 
York. Rochambeau performed the double duties 
of a diplomat and general in an alien army with rare 
distinction amidst somewhat trying circumstances, 
not the least of which being a somewhat unaccount- 
able coolness between Washington and himself, 
which, fortunately, was of but passing import (see 



the correspondence and diary of Count Axel Fersen). 
After the first meeting with the American general 
he marched with his force to the Virginia peninsula, 
and rendered heroic assistance at Yorktown in the 
capture of the English forces under Lord Cornwallis, 
which concluded the hostilities. When Cornwallis 
surrendered, 19 Oct., 1781, Rochambeau was pre- 
sented ^nth one of the captured cannon. After the 
surrender he embarked for France amid ardent pro- 
testations of gratitude and admiration from the 
officers and men of the American army. In 1783 he 
received the decoration of Saint-Esprit and obtained 
the baton of a marshal of France in 1791. Early 
in 1792 he was 
placed in com- 
mand of the army 
of the North, and 
conducted a force 
against the Aus- 
trians, but re- 
signed the same 
year and narrowly 
escaped the guillo- 
tine when the Ja- 
cobin revolution- 
ary power had 
obtained supreme 
control in Paris. 
When the fury of 
the revolution had 
spent itself, 
Rochambeau was 
reinstated in the 
regard of his 
countrymen. He 
was granted a 
pension by Napo- 
leon Bonaparte in 
1804, and was dec- 
orated with the 
Cross of Grand 
Officer of the Legion of Honour. The last years of the 
distinguished niilitary leader's life were passed in the 
dictation of his memoirs, which appeared in two 
volumes in Paris in 1809, and which throw many per- 
sonal and briUiant sidelights on the events of two 
of the most historically impressive revolutions, and 
the exceptional men therein concerned. 

Wright, Memoirs of Marshal Count de Rocliambeau Relative to 
the War of Independence (1838); SouL^, Histoire des troubles de 
r.imerique anglaise (Paris, 1787) ; standard histories of the United 
States may also be consulted. 

Jarvis Keiley. 

Roche, John, Venerable. See Leigh, Richard, 
Vener.\ble. 

Rochester, Ancient See of (Roffa; Roffensis), 
the oldest and smallest of all the suffragan sees of 
Canterbury, was founded by St. Augustine, Apostle 
of England, who in 604 consecrated St. Justus as its 
first bishop. It consisted roughly of the western 
part of Kent, separated from the rest of the county 
by the Medway, though the diocesan boundaries 
did not follow the river very closely. The cathedral, 
founded by King Ethelbert and dedicated to St. 
Andrew from whose monastery at Rome St. Augus- 
tine and St. Justus had come, was served by a college 
of secular priests and endowed with land near the 
city called Priestfield. It suffered much from the 
Mercians (676) and the Danes, but the city retained 
its importance, and after the Norman Conquest a new 
cathedral was begun by the Norman bishop Gundulf . 
This energetic prelate replaced the secular chaplains 
by Benedictine monks, translated the relics of St. 
Paulinus to a silver shrine which became a place of 
pilgrimage, obtained several royal grants of land, 
and proved an untiring benefactor to his cathedral 
city. Gundulf had built the nave and western front 




-Baptiste Rochambeau 



ROCHESTER 



102 



ROCHESTER 



before his de^th; the western transept was added be- 
tween 1179 and 1200, and the eastern transept during 
the reign of Henry III. The cathedral is small, 
being only 30(5 feet long, but its nave is the oldest 
in England and it has a fine Norman crypt . Besides 
the shrine of St. Paulinus. the cathedral contained 
the rehcs of St. Ithamar, the first Saxon to be con- 
secrated to the episcopate, and St. William of Perth, 
who was held in popular veneration. In 1130 the 
cathedral was consecrated by the Archbishop of 
Canterbury assisted by thirteen bishops in the pres- 
ence of Henry I, but the occasion was marred by 
a great fire which 
nearly destroyed the 
whole city and dam- 
aged the new cathe- 
dral. After the burial 
of St. William of 
Perth in 1201 the 
ofTerings at his tomb 
were so great, that 
by their means the 
choir was rebuilt and 
the central tower was 
added (1343), thus 
completing the ca- 
thedral. From the 
foundation of the see 
the archbishops of 
Canterbury had en- 
joj-ed the privilege 
of nominating the 
bishop, but Arch- 
bishop Theobald 
transferred the right 



Thomas Brown, 1435 
William Wells, 1437 
John Lowe, 1444 
Thomas Rotheram (or 

Scott), 1468 
John Alcock, 1472 
John Russell, 1476 
Edmund Audley, 1480 
Thomas Savage, 1492 



Bl. John Fisher 

(Cardinal) 

Schismatical bishops: 
John Hilsey, 1535 
Richard Heath, 1539 
Henry Holbeach, 1543 
Nicholas Ridley, 1547 
John Poynet, 1550 
John Scory, 1551 



1504 



to the Benedictine monks of the cathedral who ex- 
ercised it for the first time in 1148. 

The following is the list of bishops with the date 
of their accession; but the succession from Tatnoth 
(844) to Siweard (1058) is obscure, and may be modi- 
fied b}' fresh research: 

Radulphus d'Escures, 



St. Ju-stus, 604 
Romanus, 624 
Vacancv, 625 
St. Paulinus, 633 
St. Ithamar, 644 
Damianus, 655 
Vacancy, 664 
Putta, 666-9 
Cwichelm, 676 
Gebmund, 678 
Tobias, 693-706 
Ealdwulf, 727 
Dunno, 741 
Eardwulf, 747 
Deora, 765-72 
Wairmund I, 781 
Befjmmod, 803-5 
Tatnoth, 844 
Bea<]unoth (possibly iden- 



Richard Fitz James, 1496 Vacancy, 1552 

The canonical line was restored by the appoint>- 

ment in 1554 of Maurice Griffith, the last Catholic 
bishop of Rochester, 
who died in 1558. 
The diocese was so 
small, consisting 
merely of part of 
Kent, that it needed 
only one archdeacon 
(Rochester) to super- 
vise the 97 parishes. 
It was also the poor- 
est diocese in Eng- 
land. The cathedral 
was dedicated to St. 
Andrew the Apostle. 
The ariiLs of the see 
were argent, on a sal- 
tire gules an Escalop 
shell, or. 

Shrubsole and 
Denne, History and An- 
tiquities of RochcsleriLon- 
don, 1772); Wharton, 
Anglia Sacra (London, 
1691), pt. i, includes 
annals by de Hadenham (604-1307) and de Dene (1.314- 
.50) ; PeaRMan, Rochester: Diocesan History (London, 1S97) ; 
Palmer, Rochester: The Cathedral and See (London, 1897); Hope, 
Architectural History of Cathedral in Ketit Archa-ological Society, 
XXIII, XXIV (1898-1900); ERNaLPHCs, Textus Rnffensis. ed. 
Hearne (London, 1720). reprinted in P. L., CLXIII; Pegoe, 
Account of Texttis Roffensis (London, 1784) in Nichols, Bib. 
Topog. Brit. (London, 1790); J. Thorpe, Registrum Roffense 
(London, 1769); J. Thorpe, Jr., Custumale Roffense (London, 
1788); Winkle, Cathedral Churches of England and Wales (Lon- 
don, 1860); Fairbairns, Cathedrals of England and Wales (Lon- 
don, 1907); Godwin, De pra-siilibus Anglia- (London, 1743); 
John of Canterbury 1125 Gams, Series Episcoporum (Ratisbon, 1873); Seakle, Anglo- 




The Cath 



Rochester, England 



1108 
Ernulf, 1115 



John of Sees, 1137 
Ascelin, 1142 
Walter, 1148 
Gualeran, 1182 
Gilbert de Glanvill, 1185 
Benedict de Sansetun, 

1215 
Henry Sandford, 1226 
Richard de Wendover, 

1235 (consecrated, 

1238) 
Lawrence de St. Martin, 

1251 
Walter de Merton, 1274 
John de Bradfield, 1277 



Saxon Bishops, Kings and Nobles (Cambridge, 1899). 

Edwin Burton. 

Rochester, Dioce.sb of, on its establishment by 
separation from the See of Buffalo, 24 January, 
1868, comprised the counties of Monroe, Livingston, 
Wajme, Ontario, Seneca, Cayuga, Yates, and Tomp- 
kins in the state of New York. In 1896, after the 
death of Bishop Ryan of Buffalo, the boundary line 
of the two dioceses was somewhat (!hang(>d, the 
counties of Steuben, Schuj'ler, Chemung, and Tioga 
being d(!t a(;hed from the See of Buffalo and added to 
that of Ro(-hcslcr. 

Bishops: (1) Rev. Bernard J. Mc(2uaid, who be- 
came a pioneer and leader in Catholic education and 
the founder of a modtsl seminary, was consecrated 



tical with Warmund II) Thomas Inglethorp, 1283 bishop of Rochester in St. Patrick's Cathedral, New 



Wx-rmund II, 84.5-t32 

Cuthwulf, H60-8 

Swithwulf (date unknown) 

Ccfjlmund, S97-W4 

Cynefrith (date unknown) 

Burhric, 933 or 9.34 

Beorhtsigc (doubtful 
name) 

Daniel, 951-5 

Aelfstan, c. 964 

Godwine I, 995 

Go<Jwine II (date un- 
known) 

Siweard, 1058 

AmoHt, 1076 

Gundulf, 1077 



Thomas de Wouldham 

1292 
Vacancy, 1317 
Hamo de Hythe, 1319 
John de Sheppey, 1352 
William of Whittlesea, 

1362 
Thomas Trilleck, 1364 
Thomas Brinton, 1373 
William de Botti.sham, 

13S9 
John de Bottisham, MOO 
Richard Young, \\()\ 
John Kemp, 1419 fafler- 

ward.s (Cardinal) 
John Langdon, 1421 



York City, on 12 July, 1808. Four days later he 
took possession of his small and poor diocese, con- 
taining only sixty churches admini.stered by thirty- 
eight priests, seven of whom were Redemi)lorist 
Fathers. When he died, 18 Jan., 1909, after forty 
years spent in a laborious episcopate, his diocese was 
richly furnished with churches, schools, seminaries, 
charitable institutions, answering the manifold 
needs of the Catholic population, then I'stimated 
at 121,000. (2) Rev. Thomas F. Hickey was con- 
HC(Tat(!d in St. Patrick's Cathedral, Rochester, 24 
M;iy, 1905, having been appointed coadjutor to 
Bishop McQuaid. 

Chiihchbh: The steady growth of the Catholic 
population in the Diocese of Rochester, due mainly 
to immigration of Irish, German, French, Polish, 



ROCHESTER 



103 



ROCHESTER 



Italian, Lithuanian, and Ruthenian Catholics, taxed 
the resources at the disposal of Bishop McQuaid, 
who was anxious throughout his entire episcopate to 
supply the people with churches and priests of their 
own nationality and language, whenever they were 
willing and able to support them. The parishes were 
not allowed to become unwieldy, but were increased 
in number to meet the needs and convenience of the 
faithful. The problem of spiritual ministration to 
Catholics dwelling at watering-places in the diocese 
in the summer found a good solution in the erection 
of neat summer chapels. 

Catholic Education. — Elementary. — The common 
schools in the Diocese of Rochester at the time 
of its creation professed to be non-sectarian. Bishop 
McQuaid felt that they were very dangerous to the 
Catholic (ihild which really finds its church in the 
school. He sought a remedy in a vigorous agitation 
for the rights of Catholic i)arents, contributing to 
the support of the public school system by their 
taxes, to receive public money for the maintenance 
of schools, in which their children could be educated 
with that "amount and description of religious in- 
struction" which conscience tells them is good, 
expedient, necessary. The failure of the State to 
remedy the injustice was met with the firm command 
of the bishop which was put into execution as soon 
as possil)l(' throughout the diocese: "Build school- 
houses 1 hen for the religious education of your children 
as the best i)rotest against a system of education from 
which religion has been excluded by law." At 
Rochester in 1868, there were 2056 children in the 
parochial schools of the five CJerman churches, and 
441 children in the schools attached to the Churches 
of St. Patri(;k and St. Mary. Both of these had a 
select or pay school and a free, parish, or poor school, 
admitting invidious distinctions very distasteful 
to the new bishop. 

Outside of Rochester schools were attached to a 
few churches of the diocese, but with a very small 
attendance. These were the humble beginnings of 
the admirable parochial school S3'st(>m, which em- 
braces to-day practically all the Catholic children 
of the school age in the diocese. Not all the Catholic 
schools were brought to their present high degree of 
efficiency at once; it took many years and persistent 
effort to accomplish this work. The brot hei-s gradually 
yielded their places to the sisters, who now teach 
all the children in the Catholic .schools, both boys and 
girls. Bishoj) McQuaid spared no pains in de- 
veloping good teach(>rs in his own order of the Sisters 
of St. Joseph, for whom a normal training school was 
established. Occasional "teachers' institutes" or- 
ganized for the benefit of these sisterhoods in Roches- 
ter prepared the way for the annual conference held 
by the parochial teachers in the ei)iscopal city since 
1904, at which the various orders meet to discuss 
educational problems and to perfect in every possible 
way the parochial school system. 

As early as 1855 the Ladies of the Sacred Heart 
transferred their convent in Buffalo to Rochester as 
a more central point for their academy. About the 
same time the Sisters of St. Joseph in Canandaigua 
opened St. Mary's academy for young ladies, now 
Nazareth Academy attached to the new mother- 
house of the order in Rochester. Advanced courses 
were also introduced in 1903 into the Cathedral school 
under the (lircft ion of Bishoj) Hickey, who, in 190G, 
converted the old Cathedral Hall into a high school, 
classical and commercial, open to both girls and 
boys. 

Ecclesiastical. — (a) Preparatory. — Believing that 
it was hard for a boy to become a worthy priest 
without first leading the normal life of the family 
in the world. Bishop McQuaid planned his prepara- 
tory ecclesiastical seminary as a free day-school and 
not a boarding-school, the students living at home 



under the care of their parents, or in a boarding- 
house approved by the superiors. Within two years 
after the erection of the diocese, this plan was 
realized. On his return from the Vatican Coun(;il 
in 1870, St. Andrew's Preparatory Seminary was 
opened in a small building to the rear of the episcopal 
residence. It has already given nearly 175 priests 
to the diocese of Rochester. The rule has been 
made to adopt no one in this diocese who has not 
spent at least two years in St. Andrew's Seminary. 
Through the generosity of Mgr. H. De Regge and 
some others, Bishop McQuaid was enabled to erect 
a new building in 1880 and to enlarge it in 1889; 
and in 1904 the younger priests of the diocese fur- 
nished him with funds to erect a fire-proof structure 
with fitting accommodations for the work of the 
school. 

(b) Theological. — For many years the ecclesiastical 
students of the Diocese of Rochester were sent mainly 
to the provincial seminary at Troy or to Rome and 
Innsbruck in Europe for their theological education. 
In 1879 Bishop McQuaid put aside a small legacy be- 
queathed him as a nucleus of a fund for the erection 
of suitable buildings for a diocesan seminary. Al- 
though the fund grew slowly, the bishop would not 
lay the first stone until nearly all the money needed 
for the work was in hand, nor would he open the semi- 
nary for students unt il the buildings were completed 
and paid for, and at least four professorships 
endowed. In April, 1887, ho was able to purchase 
a site on the bank of the Genesee River gorge, only 
three miles from the cathedral. Four years later he 
began the erection of the buildings. In two years they 
were corni)leted, and in Se])tember, 1893, the .seminary 
was opened with 39 students. Applications for 
admission soon came from various parts of the United 
States and Canada. Four years after its establish- 
ment, it became evident that more room was neces- 
sary. A fund for an additional building was begun, 
and in 1900 the Hall of Philosophy and Science was 
erected with accommodations for class-rooms, library, 
and living rooms. In the following year Bishop 
McQuaid received a recognition for these labours 
from Leo XIII in a Brief granting to himself and his 
successors the power of conf(>rring degrcH's in Philoso- 
phy and Theology. The Hall of Tlu^ology was 
begun in 1907 and solemnly dedicatcnl 20 August, 
1908. Th(! priests of the dioces(! founded the ninth 
endowed professorship in honour of their bishop's 
jubilee. An infirmary for sic^k students was in pro- 
cess of construction when Bishop McQuaid died. 

Charities.— Though Catholic education was the 
primary concern of Bishop McQuaid in his diocese, 
ample provision for its charities was not lacking. 

(1) As early a.s 1845 the R. C. A. Society of Rochester, 
already in existence some years, was incorporated, 
having for its object the support of the orphan girls 
in St. Patrick's Female Orphan Asylum at Rochester 
and the support of the orphan boys sent to the Boys' 
Asylum, either at Lancaster, New York, or at Lime 
Stone Hill near Buffalo. In 1SG4 St. Mary's Boys' 
Orphan Asylum was also established in Rochester 
under the care of the Sisters of St. Joseph, to whom also 
the Girls' Orphan Asylum was confided in 1870 
on the resignation of the Sisters of Charity hitherto 
in charge. When the Auburn Orphan Asylum, in- 
cori)orated in 1853, was transferred to Rochester in 
1910, all this work was then centralized in the epis- 
copal city. Here also special jirovision had been 
made for the German Catholic orphans since 1866, 
when St. Joseph's Orphan Asvlum was erected and 
placed under the care of the Sisters of Notre-Dame. 

(2) In 1873 a short-lived attempt was made to sup- 
plement the work of St. Mary's Orphan Asylum by 
giving the boys of suitable age an opportunity of 
ac(iuu-ing a practical knowledge of farming or of a 
useful trade. A similar institution for girls flourished 



ROCHET 



104 



ROCHETTE 



under Mother Hioronynio for some twenty years 
under the name of The Home of Industry which then 
was changed into a home for the aged. The location 
did not prove desirable for such an institution, 
and S65,000 having been raised by a bazaar, Bishop 
McQuaid was enabled to erect St. Anne's Home for 
the Aged, admitting men as well as women. 

(3) The s])iritvial needs of another class of the des- 
titute, the Cutholic inmates of public eleemosynary 
and iienal inst il ut ions in t he diocese, appealed strongly 
to Bishop McQuaid, who at once became their cham- 
pion in the endeavour to have their religious rights re- 
spected according to the guarantee of the Constitution 
of the State of New York. His agitation in this noble 
cause was crowned with success, and the State sup- 
ports to-ilay chaplains at the State Industrial School, 
Industry, at the State Reformatory, Elmira, at the 
Craig (jolony (state hosjntal for epileptics), Sonyea, 
at the Soldiers' and Sailors' Home, Bath, while the 
county maintains a chaplain in Rochester for its 
public institutions of this kind. (4) The Catholic 
sick have one of the largest and best equipped hos- 
pitals in Rochester at their disposal in St. Mary's 
Hosjiital, established by the Sisters of Charity under 
Mother Hieronymo in 1857. The Sisters of Mercy 
ha\e charge of St. James Hospital in Hornell, and of 
late years the Sisters of St. Joseph have also opened 
a hospital in Elmira. 

Statistics. — Priests, 163 (6 Redemptorists) ; 
churches with resident priests, 94; missions with 
churches, 36; chapels, 18; parishes with parochial 
schools, 54 with 20,189 pupils; academies for young 
ladies, 2 with 470 pupils (Nazareth, 352; Sacred 
Heart, 118); theological seminary for secular clergy, 
1 with 234 students (73 for the Diocese of Rochester; 
preparatory seminary, 1 with 80 students; orphan 
asylums, 3 with 438 orphans (St. Patrick's, Girls', 
119, St. Mary's Boys', 204; St. Joseph's, 115); 
Home for the Aged, 1 with 145 inmates (men, 25); 
hospitals, 3 with 3115 inmates during year (St. 
Mary's, Rochester, 2216; St. Joseph's, Elmira, 463; 
St. James, Hornell, 436); Catholics, 142,263. 

Cone. Ball. Plen. II acta et decreUi; Acta S. Sedis, III; Leonis 
XIII .\cUi xti, xxi; Catholic Directory (1868-1911); McQuaid: 
Diaries (fragmentary); Idem, Pastorals in Annual Coll. for Eccl. 
StwlerUs (1871-1911); Idem, Pastoral (Jubilee) (1875); Idem, 
Pastoral (Visitation) (1878); Idem, Our American Seminaries in 
Am. Eccl. Rev. (May, 1897), reprint in Smith, The Training of a 
Priest, pp. xxi-xxxix; Idem, The Training of a Seminary Professor 
in Smith, op. cit., pp. .327-35; Idem, Christian Free Schools (1892), 
a reprint of lectures; Idem, Kelif/ion in Schools in North Am. Rev. 
(April, 1881) ; Idem, Religious Teaching in Schools in Forum (Dec, 
1889) ; Reports of Conferences hell by parochial teachers (1904-10). 

Frederick J. Zwierlein. 

Rochet, an over-tunic usually made of fine white 
linen (cambric; fine cotton material is also allowed), 
and reaching to the knees. While bearing a general 
resemblance to the surplice, it is distinguished from 
that vestment by the shape of the sleeves; in the 
surplice these are at least fairly wide, while in the 
rochet fhey are always tight-fitting. The rochet is 
decorated with lace or embroidered borders — broader 
at the hern and narrower on the sleeves. To make the 
ye^-tmcnt entirely of tulle or lace is inconvenient, as 
m the inordinate use of jjlaits; in both cases, the vest- 
ment becfjmes too efTeminate. The roch(!t is not a 
vestment pertaining to all clerics, like the surplice; 
it is distinctive of jjrelates, and may be worn by other 
ecclesiast ifs only when (as, e. g., in the case of cathe- 
dral chapters) the usuh rochelti has been granted them 
by a special papal indult. That the rochet possesses 
no liturgifiil character is clear both from the Decree 
of Urban VII i)refixed to the Roman Missal, and from 
an express deciwion of tlie Congregation of Rites (10 
Jan., 1S.52), which dechires llial, in the administra- 
tirm of the sacraments, the rochet may not be xm'.d 
a8 a vfiiliK Harm; in the administration of the sacra- 
nicnts, as well oh at the conferring of the tonsure and 
the minor orders, iise should be made of the surplice 



(cf. the decisions of 31 May, 1817; 17 Sept., 1722; 16 
April, 1831). However, as the rochet may be used 
by the properly privileged persons as choir-dress, it 
may be included among the liturgical vestments in the 
broad sense, like the biretta or the cappa mogna. 
Prelates who do not belong to a religious order, 
should wear the rochet over the soutane during Mass, 
in so far as this is convenient. 

The origin of the rochet may be traced from the 
clerical (non-liturgical) alhn or camisia, that is, the 
clerical linen tunic of everyday life. It was thus not 
originally distinctive of the higher ecclesiastics alone. 
This camisia appears first in Rome as a privileged vest- 
ment; that this was the case in the Christian capital 



^ - -m^- 


'. \ 


. 


r" 


J k 


V 




%\ 




\ '-^ 


'~^- -L^___ _ 


^\^-' 



I{i)( iiKT OF St. Thc 



OF Canterbuhy 



as early as the ninth century is established by the 
St. Gall catalogue of vestments. Outside of Rome 
the rochet remained to a great extent a vestment 
common to all clerics until the fourteenth century 
(and even longer); according to various German 
synodal statutes of the thirteenth and fourteenth 
centuries (Trier, Passau, Cambrai, etc.), it was worn 
even by sacristans. The Fourth Lateran Council 
prescribed its use for bishops who did not belong to 
a religious order, both in the church and on all public 
appearances. The name rochet (from the medieval 
roccus) was scarcely in use before the thirteenth cen- 
tury. It is first met outside of Rome, wiiere, until the 
fifteenth century, the vestment was called camisia, 
alba romana, or succa (subta). These nanu^s gradually 
yielded to rochet in Rome also. Originally, t he rochet 
reached, like the liturgical alb, to the feet, and, even 
in the fifteenth century still reached to the shins. 
It was not reduced to its present length until the 
seventeenth century. 

Braun, Die lilurg. Gewandung im Occident u. Orient (Freiburg, 
1907), 125 Bqq.; Bock, Gesch. der lilurg. Gewdnder, II (Bonn, 
1860), 329 sqq.; Rohault de Fleury, La Messe, VII (Paris, 
1888). 

Joseph Braun. 

Rochette, DfisiR^ Raoul, usually known as 
Raoul-Rochette, a French archaeologist, b. at St- 
Amand (Cher), 9 March, 1789; d. in Paris, 3 June, 
18.54. His father was a physician. He made his 
classical studi(\s in the lyceum of Bourges, and then 
took up post-graduate work in the Ecole Normalc 
Sup6rieure in Paris. In 1810, he obtained a chair of 
grammar in the; lyc(!um Louis-le-Cirand, and in the 
same year, married the daughter of the celebrated 
sculptor Houdon. Three years later, he was awarded 
a prize by the Institute for his "M^moire sur les 
C'olonies Cirecques". In 1815, he became lecturer at 
the Ecole Normale and succeeded Guizot in the chair 
of modern history at the Sorbonne. It has been often 
said that lie owed his rapid advancement only to 
favouritism, because of his devotion to the ruling 
power; this is not entirely true. He was a real 
scholar whose deep knowledge of archirology was 
admired even by his political enemies. He was elected 



ROCK 



105 



ROCKHAMPTON 



to the Academy of Inscriptions and Belles-Lettres in 
1816, and two years later, made a keeper of medals 
and antiques. His appointment to the position of 
censor (1S20) aroused the hostility of his students, who 
prevented him from delivering his lectures and caused 
the course to be suspended. In 1824 he was trans- 
ferred to the chair of archaeology. He entered the 
Academy of Fine Arts in 1838, and was made its 
perpetual secretary in 1839. Besides his memoirs for 
the Institute and numerous contributions to the 
"Journal des Savants", he wrote manj' books, the 
chief of which are: "Histoire critique de I'etablisse- 
ment des colonies grecquea" (Paris, 1815); "Anti- 
quites grecques du Bosphore Cimmerien" (Paris, 
1822); "Lettressur la Suisse" (Paris, 1826); "Mc- 
moires inedits d'antiquite figuree grecque, 6trusque 
et Romaine" (Paris, 1828); "Pompei" (Paris, 1828); 
"Cours d'archeologie" (Paris, 1828); "Peintures 
antiques inedites" (Paris, 1836). 

Louis N. Delamarre. 

Rock, Daniel, antiquarian and ecclesiologist, 
b. at Liverpool, 31 August, 1799; d. at Kensington, 
London, 28 November, 1871. He was educated at 
St. Edmund's College, Old Hall, where he studied 
from April, 1813, to Dec, 1818. There he came 
under the influence of the Rev. Louis Havard from 
whom he acquired his first interest in liturgy, and 
was the intimate companion of the future historian, 
Mark A. Tierney. He was then chosen as one of the 
first students sent to reopen the English College at 
Rome, where he remained till he took the degree of 
D.D. in 1825. He had been ordained priest, 13 
March, 1824. On his return to London he became 
assistant priest at St. Mary's, Moorfields, till 1827, 
when he was appointed domestic chaplain to John, 
Earl of Shrewsbury, with whom he had contracted a 
friendship based on similarity of tastes while at Rome. 
He accordingly resided at Alton Towers, Stafford- 
shire, till 1840, witli the exception of two years during 
which Lord Shrewsbury's generosity enabled him to 
stay at Rome collecting materials for his great work, 
"Hierurgia or the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass", which 
was published in 1833. He had previously published 
two short works: "Transubstantiation vindicated 
from the strictures of the Rev. Maurice Jones" 
(1830), and "The Liturgy of the Mass and Common 
Vespers for Sundays" (1832). 

In 1840 he became chaplain to Sir Robert Throck- 
morton of Buckland in Berkshire, and while there 
wrote his greatest book, "The Church of Our Fathers ", 
in which he studies the Sarum Rite and other medie- 
val liturgical observances. This work, which has 
profoundly influenced liturgical study in England 
and which caused his recognition as the leading au- 
thority on the subject, was published in 1849 (vols. 
I and II) and 1853-4 (vol. III). After 1840 Dr. 
Rock was a prominent member of the "Adelphi", 
an association of London i)riests who were working 
together for the restoration of the hierarchy. When 
this object was achieved, he w-as elected one of the 
first canons of Southwark (1852). Shortly after, he 
ceased parochial work, and having resided succes- 
sively at Newick, Surrey (1854-7), and Brook Green, 
Hammersmith (1857-64), he went to live near the 
South Kensington Museum in which he took the 
keenest interest and to which he proved of much 
service. His "Introduction to the Catalogue of 
Textile Fabrics" in that Museum has been separately 
reprinted (1876) and is of great authority. He also 
contributed frequent articles to the Archaeological 
Journal, the Dublin Review, and other periodicals. 
For many years before his death he held the honour- 
able position of President of the Old Brotherhood 
of the English Secular Clergy. There is an oil 
painting of him at St. Edmund's College, Old Hall. 

GiLLOw, Bibl. Diet. Eng. Calh., s. v.; Sutton in Diet. Nat. 



Biog., 8. v., incorrectly dating his departure for Rome 1813 instead 
of 1818; Kelly, Life of Daniel Rock, D.D., prefixed to the 
modern Anglican ed. The Church of Our Fathers, ed. Hart and 
Frere (London, 1903), with portrait. The Edmundian, II 
(1895). no. 8. 

Edwin Burton. 

Rockford, Diocese of (Rockfordiensis), created 
23 September, 1908, comprises Jo Daviess, Stephen- 
son, Winnebago, Boone, McHenry, Carroll, Ogle, 
DeKalb, Kane, Whiteside, Lee, and Kendall Counties 
in the north-western part of the State of Illinois. 
The diocese has an area of 6867 sq. miles, and a Cath- 
olic population of 50,000, mostly Irish and Germans 
or their descendants. The total population of the 
twelve counties that form the diocese, according to 
the last census, is 414,872. The entire territory of 
the Diocese of Rockford was a part of the Archdiocese 
of Chicago until 23 September, 1908. Tlie city of 
Rockford has a population of 48,000; it is a manu- 
facturing centre. The Right Reverend Peter James 
Muldoon, formerly Auxiliary Bishop of Chicago, was 
appointed the first Bishop of Rockford, and took 
possession of his see, 15 December, 1908. There are 
in the diocese (1911), 99 secular priests, 64 churches 
with resident priests, 18 missions with churches, 
3 high schools, 25 parochial schools with an attend- 
ance of 3850, 5 hospitals, 1 maternity home, 1 
home for aged, and Mt. St. Mary's Academy for 
Girls (St. Charles) with an attendance of 84. 

Offic. Catholic Director!/ (1911). 

J. J. Flanagan. 

Rockhampton, Diocese of, in Queensland, 
Australia. In 1862 Father Duhig visited the infant 
settlement on the banks of the Fitzroy River and 
celebrated the first Mass there. Father Scully came 
from Brisbane to attend to the spiritual needs of the 
little congregation and in 1863 Dean Murlay was 
appointed first resident pastor of Rockhampton, 
his parish extending as far north as Cooktown and 
south to Maryborough. He built the first Catholic 
church in Rockhami)ton, a wooden edifice still stand- 
ing, and for many years was the only priest to look 
after the Catholics scattered over the vast territory. 
A fountlation of the Sisters of Mercy from All-Hallows 
Convent, Brisbane, was established in 1873, and Sister 
Mary do Sales (jorry, the first Queensland-born nun, 
was appointed Superioress. Rockhamj)ton remained 
part of the Diocese of Brisbane until 18S2. In 1876 
the Holy See erected the northern portion of the 
colony into a pro-vicariate, and in 1882 made Rock- 
hampton a see with a territory of some 350,000 
square miles. Right Rev. Dr. Cani, a native of 
the papal states, who had had a distinguished scholas- 
tic career at Rome, and former pro-vicar Apostolic 
of North Queensland, was appointed first bishop of 
the new diocese. Bishop Cani, who was then 
administering the Diocese of Brisbane, was con- 
secrated by Archbishop Vaughan in St. Mary's 
Cathedral, Sydney, 21 May, 1882, and was installed 
in his temporary cathedral at Rockhampton on 11 
June following. 

In the new diocese there were about 10,000 Catho- 
lics, 6 or 7 priests, 8 Catholic schools, and 1 orphan- 
age. Bishop Cani added to the small number of 
priests, purchased sites for new churches, and acquired 
3000 acres of fertile land near Rockhampton for a 
central orphanage which he had built and placed 
under the care of the Sisters of Mercy. His great 
work was the erection of St. Joseph's Cathedral, a 
magnificent stone edifice which he did not live to see 
dedicated. After a strenuous episcopate of sixteen 
years Dr. Cani died, 3 March, 1898. His great vir- 
tues were recognized even by those outside the 
Church. Humility and simplicity of life, love of the 
poor and orphans were his special characteristics. 
He was succeeded in Rockhampton by Right Rev. 
Dr. Higgins, a native of Co. Meath, Ireland, and now 



ROCOCO 



106 



ROCOCO 



Bishop of Ballarat. Dr. Higgins studied in May- 
nooth, was subsequently President of the Diocesan 
Seminary at Navan, and in ISSS was chosen auxiUary 
bishop to the Cardinal .\rchbishop of Sydney with 
the title of titular Bishop of Antifelle. He had 
zealously laboiu-ed in the Archdiocese of Sydney for 
over ten years, when appointed to RockJiampton. 
He traversed his new diocese from end to end, 
gauged its wants, attracted priests to his aid, placed 
students for the mission in various ecclesiastical col- 
leges, introduced new religious teaching orders, 
built and dedicated churches, convents, and schools 
in several centres, bringing the blessings of religion 
and Cliristian education to the children of the back- 
blocks. 

On 15 October, 1899, the beautiful new cathedral 
was dedicated by the Cardinal Archbishop of Sydney 
assisted by several other distinguished Australian 
prelates in the presence of a great concourse of people. 
The remains of Dr. Cani were transferred thither. 
Dr. Higgins visited Rome and Ireland in 1904, and 
returned with renewed energy to carry on his great 
work. On the death of Dr. 'Moore, Bishop of Bal- 
larat, Victoria, he was translated to that important 
See, where he has ever since laboured with cliarac- 
teristic zeal and devotedness. The present Bishop 
of Rockhampton is Right Rev. Dr. James Duhig, 
bom at Broadford, Co. Limerick, Ireland, 1870. Dr. 
Duhig emigrated from Ireland with his famih' at the 
age of thirteen, studied with the Christian Brothers 
at Brisbane and at the Irish College, Rome, was 
ordained priest, 19 Sept., 1896, and, returning to 
Queensland in the following year, was appointed 
to a curacy in the parish of Ipswich. In 1905 he was 
appointed administrator of St. Stephen's Cathedral, 
Bri.sbane, and received the briefs of his appointment 
to the See of Rockhampton. At present (1911) there 
are in the Diocese of Rockhampton: about 28,000 
Catholics; 19 missions or districts; 30 priests (4 
of whom belong to the Marist Congregation, who 
have 1 house in the diocese); 12 Christian Brothers; 
150 nuns; and 26 Cathohc schools, attended by about 
5000 children, 

J. Duhig. 

Rococo Style, — This style received its name in 
the nineteenth century from French emigres, who 
used the word to designate in whimsical fashion the 
shell work style {style rocaille), then regarded as Old 
Frankish, as opposed to the succeeding more simple 
styles. Essentially, it is the same kind of art and 
decoration as flouri.shed in France during the regency 
following Louis XIV's death, and remained in fashion 
for about forty years (1715-50). It might be termed 
the climax or degeneration of the Baroque, which, 
coupk^l with French grace, began towards the end 
of the reign of Ix)uis XIV to convert grotesques into 
curve*, linfs, and bands fjcan B<''rain, 16.38-1711). 
As its efT«-ct was less pronounced on architectural 
construction than elsewhere, it is not so much a real 
style as a new kind of decoration, which culminates 
in the resrjlution of architectural forms of the interiors 
(pilasters and architraves; by arbitrary ornamenta- 
tion after the fashion of an unregulated, enervated 
Barofjue, while also influencing the arrangement of 
space, the construction of the facades, the portals, 
tne forms of the doors and windows. The Rococo 
style was rea/lily received in Germany, where it 
was still further perverted into the arbitrary, un- 
symmetrical, and unnatural, and remained in favour 
until 1770 Cor even longer); it found no welcome in 
England. In Italy a tendency towards the Rococo 
stvle is evinced by tlie Borromini, Guarini, and others. 
The French them.H<-lve8 speak only of the Style 
lUgence and Louii XV, which, however, is by no 
means confined to this one tendency. 

To a race grown effeminate the Baroque forms 



seemed too coarse and heavj', the lines too straight 
and stiff, the whole impression too weighty and forced. 
The small and the light, sweeps and flourishes, caught 
the public taste; in the interiors the architectonic had 
to yield to the picturesque, the curious, and the whim- 
sical. There develops a style for elegant parlours, 
dainty sitting-rooms and boudoirs, drawing-rooms 
and libraries, in which walls, ceiUng, furniture, and 
works of metal and porcelain present one ensemble 
of sportive, fantastic, and sculptured forms. The 
horizontal lines are almost completely superseded 
by curves and interruptions, the vertical varied at 
least by knots; everywhere shell-like curves appear 
in a hundred forms, pronged, blazed, and sharpened 
to a cusp; the natural construction of tlie walls is 
concealed behind 
thick stucco- 
framework ; on 
the ceiling per- 
haps a glimpse of 
Olympus en- 
chants the view — 
all executed in a 
beautiful white or 
in bright colour 
tones. All the 
simple laws and 
rules being set 
aside in favour of 
free and enchant- 
ing imaginative- 
ness, the fanc}' rc- 
ceived all tin 
greater incenti\< • 
to activity, and 
the senses were 
the more keenly 
requisitioned. 
Everything vigor- 
ous is banned, 
every suggestion 
of earnestness; 
nothing disturbs 
the shallow re- 
pose of distinguished banality; the sportively grace- 
ful and light appears side by side with the elegant 
and the ingenious. The sculptor Bouchardon repre- 
sented Cupid engaged in carving his darts of love 
from the club of Hercules; this serves as an ex- 
cellent symbol of the Rococo style — the demigod is 
transformed into the soft child, the bone-shattering 
club becomes the heart-scathing arrows, just as 
marble is so freely replaced by stucco. Effeminacy, 
softness, and caprice attitudinize before us. In 
this connexion, the French sculptors, Robert le 
Lorrain, Michel Clodion, and Pigalle may be men- 
t ioned in passing. For small i)last i(; figures of gypsum, 
clay, biscuit, porcelain (Sevres, Meissen), the gay 
Rococo is not unsuitable; in wood, iron, and royal 
metal, it h;is created some valuable works. How- 
ever, (confessionals, ])ulpits, altars, and even fa9ade9 
lead ever more into the territory of the architectonic, 
which does not ejisily combine with the curves of 
Rococo, the light and the petty, with forms whose 
whence and wherefore baffle inquiry. Even as mere 
decoration on the walls of the interiors the new forms 
could maintain their ground only for a few decades. 
In France the sway of Rococo practically ceases with 
Oppenord (d. 1742) and Meissonier (d. 1750). In- 
auguratcfl in some rooms in the Palace of Versailles, 
it unfolds its magnificence in several Parisian buildings 
(esnecially the Hotel Soubise). In Germany French 
anrl German artists fCuvillies, Neumann, Knobels- 
dorfT, etc.) effected the dignified equipment of the 
Amalienburg near Muiiieli. and the castles of Wiirz- 
burg, Potsdam, Charlottenburg, Briihl, Bruchsal, 
Schcinbrunn, etc. In France the style remained some- 




DooRWAY AT Toulouse, 
France 



RODEZ 



107 



RODEZ 



what more reserved, since the ornaments were mostly 
of wootl, or, after the fashion of wood-carving, less 
robust and naturalistic and less exuberant in the 
mixture of natural with artificial forms of all kinds 
(e. g. plant motives, stalactitic representations, gro- 
tesques, masks, implements of various professions, 
badges, paintings, precious stones). As elements 
of the beautiful France retained, to a greater extent 
than Germany, the unity of the whole scheme of 
decoration and the symmetry of its parts. 

This style needs not only decorators, goldsmiths, 
and other technicians, but also painters. The 
French painters of this period reflect most truly the 
moral depression dating from the time of Louis XIV, 
even the most celebrated among them confining them- 
selves to social portraits of high society and de- 
picting "gallant festivals", with their informal, 
frivolous, theatrically or modishly garbed society. 




Rococo Decoratio.n from a Chateau near Paris 

The "beautiful sensuality" is effected by masterly 
technique, especially in the colouring, and to a great 
extent by quite immoral licences or mythological 
nudities as in loo.se or indelicate romances. As for 
Watteau (1684-1721), the very titles of his works— 
e. g. Conversation, Breakfast in the Open Air, Rural 
Pleasures, Italian or French Comedians, Embark- 
raent for the Island of Cythera — indicate the spirit 
and tendency of his art. Add thereto the figures in 
fashionable costume slim in head, throat, and feet, 
in unaffected pos(% represented amid enchanting, rural 
scenery, painted in tlu; finest colours, and we have a 
pictun; of the high society of the period which beheUl 
Louis XV and tlie Pompadour. Fran(^ois Boucher 
(1703-70) is llie most celebrated painter of ripe Rococo. 
For the church Rococo may be, generally speaking, 
compared with worldly church music. Its lack of 
simplicity, earnestness, and repose is evident, while 
its obtrusive artificiality, unnaturalness, and triv- 
iality have a distracting effect. Its softness and 
pettiness likewise do not become the house of God. 
However, shorn of its most grievous outgrowths, it 
may have been less distracting during its proper 
epoch, since it then harmonized with the spirit of 
the age. A development of Baroque, it will be found 
a congruous decoration for Baroque churches. In 
general it makes a vast difference whether the style 
is used with moderation in the finer and more in- 
genious form of the French masters, or is carried to 
extremes with the consistency of the German. The 
French artists seem ever to have regarded the beauty 
of the whole composition as the chief object, while 
the German laid most stress on the bold vigour of 
the lines; thus, the lack of symmetry was never so 
exaggerated in the works of the former. In the 
church Rococo may at times have the charm of 
prettincss and may please by its ingenious technic, 
provided the objects be small and subordinate a 
credence table with cruets and plate, a vase, a choir 
desk, lamps, key and lock, railings or balustrade, do 
not too boldly challenge the eye, and fulfil all the 



requirements of mere beauty of form. Rococo is 
indeed really empty, solely a pleasing play of the 
fancy. In the sacristy (for presses etc.) and ante- 
chambers it is more suitable than in the church it- 
self — at least so far as its employment in conspicuous 
places is concerned. 

The Rococo style accords very ill with the solemn 
office of the monstrance, the tabernacle, and the altar, 
and even of the pulpit. The naturalism of certain 
Belgian pulpits, in spite or perhaps on account of 
their artistic character, has the same effect as have 
outspoken Rococo creations. The purpose of the 
confessional and the baptistery would also seem to 
demand more earnest forms. In the ca.se of the 
larger objects, the sculpture of Rococo forms either 
seems petty, or, if this pettiness be avoided, resem- 
bles Baroque. The phantasies of this style agree ill 
with the lofty and broad walls of the church. How- 
ever, everything must be decided according to the 
object and circumstances; the stalls in the cathedral 
of Mainz elicit not only our approval but also our 
admiration, while the celebrated privileged altar of 
Vierzcluiheiligen repels us both by its forms and 
its plastic decoration. There are certain Rococo 
chalices (hke that at the monastery of Einsiedeln) 
which are, as one might say, decked out in choice 
f(stiv(> array; there are others, which are more or 
less niissliapen owing to their bulging curves or figures. 
('iKuidcliers and lamps may also be disfigured by 
ol)trusive shellwork or want of all symmetry, or 
may amid great decorativeness be kept within 
reasonable limits. The material and technic are 
also of consequence in Rococo. Woven materials, 
wood-carvings, and works in plaster of Paris are 
evidently less obtrusive than works in other materials, 
when they employ the sportive Rococo. Iron (es- 
pecially in railings) and bronze lose their coldness and 
hardness, when animated by the Rococo style; in 
the case of the latter, gilding may be used with ad- 
vantage. Gilding and painting belong to the regular 
means through which this style, under certain cir- 
cumstances, enchants the eye and fancy. All things 
considered, we may say of the Rococo style — as has 
not unreasonably been said of the Baroque and of the 
Renaissance — that it is very apt to introduce a 
worldly spirit into the church, even if we overlook 
the figural accessories, which are frequently in no 
way conducive to sentiments of devotion, and are 
incompatible with the sobriety and greatness of the 
architecture and with the seriousness of sacred func- 
tions. 

Ornements Louis XV et du style Rocaille, reproduits d'apris les 
originaux (Paris, 1890) ; Recueil des ceuvres de G. M. Oppenord 
(Paris, 1888) ; Recueil des ceuvres de J. A. Meissonier (Paris, 183;) ; 
GuRLiTT, Das Barock- u. Rokokoornament Deutschlands (Berlin, 
1885-9); DoHME, Barock- u. Roknko-Architeklur; Jessen, Das 
OTiiament des Rokoko (Leipzig, 1894). 

G. GlETMANN. 

Rodez, Diocese of (Ruthen^), was united to 
the Diocese of Cahors by the Concordat of 1802, 
and again became an episcopal see by the Concordat 
of 1817 and Bull of 1822, having jurisdiction over: 
(1) the ancient Diocese of Rodez with the exception 
of the deanery of Saint Antonin, incorporated with 
the Diocese of Montauban; (2) the ancient Diocese 
of Vabres; (3) a few scattered comnumcs of the 
Diocese of Cahors. The Diocese of Rodez corre- 
sponds exactly to the Department of Avcyron (for- 
merly Rouergue). It was suffragan of Bourges until 
1676, then of Albi, and has again been suffragan of 
Albi since 1822. Modern tradition attributes to St. 
Martial the foundation of the church of Rodez and 
the sanctuary of the Blessed Virgin at Ceignac, 
for according to Cardinal Bourret, the church of 
Rodez honoured St. Martial as early as the sixth cen- 
tury (see Limoges). There were bishops of Rodez 
before 675, as Sidonius Apollinaris mentions that the 



RODEZ 



108 



RODEZ 



Goths left it at that date without bishops. Amantius, 
who ruled about the end of the fifth centurj-, is the 
first bishop mentioned. Among others are: S. 
Quint ianus who assisted at the Councils of Agde 
(506) and Orleans (511), afterwards Bishop of Cler- 
mont; S. Dalmatius (524-80); S. Gausbert (tenth 
century), probablj' a Bishop of Cahors; Jean de 
Cardaillac (1371-9); Patriarch of Alexandria, who 
fought against English rule; Blessed Francis 
d'Estaing (1501-29). ambassador of Louis XII to 
Juluis II; Ivouis Avelly (ItHU-G) who wrote the life 
of St. Vincent of Paul; Joseph Bourret (1871-96), 
made Cardinal in 1893. The Benedictine Abbey of 
Vabres, founded in 862 by Raymond I, Count of 
Toulouse, was raised to episcojxil rank in 1317, and 
its diocesan territory was taken from the south- 
eastern portion of the Diocese of Rodez. Some 




The Cathedral, Rodez 

scholars hold that within the limits of the modern 
Diocese of Rodez there existed in Merovingian times 
the See of Arisitum which, according to Mgr Duchesne, 
was in the neighbourhood of Alais. 

During the Middle Ages the Bishop of Rodez held 
temporal <lominion over that portion of the town 
known as the Cile, while in the eleventh century the 
Bourg became the County of Rodez. The cathedral 
of lifjdez (thirteenth and fourteenth centuries) is a 
beautiful Gothic building, famous for its belfry 
(1510-20) and unique rood-beam. It wa,s spared 
during the Revolution for dedication to Marat. The 
town of Milhau adopted Calvinism in 1534, and in 
1573 and 1620 was the scone of two large a.ssemblie3 
of Protestant de|)iiii(.s. In 1629 Milhau and Saint- 
Afriqiie, another Protestant stronghold, were taken 
and di.smantled by Ixmis XIII. In 1628 a pest at 
Villefranche carried ofT K(XX) inhabitants within six 
months; Fatli<T Ambroise, a Franciscan, and the 
chief of fxilice Jean de Pomayrol saved the lives of 
many little children by causing th(!m to be sucklcid 
by eoatH. The Cistercian Abbeys f)f Silbanc^s, 
Beaulieu, IxK--Dieu, Bonneval, and Bonn(!combe 
were mrMlel-furrns <luring the Middle Ag(!S. At- 
tiwkr-d by brigands in tlie liouergue country on his 
way to Santiago di Ojini^wtfjlla, Adalard, Viscount of 
Flanders, erect^;d in 1031 a monjistery known aw the 
Dornerie d'Aubnve, a sfx-cial order of pri(!sts, knights. 
lay brothers, la^lies, and lay sisters for the care and 
proUnrtion of travellers. At Milhau, R^>dez, Nazac, 
and IJ«^>zoul», hoHpitalu, Htyled " Commander ics", of 



this order of Aubrac adopted the rule of St. Augustine 
in 1162. 

The Diocese of Rodez is famous also through the 
Abbey of Conques and the cult of Sainte Foy. Some 
Christians, fl.ying from the Saracens about 730, sought 
a '•efuge in the "Val Rocheux" of the Dourdou and 
built an oratory there. In 790 the hermit Dadon 
made this his abode and aided by Louis the Pious, 
then King of Aquitaine, founded an abbey, which 
Louis named Conques. In 838 Pepin, King of Aqui- 
taine, gave the monastery of Figeac to Conques. 
Between 877 and 883 the monks carried off the body 
of the youthful martjT Ste-Foy from the monastery 
of Sainte Foy to Conques, where it became the object 
of a great jjilgrimage. Abbot Odolric built the abbey 
church between 1030 and 1060; on the stonework over 
the doorway is carved the most artistic representation 
in France of the Last Judgment. Abbot Begon 
(1099-1118) enriched Conques with a superb rel- 
i(|uary of beaten gold and cloisonn6s enamels of a 
kind extremely rare in France. Pascal II gave him 
permission for the name of Ste-Foy to be inserted in 
the Canon of the Mass after the names of the Roman 
virgins. At this time Conques, with Agen and 
Schelestadt in Alsace, was the centre of the cult of 
Ste. Foy which soon spread to England, Spain, and 
America where many towns bear the name of Santa 
Fe. The statute of Ste-Foy seated, which dated 
from the tenth century, was originally a small wooden 
one covered with gold leaf. In time, gems, enamels, 
and precious stones were added in such quantities 
that it is a living treatise on the history of the gold- 
smiths art in France between the eleventh and .six- 
teenth centuries. It was known during the Middle 
Ages as "Majeste de Sainte Foy". The shrine en- 
closing the relics of the Saint, which in 1590 was hid- 
den in the masonry connecting the pillars of the 
choir, was found in 1875, repaired, transferred to the 
cathedral of Rodez for a no vena, and brought back 
to Conques, a distance of 25 miles, on the shoulders 
of the clergy. 

Among Saints specially honoured in the Diocese 
of Rodez and Vabres are: S. Antoninus of Pamiers, 
Apostle of the Rouergue (date uncertain) ; S. Gratus 
and S. Ansutus, martyrs (fourth century); S. Naama- 
tius, deacon and confessor (end of fifth century); 
Ste. Tarsicia, grand-daughter of Clothaire I and of 
Ste-Radegunda, who retired to the Rouergue to lead 
an ascetic life (sixth century); S. Africanus, wrongly 
styled Bishop of Commingcs, who died in the Rouer- 
gue (sixth century); S. Hilarianus, martyred by the 
Saracens in the time of Charlemagne (eighth and 
ninth century); S. George, a monk in the Diocese 
of Vabres, afterwards BLshop of Lodeve (877); S. 
Gua.sbert, founder and first abbot of the monastery 
of Montsalvy in the modern Diocese of St. Flour 
(eleventh century). Among natives of the diocese 
are: Cardinal Bernard of Milhau, Abbot of St. 
Victor's at Marseilles in 1063, and l(>gatc of Gregory 
VII; Theodatus de Gozon (d. 1353) and John of 
La Valotta (1494-1.568), grand m,asters of the order 
of St. John of Jerusalem; the former is famous for 
his victory over the dragon of Rhodes, the latter for 
his heroic defence of Malta; Frassinous (1765- 
1841), preacher and minister of worsiii)) under the 
Restoration; Bonald (1754-1840) and Laroiiiiguidre 
(173()- 18.37), pliilosophers; Affre (17;»3 ISIS), born 
at St. Roinf! fie Tarn and slain at tlie Barricades as 
y\rclihisIiop of Paris. The chief shrines of (lie diocese 
are: Notre; Dame de Ceignac, an ancient shrine re- 
built anfl enlarged in 14.55, which over 15,000 ))ilgrim8 
visit annually; Notre Dame du Saint Voile at 
Coupiac, another ancient shrine; Notn; Dame des 
Treize Pierrcs at Vilhifranche, a pilgrimage dating 
from 1.509. 

Brjfore the application of the Associations' Law in 
1901, there were in the Diocese of Rodez, Capuchins, 



RODRIGUES 



109 



ROE 



Jesuits, Trappists, Peres Blancs, Premonstratensians, 
Fathers of Picpus, Sulpicians, Clerics of St. Victor, 
and many congregations of teaching brothers. This 
diocese furnishes more missionaries than any other 
in France. Of the numerous congregations for women 
which had their origin there, the principal are: 
affiliations of the Sisters of St. Francis of Sales, known 
as the Union, teaching orders founded in 1672, 1698, 
1739, 1790, with mother-houses at St-Geniez, 
d'Olt, Bozouls, Lavernhe, Auzits; the Sisters of St. 
Joseph, founded in 1682 for teaching and district 
nursing, with mother-house at Marcillac, and other 
sisters of the same name, united in 1822, 1824, 1856, 
with mother-houses at Milhau, Villecomtal, Salles- 
la-Source; the Sisters of the Holy Family, a teaching 
and nursing order, founded in 1816 by Emilie de 
Rodat, with mother-house at Villefranche and many 
convents throughout the diocese; the Minim Sisters 
of the Sacred Heart of Mary founded in 1844 by Mile. 
Chauchard, with mother-house at Cruejouls, for the 
care of the sick and children of the working classes; 
two branches of Dominican Sisters, teaching orders, 
founded in 1843 and 1849 with mother-houses at 
Gramond and Bor-et-Bar; the Sisters of the Union 
of Ste-Foy, teaching and nursing nuns, founded in 
1682 with mother-house at Rodez. At the close of 
the nineteenth century the religious congregations 
of the diocese had charge of 75 nurseries; 1 institute 
for the deaf and dumb; 3 orphanages for boys; 13 
orphanages for girls; 2 houses of rescue; 2 houses of 
mercy; 1 economic bakery; 83 houses of religious 
women devoted to the care of the sick in their own 
homes; 3 hospitals. At tlie end of 1909 the diocese 
had a population of 377,299. .")1 jxirishes, 617 auxiliary 
parishes, 287 curacies, and 1200 priests. 

Gallia Christiana, Nova (1715), I, 195-234; InstTumenla. 49-55. 
203; Duchesne, Pastes Episcopaux, II, 39-41; Sicard, Ruthena 
Christiana, ed. Maison.^be in Mimoirea de la sociHe des lettres, 
sciences et arts de VAveyron, XIV (Rodez, 1893), 331-447; Bour- 
RET, Documents sur les origines chrHiennes de Rouergue. Saint 
Martial (Rodez, 1902); SERVifeRES, Les Saints du Rouergue 
(Rodez, 1872); Idem, Histoire de I'Eglise du Rouergue (Rodez, 
1875); BouiLLET and SERVifcRES, Sainte Foy viirge et martyre 
(Rodez, 1900) ; Grimaldi, Les Benifices du Diochse de Rodez avant 
la Rivolution de 178!> (Rodez, 1906); DB Marlavaone, Histoire 
de la cathedrale de Rodez (Rodez, 1876); Bousquet, Tableau 
chronologique et biograph. des cardinaux, archeviques et iviques ori- 
ginaires du Rouergue (Rodez, 1850); Calmet, L'ahbaye de Vabres 
et son irection en ^vtchk in Ann. de St. Louis des FrauQais (1898). 

Georges Goyau. 

Rodrigues Ferreira, Alexandre, a Brazilian 
natural scientist and explorer, b. at Bahia in 1756; 
d. at Lisbon in 1815. He was sent to Portugal for 
his training and there studied at the University of 
Coimbra. After taking his degrees, he taught nat- 
ural history subjects for a time at liis Alma Mater, 
until in 1778 he was called to Lisbon to work in the 
Museo da Ajuda. He devoted his time for the next 
five years to cataloguing the various specimens con- 
tained in the museum, and to the writing of learned 
monographs and reports. As a result of his efforts 
he was elected a Corresponding Member of the 
Academy of Sciences at Lisbon. The Portuguese 
Government empowered him to engineer a journey 
of exploration for scientific purposes in the interior 
of his native land. He entered upon this expedition 
in 1783 and spent nine years in it. First examining 
the Island of Alarajo, since important for the produc- 
tion of rubber, he crossed to the mainland, and 
followed the course of the Amazon and its tributaries, 
studying the natives, their languages and customs, 
and the fauna and flora of a vast region. On account 
of the energy and skill with which he conducted his 
investigations he became known as the Brazilian 
Humboldt. From 1793 until his death he was in 
Lisbon, acting as Director of the Gabinete de His- 
toria Natural and of the Jardim Botanico. Most 
of the records of his Brazilian explorations seem to 
have passed from view. J. D. M. Ford. 



Rodriguez, Alonso, b. at Valladolid, Spain, 1526; 
d. at Seville 21 February, 1616. When twenty years 
of age he entered the Society of Jesus, and after com- 
pleting his studies taught moral theology for twelve 
years at the College of Monterey, and subsequently 
filled the posts of master of novices for twelve more 
years, of rector for seventeen years, and of spiritual 
father at Cordova for eleven years. As master of 
novices he had under his charge Francis Suarcz, the 
celebrated theologian. Alonso's characteristics in 
these offices were care, diligence, and charity. He 
was a religious of great piety and candour, hating all 
pride and ostentation. It was said of him by those 
who were personally acquainted with him, that his 
character and virtues were accurately depicted in 
"The Practice of Christian and Religious Perfection", . 
published at Seville, 1609. This work is based on the 
material which he collected for his spiritual exliorta- 
tions to his brethren, and published at the request of 
his superiors. Although the book thus written was 
primarily intended for the use of his religious brethren, 
yet he destined it also for the profit and edification of 
other religious and of laymen in the world. Of set 
purpose it avoids the loftier flights of mysticism and 
all abstruse speculation. It is a book of practical 
instructions on all the virtues which go to make up the 
perfect Christian life, whether lived in the cloister or in 
the world. It became popular at once, and it is as 
much used to-day by all classes of Christians as it was 
when it first became known. More than twenty-five 
editions of the original Spanish have been issued, be- 
sides extracts and abridgments. More than sixty edi- 
tions have appeared in French in seven different 
translations, twenty in Italian, at least ten in German, 
and eight in Latin. An English translation from the 
French by Fr. Antony Hoskins, S.J., was printed at 
St. Omer in 1612. The best known English transla- 
tion, often reprinted, is that which first appeared in 
London, 1697, from the French of Abb6 Regnier dea 
Marais. P. O. Shea issued in New York an edition 
adapted to general use in 1878. The book has been 
translated into nearly all the European languages and 
into many of tho.se of the East. No other work of the 
author was published. Gilmary Shea left a translation 
of the work which has never been published, 

Cordara, Historiij; Socielatis Jcku: Pars Sexta, I (Rome, 17.50); 
De Guilhermy, Menologe de la C. de J., Assistance d'Espagne, 
I (Paris, 1902), 321; a short life is prefixed to the English trans- 
lation of The Practice of Christian and Religious Perfection (Dub- 
lin, 1861); Sommervooel, Bibl. de la C. de J., VI (Paris, 1895). 

T. Slater. 

Rodriguez, Joao (Giram, Girao, Giron, Roiz), 
missionary and author, b. at Alcochete in the Dio- 
cese of Lisbon in 1558; d. in Japan in 1633. He 
entered the Society of Jesus on 16 December, 1576, 
and in 1583 began his missionary labours in Japan. 
His work was facilitated by his winning the esteem 
of the Emperor Taicosama. He studied the Japanese 
language ardently, and is particularly known for his 
efforts to make it accessible to the Western nations. 
His Japanese grammar ranks among the important 
linguistic productions of the Jesuit missionaries. 
Published at Nagasaki in 1604 under the title "Arte 
da lingoa de Japam", it appeared in 1624 in an 
abridged form at Macao: "Arte breve da lingoa 
japoa"; from the manuscript of this abridgement 
preserved in the National Library in Paris, the 
Asiatic Society prepared a French edition of the work : 
"Elements de la grammaire japonaise par le P. 
Rodriguez" (Paris, 1825). Rodriguez compiled also 
a Japanese-Portuguese dictionary (Nagasaki, 1603), 
later adapted to the French by Pages (Paris, 1862). 

R^musat, in Nouv. melanges asiat., I (Paris, 1829), 354-57; 
Gansen, in Buchberger's Handlexikon, a. v. 

N. A. Weber. 

Roe, Bartholomew (Venerable Alban), English 
Benedictine martyr, b. in Suffolk, 1583; executed at 



ROERMOND 



110 



ROGATION 



Tyburn, 21 Jan., 1641. Educated in Suffolk and at 
Cambridge, he became converted through a visit to 
a Cathohc prisoner at St. Albans which unsettled his 
religious views. He was admitted as a con victor into 
the English College at Douai, entered the English 
Benedictine monastery at Dieulward where he was 
professed in 1012, and, after ordination, went to the 
mission in 1615. From 161S to 1623 he was impris- 
oned in the New Prison, Maiden Lane, whence he w^as 
banished and went to the English Benedictine house at 
Douai but returned to England after four months. He 
was again arrested in 1625, and was imprisoned for two 
months at St. Albans, then in the Fleet whence he was 
frequently liberated on parole, and finally in Newgate. 
He was condemned a few days before his execution 
under the statute 27 Eliz. c. 2, for being a priest. 
With him suffered Thomas Greene, aged eighty, who 
on the mission had taken the name of Reynolds. He 
was probably descended from the Greenes of Great 
Milton, Oxfordshire, and the Reynoldses of Old 
Stratford, Warwickshire, and was ordained deacon at 
Reims in 1590, and priest at Seville. He had lived 
under sentence of death for fourteen years, and was 
executed without fresh trial. They w^ere drawn on 
the same hurdle, where they heard each other's con- 
fessions, and were hanged simultaneously on the same 
gibbet amidst great demonstrations of popular sym- 
pathv. 

GiLLOW, Bill. Diet. Eng. Cath., Ill, 36; V, 437; Challoner, 
Missionary Priests, II, nos. 166, 167; Pollen, Acts of the English 
Martyrs (London, 1891), 339-43. 

John B. Wainewright. 

Roennond, Diocese of (Rur.emundensis), in 
Holland, suffragan of Utrecht. It includes the Prov- 
ince of Liinburg, and in 1909 had 3.32,201 inhabitants, 
among whom were 325,000 Catholics. The diocese 
has a cathedral chapter with 9 canons, 14 deaneries, 
173 parishes, 197 churches with resident priests, an 
ecclesiastical seminary at Roermond, a preparatory 
seminary for boys at Rolduc, about 70 Catholic 
primary schools, 2 Catholic preparatory gymnasia, 1 
training college for male teachers, 24 schools for phil- 
osophical, theological, and classical studies, 35 higher 
schools for girls, about 60 charitable institutions, 45 
hou.ses of religious (men) with about 2400 members, 
and 130 convents with 3900 sisters. Among the 
orders and congregations of men in the diocese are: 
Jesuits, the Society of the Divine Word of Steyl, 
Brothers of the Immaculate Conception, Redemptor- 
ists, Marists, Reformed Cistercians, Dominicans, 
Benedictines, Oblates of Mary Immaculate, Brothers 
of Mercy, Poor Brothers of St. Francis, Conventuals, 
Calced Carmelites, Missionaries of Africa, Priests of 
the Sacred Heart of Jesus, Brothers of the Seven 
Sorrows of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Brothers of St. 
Francis, Brothers of St. Joseph, the Society of Mary, 
the Congregation of the Sacred Heart of Jesus, the 
Congregation of the Divine Spirit, and the Congrega- 
tion of Missions. Among the female orders and con- 
gregatioruj are: Benedictines, Brigittines, Ur.sulines, 
oifiters of St. Charles Borromeo, Sisters of Tilburg, 
SiHtcrH of the Child Jesus, Sisters of St. Francis, 
Sii5t/Ts of the Divine Providence, Sisters of Mercy etc. 

llu! Dioc('K<! of Roermond was established in 1559, 
during the reign of Pliilip II, when after long and 
difficult negotiations with the papacy the dioceses of 
the Nftlicrlands were reorganized. By these negotia- 
tions all juri.s<liftion of foreign bishop.s, e. g. that of 
the Archbihhoi* of Cologne, came to an end. In this 
way the Dioces*; of Roermond, the; boundaries of 
which were settled in l.jOl, became a suffragan of 
Mechlin. 'Ilie reorganization of th(? dioceses, how- 
ever, met with violent opposition, partly from bish- 
ops to whotw; territories tlie new diocescw ha<l formerly 
belonged, partly from a numbr-r of abbots whose 
abbevH were incorj)orat/;d in the new bishoprics. 
Much difficulty wa8 also caused by the rapid growth 



of Calvinism in the Netherlands. In Roermond the 
first bishop, Lindanus, who was consecrated in 1563, 
could not enter upon his duties until 1569; notwith- 
standing his zeal and charitableness he was obliged 
to retire on account of the revolutionary movement; 
he died Bishop of Ghent. The ei>iscopal see remained 
vacant until 1591; at later periods also, on account 
of the political turmoils, the see was repeatedly 
vacant. In 1801 the diocese was suppressed; the 
last bishop, Johann Baptist Baron van Velde de 
Melroy, died in 1824. 

When in 1839 the Duchy of Limburg became once 
more a part of the Netherlands, Gregory XVI sepa- 
rated (2 June, 1840) that part of Limburg which had 
been incorporated in the Diocese of Louvain in 1802, 
and added to this territory several new parishes which 
had formerly belonged to the Diocese of Aachen, and 
formed thus the Vicariate Apostolic of Roermond, 
over which the parish priest of Roermond, Johann 
August Paredis, was placed as vicar Apostolic and 
titular Bishop of Hirene. In 1841 a seminar}^ for 
priests was established in the former Carthusian 
monastery of Roermond, where the celebrated 
Dionysius the Carthusian had been a monk. Upon 
the re-establishment of the Dutch hierarchy in 1853 
the Vicariate-Apostolic of Roermond was raised to a 
bishopric and made a suffragan of Utrecht. The first 
bishop of the new diocese was Paredis. In 1858 a 
cathedral chapter was formed; in 1867 a synod was 
held, the first since 1654; in 1876 the administration 
of the church property was transferred, by civil law, 
to the bishop. During the Kulturkmipf in Germany 
a number of ecclesiastical dignitaries driven out of 
Prussia found a hospitable welcome and opportunities 
for further usefulness in the Diocese of Roermond; 
among these churchmen were Melchers of Cologne, 
Brinkmann of Miinster, and Martin of Paderborn. 
Bishop Paredis was succeeded by Franziskus Boreman 
(1886-1900) , on whose death the present bishop, Joseph 
Hubertus Drehmann, was appointed. 

Gallia Christiana, V, 371 sqq.; Neerlandia catholica seu 
provinci(e Ulrajeclensis historia et conditio (Utrecht, 1888), 263- 
335; Albers, Geschiedenis van het herstel der hierarchie in de 
Nederlanden (Nymwegen, 1893-4); Meerdinck, Roermond in 
de Middeleeuwen; Onze Pius Almanak. Jaarboek voorde Katholiken 
van Nederland (Alkmaar, 1910), 338 sqq. 

Joseph Lins. 

Rogation Days, days of prayer, and formerly also 
of fasting, instituted by the Church to appease God's 
anger at man's transgressions, to ask protection in 
calamities, and to obtain a good and bountiful harvest, 
known in England as "Gang Days" and "Cross 
Week", and in Germany as Bittagc, Billivochc, Kreuz- 
woche. The Rogation Days were highly esti^emed in 
England and King Alfred's laws considered a theft 
committed on these days equal to one committed on 
Sunday or a higher Church Holy Day. Their cele- 
bration continued even to the thirteenth year of 
Elizabeth, 1571, when one of the ministers of the 
E-stablished Church inveighed against the Roga- 
tion processions, or Gang Days, of Cross Week. 
The ceremonial may he found in the Council of 
Clovcsho (Thorpe, Ancient Laws, I, 64; Hefele, 
Conciliengeschichte, III, 564). 

The Rogation Days are the 25th of April, called 
Major, and the three days before the feast of the 
Ascension, called Minor. The Major Rogation, 
which has no cf)nn('xion with the feast of St. Mark 
(fixed for this flate much later) seems to be of very 
early date and tf) have been introduced to covmteract 
th(! an(;i(?nt Rohujalia, on which the heathens held 
processions and supplications to their gods. St. 
Gregory the Great (d. 604) regulated the already exist- 
ing custom. The Minor Rogations were introduced 
by St. Mamertus, Bishr)p of Vienne, and were after- 
wards ordered by the Fift h Council of Orleans, which 
was held in 511, and then approved by Leo III (795- 



ROGATISTS 



111 



ROGER 



816). This is asserted by St. Gregory of Tours in 
"Hist. Franc", II, 34, by St. Avitus of Vienne in his 
"Horn, de Rogat." (P. L., LVIII, 563), by Ado of 
Vienne (P. L., CXXIII, 102), and by the Roman 
Martyrology. Sassi, in " Archiepiscopi Mediolanen- 
ses", ascribes their introduction at an earher date to 
St. Lazarus. This is also held by the Bollandist 
Henschen in "Acta SS.", II, Feb., .522. The liturgical 
celebration now consists in the procession and the 
Rogation Ma.ss. For 25 April the Roman Missal 
gives the rubric: "If the feast of St. Mark is trans- 
ferred, the procession is not transferred. In the rare 
case of 25 April being Easter Sunday [1886, 1943], 
the procession is held not on Sunday but on the 
Tuesday following". 

The order to be observed in the procession of the 
Major and Minor Rogation is given in the Roman 
Ritual, title X, ch. iv. After the antiphon "Exurge 
Domine", the Litany of the Saints is chanted and 
each verse and response is said twice. After the verse 
"Sancta Maria" the procession begins to move. If 
necessary, the litany may be repeated, or some of the 
Penitential or Gradual Psalms added. For the Minor 
Rogations the "Ceremoniale Episcoporum", book II, 
ch. xxxii, notes: "Eadem serventur sed aliquid re- 
missius". If the procession is held, the Rogation 
Mass is obligatory, and no notice is taken of whatever 
feast may occur, unless only one Mass is said, for then 
a commemoration is made of the feast. An exception 
is made in favour of the patron or titular of the church, 
of whom the Mass is said with a commemoration of 
the Rogation. The colour used in the procession and 
Mass is violet. The Roman Breviary gives the in- 
struction: "All persons bound to recite the Office, and 
who are not present at the procession, are bound to 
recite the Litany, nor can it be anticipated". 

Rock, The Church of Our Fathers, III (London, 1904), 181; 
Duchesne, Chr. Worship (tr. London, 1904), 288; Binterim, 
DenkxDilrdigkeiten; Amberoer, Pnslorallheologie, II, 834; Van 
DER Steppen, Sacra Liturgiu, IV, 405; Nilles, Kalendarium 
Manuale (Innsbruck, 1897). 

Francis Mershman. 

Rogatists. See Donatists. 

Roger, Bishop of Worcester, d. at Tours, 9 August, 
1179. A younger son of Robert, Earl of Gloucester, 
he was educated with the future king, Henry II, 
afterwards ordained priest, and consecrated Bishop 
of Worcester by St. Thomas of Canterbury, 23 Aug., 
1163. He adhered loyally to St. Thomas, and though 
one of the bisho[)s sent to the pope to carry the king's 
appeal against the archbishop, he took no active 
part in the embass}% nor did he join the appeal made 
by the bishops against the archbishop in 1166, thus 
arousing the enmity of the king. When St. Thomas 
desired Roger to join him in his exile, Roger went 
without leave (1167), Henry having refused him per- 
mission. He boldly reproached the king when they 
met at Falaise in li70, and a reconciliation followed. 
After the martyrdom of St. Thomas, England was 
threatened with an interdict, but Roger interceded 
with the pope and was thereafter highly esteemed in 
England and at Rome. Alexander III, who frequently 
employed him as delegate in ecclesiastical causes, spoke 
of him and Bartholomew, Bishop of Exeter, as "the 
two great lights of the English Church ". 

Materials for the History of Archbishop Becket in R. S. (London, 
1875-85); Gervase of Canterbury, Hist. Works in R. S. (Lon- 
don, 1879-80) ; de Diceto, Opera Hist, in R. S. (London, 1876) ; 
P. L., CXCIX, 365, gives one of his letters to .Alexander III; 
Giles, Life and Letters of Becket (London, 1846); Hope, Life of 
St. Thomas a Becket (London, 1868); Morris, Life of St. Thomas 
Becket (London, 1885); Norgate in Diet. Nat. Biog., s. v. 

Edwin Burton. 

Roger Bacon, philosopher, surnamed Doctor 
MiRABiLis, b. at Ilchester. Somersetshire, about 
1214; d. at Oxford, perhaps 11 June, 1294. His 
wealthy parents sided with Henry III against the 
rebellious barons, but lost nearly all their property. 




It has been presumed that Robert Bacon, O.P., was 
Roger's brother; more probably he was his uncle. 
Roger made his higher studies at Oxford and Paris, 
and was later professor at Ox-ford (Franciscan school). 
He was greatly influenced by his Oxonian masters 
and friends Richard Fitzacre and Edmund Ricli, but 
especially by Robert Grosseteste and Adam Marsh, 
both professors at the Franciscan school, and at Paris 
by the Franciscan Petrus Peregrinus de Maricourt 
(see Schlund in "Archiv. Francisc. Histor.", IV, 1911, 
pp. 436 sqq.). They 
created in him a 
predilection for 
positive sciences, 
languages, and 
physics ; and to 
the 1 a s t - m e n- 
tioned he owed 
his entrance about 
1240(125171257?) 
into the Francis- 
cans, either at 
Oxford or Paris. 
He continued his 
learned work; ill- 
ness, however, 
compelled him to 
give it up for two 
years. When he 
was able to 
recommence his Roger Bacon 

studies, his SU- From an old engraving by Sadeler 

periors imposed other duties on him, and forbade 
him to pubhsh any work out of the order without 
special permission from the higher superiors "under 
pain of losing the book and of fasting several days 
with only bread and water". 

This prohibition has induced modern writers to 
pass severe judgment upon Roger's superiors being 
jealous of Roger's abilities; even serious scholars 
say they can hardly understand how Bacon conceived 
the idea of joining the Franciscan Order. Such 
critics forget that when Bacon entered the order the 
Franciscans numbered many men of ability in no way 
inferior to the most famous scholars of other religious 
orders (see Felder, "Gesch. der wissenschaftlichen 
Studien im Franziskanerorden bis um (he Mitte des 
13. Jahrhunderts", Freiburg, 1904). The prohibi- 
tion enjoined on Bacon was a general one, which ex- 
tended to the whole order; its promulgation was not 
even directed against him, but rather against Gerard 
of Borgo San Donnino^ as Salimbene says expressly 
(see "Chronica Fr. Salimbene Parmensis" in "Mon, 
Germ. Hist.: SS.", XXU, 462, ed. Holder-Egger). 
Gerard had pubhshed in 1254 without permission 
his heretical work, " Introductorius in Evangelium 
seternum"; thereupon the General Chapter of Nar- 
bonne in 1260 promulgated the above-mentioned 
decree, identical with the "constitutio gravis in 
contrarium" Bacon speaks of, as the text shows (see 
the constitution published by Ehrle, S.J., "Die 
altesten Redactionen der Generalconstitutionen des 
Franziskanerordens" in "Archiv fiir Literatur- und 
Kirchengeschichte des Mittelalters", VI, 110; St. 
Bonaventure, "Opera Omnia", Quaracchi, VIII, 456). 

We need not wonder then that Roger's immediate 
superiors put the prohibition into execution, especially 
as Bacon was not always very correct in doctrine; 
and although on the one hand it is wrong to consider 
him as a necromancer and astrologer, an enemy of 
scholastic philosophy, an author full of heresies and 
suspected views, still we cannot deny that some of 
his expressions are imprudent and inaccurate. The 
judgments he passes on other scholars of his day are 
sometimes too hard, so it is not surprising that his 
friends were few. The above-mentioned prohibition 
was rescinded in Roger's favour unexpectedly in 1266. 



ROGER 



112 



ROGER 



Some years before, while still at Oxford, he had made 
the acquaintance of Cardinal Guy le Gros de Foulques, 
whom Urban IV had sent to England to settle the 
disputes between Henr>' III and the barons; others 
believe that the cardinal met Roger at Paris, in 1257 or 
125S (see ''Archiv. Francisc. Histor.", IV, 442). 
After a conference about some current abuses, espe- 
cially about ecclesiastical studies, the cardinal asked 
Roger to present his ideas in writing. Roger delayed 
in doing this; when the cardinal became Clement 
IV and reiterated his desire. Bacon excused himself 
because the prohibition of his superiors stood in the 
way. Then the pope in a letter from Viterbo (22 
June, 1266) commanded him to send his work immedi- 
ately, notwithstanding the prohibition of superiors or 
any' general constitution whatsoever, but to keep the 
commission a secret (see letter published by Martene- 
Durand, "Thesaurus novus anecdotorum", II, Paris, 
1717, 35S, Clement IV, epp. n. 317 a; Wadding, "An- 
nales", ad an. 1266, n. 14, II, 294; IV, 265; Sbaralea, 
"BullariumFranciscanum", III, 89 n. 8f, 22 June, 1266). 
We may suppose that the pope, as Bacon says, from 
the first had wished the matter kept secret; otherwise 
we can hardly understand why Bacon did not get ]ier- 
mission of his superiors; for the prohibition of Nar- 
bonne was not absolute; it only forbade him to pub- 
lish works outside the order "unless they were 
examined thoroughly by the minister general or by 
the provincial together with his definitors in the 
provincial chapter". The removal of the prohibi- 
tive constitution did not at once remove all ob- 
stacles; the secrecy of the matter rather produced 
new embarrassments, as Bacon frankly declares. 
The first impediment was the contrary will of his 
superiors: "as Your Hohness", he writes to the 
pope, "did not write to them to excuse me, and I 
could not make known to them Your secret, because 
You had commanded me to keep the matter a secret, 
they did not let me alone but charged me with other 
labours; but it was impossible for me to obey because 
of Your commandment". Anotlier difficulty was the 
lack of money necessary to obtain parchment and to 
pay copyists. As the superiors knew nothing of his 
commission, Bacon had to devise means to obtain 
money. Accordingly he ingenuously reminded the 
pope of this oversight, "As a monk", he says, "I for 
myself have no money and cannot have; therefore I 
cannot borrow, not having wherewith to return; my 
parents who before were rich, now in the troubles of 
war have run into poverty; others, who were able 
refused to spend money ; so deeply embarrassed, I urged 
my friends and poor people to expend all they had, 
to sell and to pawn their goods, and I could not help 
promising them to write to You and induce Your 
Holiness to fully reimburse the sum spent by them 
(60 pounds)" ("OpusTertium", III, p. 16). 

Finally, Bacon was able to execute the pope's 
desire; in thr- beginning of 1267 he sent by his pupil 
John of Paris (Jy^ndon?) the "Opus Majus", where he 
puts tf»gether in general linfts all his leading idea.s and 
propfwals; the same friend was instructed to pr(!.sent 
to the pope a burning-mirror and several drawings of 
Baw-in appertaining to physics, and to give all ex- 
planatiorLS renuired by His Holiness. The same 
year (12^37) he finished his " Opus Minus ", a recapitula- 
tion of the main thoughts of the "Opus Majus", 
to faeilitaU; the pope's reading or to submit to him an 
epitome of the first work if it should be lost. With 
the sajnc object, and because in the first two works 
some idea.s wf-rf V»ut hastily treated, he was induced 
to cx)mpose a third work, the "Opus Tertium"; in this, 
eentU) the jK»p<! bffore his death (1268), he treats in 
a still more fxteriKiv*- manner tlie wholr- material he 
had spoken of in his preceding works. Unfortunately 
his fnend Clement IV died too mon, without having 
been able to put into pra^;tice the counsels given by 
Bacon. About the rest of Roger's life we are not well 



informed. The " Chronica XXIV Generahum Ordinis 
Minorum" says that "the Minister General Jerome 
of .Vscoli [afterwards Pope Nicholas IV] on the advice 
of many brethren condemned and rejected the doc- 
trine of the English brother Roger Bacon, Doctor of 
Divinity, which contains many suspect innovations, 
by reason of which Roger was imprisoned" (see the 
"Chronica" printed in "Analecta Franciscana", III, 
360). The assertion of modern -^Titers, that Bacon 
was imprisoned fourteen or fifteen years, although he 
had proved his orthodoxy by the work "De nullitate 
magiae", has no foundation in ancient sources. 

Some authors connect the fact of imprisonment re- 
lated in the "Chronica" with the proscription of 
219 theses by Stephen Tempier, Bishop of Paris, 
which took place 7 March, 1277 (Denifle, "Char- 
tularium Universitatis Parisiensis", I, 543, 560). 
Indeed it was not verj^ difficult to find some "sus- 
pect innovation" in Bacon's writings, especially with 
regard to the physical sciences. As F. Mandonnet, 
O.P., proves, one of his incriminated books or pam- 
phlets was his "Speculum Astronomiaj", written in 
1277, hitherto falsely ascribed to Blessed Albert the 
Great [Ojiera Omnia, ed. Vives, Paris, X, 629 sq.; 
cf. Mandonnet, "Roger Bacon et le Speculum 
Astronomiiae (1277)" in "Revue Neo-Scholastique", 
XVII, Louvain, 1910, 313-35]. Such and other 
questions are not yet ripe for judgment; but it is to 
be hoped that the newly awakened interest in 
Baconian studies and investigations will clear up 
more and more what is still obscure in Roger's life. 

The writings attributed to Bacon by some authors 
amount to about eighty; many (e. g. "Epistola de 
magnete", composed by Petrus Peregrinus de Mari- 
court) are spurious, while many are only treatises 
republished separately under new titles. Other 
writings or parts of writings certainly composed by 
him were put in circulation under the name of other 
scholars, and his claim to their authorship can be 
established only from internal reasons of style and 
doctrine. Other treatises still lie in the dust of the 
great European libraries, especially of England, 
France, and Italy. Much remains to be done before 
we can expect an edition of the "Opera Omnia" of 
Roger Bacon. For the present the following state- 
ments may suffice. Before Bacon entered the order 
he had written many essays and treatises on the sub- 
jects he taught in the school, for his pupils only, or 
for friends who had requested him to do so, as he con- 
fes.ses in his letter of dedication of the "Opus Majus" 
sent to the pope: "Multa in alio statu conscripseram 
propter juvenum rudimenta" (the letter was dis- 
covered in the Vatican Library by Abbot Gasquet, 
O.S.B., and first published by him in the "English 
Historical Review", 1897, under the title "An un- 
published fragment of a work by Roger Bacon", 494 
sq.; for the words above cited, see p. 500). To this 
period seem to belong some commentaries on the 
writings of Aristotle and jxThaps th(^ little treatise 
"De mirabili potestate art is el nalune et de nullitate 
magia;" (Pans, 1.542; O.xford, lt)()4; London, 1S,59). 
The same work was printed under tlie litlc "Epistola 
de secretis operihus art is et iiaturu'" (llaniburg, 1608, 
1618). After joining tlic order, or more exact Ij' from 
about the years 1256-57, hi; did not compose works 
of any great importance and extent, but only occa- 
sional essays reouested by friends, as he says in the 
above-mentioned letter, "now about this science, now 
about another one", and only more Iransitorio (see 
"Eng. Hist. Rev.", 1897, .500). In the earlier part 
of his life he probably composed also "De termino 
pascali" (see letter of Clement IV in "Bull. Franc", 
III, 89); for it is cited in another work, "Computus 
naturalium", jissigned to 1263 by Charles ("Roger 
Bacx)n.Savie,etc.", Paris, 1861, p. 78; cf. pp.334Bqq.). 

TTie most important of all his writmgs are the 
"Opus Majus", the "Opus Minus", and the "Ter- 



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tium". The "Opus Majus" deals in seven parts 
with (1) the obstacles to real wisdom and truth, viz. 
errors and their sources; (2) the relation between 
theology and philosophy, taken in its widest sense 
as comprising all sciences not strictly philosophical: 
here he proves that all sciences are founded on the 
sacred sciences, especially on Holy Scripture; (3) 
the necessity of studying zealously the Biblical 
languages, as without them it is impossible to bring 
out the treasure hidden in Holy Writ; (4) mathemat- 
ics and their relation and application to the sacred 
sciences, particularly Holy Scripture; here he seizes 
an opportunity to speak of Biblical geography and 
of astronomy (if these parts really belong to the 
"Opus Majus"); (5) optics or perspective; (6) the 
experimental sciences; (7) moral philosophy or 
ethics. The " Opus Majus " was first edited by Samuel 
Jebb, London, 1733, afterwards at Venice, 1750, 
by the Franciscan Fathers. As both editions were 
incomplete, it was edited recently by J. H. Bridges, 
Oxford, 1900 ("The 'Opus Majus' of Roger Bacon, 
edited with introduction and analytical table, " in 2 
vols.); the first three parts of it were republished 
the same year by this author in a supplementary 
volume, containing a more correct and revised text. 
It is to be regretted that this edition is not so critical 
and accurate as it might have been. As already 
noted. Bacon's letter of dedication to the pope was 
found and published first by Dom Gasquet; indeed 
the dedication and introduction is wanting in the 
hitherto extant editions of the "Opus Majus", where- 
as the "Opus Minus" and "Opus Tertium" are ac- 
companied with a i)r('face by Bacon (see "Acta Ord. 
Min.", Quaracchi, 1S98, where the letter is reprinted). 
Of the "Opus Miinis", the relation of which to the 
"Opus Majus" has been mentioned, much has been 
lost. Originally it had nine parts, one of which must 
have been a treat ise on alchemy, both speculative 
and practical: there was another entitled "The seven 
sins in the study of theology". All fragments hith- 
erto found have l)een jiublished by J. S. Brewer, "P>. 
R. Bacon opp. qua;dam hactenus inedita", vol. I 
(the only one) containing: (1) "Opus Tertium"; 
(2) "Opus Minus"; (3) "Compendium Philos." 
The appendix adds "De secretis arlis et natura; 
operibus et de nuUitate magiie", London, 1859 
(Rerum Britann. med. a^v. Script.). The aim of the 
"Opus Tertium" is clearly pointed out by Bacon 
himself: "As these reasons [profoundness of truth and 
its difficulty] have induced me to compose the Second 
Writing as a complement facilitating the understand- 
ing of the First Work, so on account of them I have 
written this Third Work to give understanding and 
completeness to both works; for many things are here 
added for the sake of wisdom which are not found in 
the other writings ("Opus Tertium", I, ed. Brewer, 
6). Consequently this work must be considered, in 
the author's own (jpinion, as the mo.st perfect of all the 
compositions sent to the pope; therefore it is a real 
misfortune that half of it is lost. The parts we 
possess contain many autobiographical items. All 
parts known in 1859 were published by Brewer (see 
above). One fragment dealing with natural sciences 
and moral philosophy has been edited for the first 
time by Duhem ("Un fragment inedit de I'Opus Ter- 
tium de Roger Bacon pr6c6de d'une etude sur ce frag- 
ment", Quaracchi, 1909); another (Quarta pars com- 
munium naturalis philos.) by Hover (Commer's 
"Jahrb. fiir Philos. u. speculative Theol.", XXV, 1911, 
pp. 277-320). Bacon often speaks of his "Scriptum 
principale". Was this a work quite different from 
the others we know? In many texts the expression 
only means the "Opus Majus", as becomes evident 
by its antithesis to the "Opus Minus" and "Opus 
Tertium ". But there are some other sentences where 
the expression seems to denote a work quite different 
from the three just mentioned, viz. one which Bacon 
X111.—S 



had the intention of writing and for which these works 
as well as his prceambula were only the preparation. 

If we may conclude from some of his expressions 
we can reconstruct the plan of this grand encyclo- 
paedia: it was conceived as comprising four volumes, 
the first of which was to deal with grammar (of the 
several languages he speaks of) and logic; the second 
with mathematics (arithmetic and geometry), astron- 
omy, and music; the third with natural sciences, per- 
spective, astrology, the laws of gravity, alchemy, agri- 
culture, medicine, and the experimental sciences; the 
fourth with metaphysics and moral philosophy (see 
Delorme in "Diet, de Theol.", s. v. Bacon, Roger; 
Brewer, pp. 1 sq.; Charles, 370 sq., and particularly 
Bridges, I, xliii sq.). It is even possible that some 
treatises, the connexion of which with the three works 
("Opus Majus", "Opus Minus", "Opus Tertium") 
or others is not evident, were parts of the "Scriptum 
principale"; see Bridges, II, 405 sq., to which is added 
"Tractatus Fr. Rogeri Bacon de multiplicatione 
specierum", which seems to have belonged originally 
to a work of greater extent. Here may be mentioned 
some writings hitherto unknown, now for the first 
time published by Robert Steele: "Opera hactenus 
inedita Rogeri Baconi. Fasc. I: Metaphysica Fratris 
Rogeri ordinis fratrum minorum. De viciis con- 
tractis in studio theologiae, omnia quse supersunt nunc 
primum edidit R.St.", London, 1905; Fasc. II: Liber 
primus communium naturalium Fratris Rogeri, partes 
1 et II", Oxford, 1909. Another writing of Bacon, 
"Compendium studii philosophise", was composed 
during the pontificate of Gregory X who succeeded 
Clement IV (1271-76), as Bacon speaks of this last- 
named pope as the "predecessor istius Papae" 
(chap. iii). It has been published, as far as it is 
extant, by Brewer in the above-mentioned work. 
He repeats there the ideas already touched upon in 
his former works, as for instance the causes of human 
ignorance, necessity of learning foreign languages, 
especially Hebrew, Arabic, and Greek; as a specimen 
are given the elements of Greek grammar. 

About the same time (1277) Bacon wrote the 
fatal "Speculum Astronomiaj" mentioned above. 
And two years before his death he composed his 
"compendium studii theologise" (in our days pub- 
lished for the first time in "British Society of Francis- 
can Studies", III, Aberdeen, 1911), where he set forth 
as in a last scientific confession of faith the ideas and 
principles which had animated him during his long 
life; he had nothing to revoke, nothing to change. 
Other works and pamphlets cannot be attributed 
with certainty to any definite period of his life. To 
this category belong the "Epistola de laude Scrip- 
turarum", published in part by Henry Wharton 
in the appendix (auctarium) of "Jacobi Usserii 
Armachani Historia Dogmatica de Scripturis et 
sacris vernaculis" (London, 1689), 420 sq. In ad- 
dition there is both a Greek and a Hebrew grammar, 
the last of which is known only in some fragments: 
' ' The Greek grammar of Roger Bacon and a fragment 
of his Hebrew Grammar, edited from the MSS., 
with introduction and notes", Cambridge, 1902. 
Some specimens of the Greek Grammar, as preserved 
in a MS. of Corpus Christi College, Oxford, had been 
published two years before by J. L. Heiberg in "By- 
zantinische Zeitschrift", IX, 1900, 479-91. The 
above-mentioned edition of the two grammars cannot 
be considered very critical (see the severe criticism 
by Heiberg, ibid., XII, 1903, 343-47). Here we may 
add Bacon's "Speculum Alchemic", Nuremberg, 
1614 (Libellus do alchimia cui titulus : Spec. Al- 
chem.); it was translated into French by Jacques 
Girard de Tournus, under the title "Miroir d'alqui- 
mie", Lyons, 1557. Some treatises dealing with 
chemistry were printed in 1620 together in one volume 
containing: (1) "Breve Breviarium de dono Dei"; 
(2) "Verbum abbreviatum de Leone viridi"; (3) 



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114 



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"Secretum secret orum naturae de laude lapidis philo- 
sophorum"; (4) "Tractatus trium verborum"; (5) 
"Alchimia major". But it is possible that some of 
these and several other treatises attributed to Bacon 
are parts of works ab-eady mentioned, as are essays "De 
situ orbis", "De regionibus mundi", "De situ Palaes- 
tinae". "De locis sacris", " Descriptiones locorum 
mundi", "Summa gramma ticalis" (see Golubovich, 
"Bibliotecabio-bibliografica della Terra Santa e dell' 
Oriente Francescano", Quaracchi, 1906, I, 268 sq.). 

If we now examine Bacon's scientific systems and 
leading principles, his aims and his hobby, so to say, 
we find that the burden not only of the writings sent 
to the pope, but also of all his writings was: ecclesias- 
tical study must be reformed. All his ideas and prin- 
ciples must be considered in the light of this thesis. 
He openlv exiwsos the "sins" of his time in the study 
of theology, which are seven, as he had proved, in the 
"Opus Majus". Though this part has been lost, 
we can reconstruct his arrangement with the aid of 
the "Opus Minus" and "Opus Tertium". The first 
sin is the preponderance of (speculative) philosophy. 
Theology is a Divine science, hence it must be based 
on Divine principles and treat questions touching 
Divinity, and not exhaust itself in philosophical 
cavils and distinctions. The second sin is ignorance 
of the sciences most suitable and necessary to theo- 
logians; they study only Latin grammar, logic, nat- 
ural philosophy (very superficially!) and a part of 
metaphj'sics : four sciences very unimportant, scientifs 
viles. Other sciences more necessary, foreign (Orien- 
tal) languages, mathematics, alchemy, chemistry, 
physics, experimental sciences, and moral philosophy, 
they neglect. A third sin is the defective knowledge 
of even the four sciences which they cultivate: their 
ideas are full of errors and misconceptions, because 
they have no means to get at the real understanding 
of the authors from whom they draw all their 
knowledge, since their writings abound in Greek, 
Hebrew, and Arabic expressions. Even the greatest 
and most highly-esteemed theologians show in their 
works to what an extent the evil has spread. 

Another sin is the preference for the "Liber Sen- 
tentiarum" and the disregard of other theological 
matters, especially Holy Scriptures; he complains: 
"The one who explains the 'Book of the Sentences' 
is honoured by all, whereas the lector of Holy Scrip- 
ture is neglected ; for to the expounder of the Sentences 
there is granted a commodious hour for lecturing at 
hLs own will, and if he belongs to an order, a compan- 
ion and a special room; whilst the lector of Holy 
Scripture Ls denied all this and must beg the hour 
for his lecture to be given at the pleasure of the ex- 
pounder of the Sentences. Elsewhere the lector of 
the Sentences holds disputations and is called master, 
whereas the lector of the [Biblical) test is not allowed 
to di.spute" ("Opus Minus", ed. Brewer, .328 sq.). 
Such a method, he cont inues, is inexplicable and very 
injurious to the Sacred Text which contains the word 
of Owl, and the exposition of which wovild offer 
many occa.sions to speak about matters now treated 
in the s<'veral "Summa? Sententiarum". Still more 
dlsa-strouH is the fifth sin: the text of Holy Writ is 
horribly corrupt/ed, especially in the "exemplar 
Parifliense". that is to say in the Biblical text used at 
the University of Paris and spread bv its students over 
the whole world. Confusion has been increased by 
many scholars or religiovis orders, who in their en- 
deavours to correct the Sacred Text, in default of a 
sound methofl, have in reality only augmented the 
fliyergences; as every one presumes to ch;ing(; any- 
thing "he doTM not understand, a thinj^ he would 
not dare to do with the books of the cla.ssical poets", 
the world is full of "correctors or rather corniptors". 
Tlie worst of all sins is the consequence of the fore- 
going: the falsity or doubt fiilness of the literal sense 
(aemm liUeraiits) and consequently of the spiritual 



meaning (sensus spiritualis) ; for when the literal 
sense is wrong, the spiritual sense cannot be right, 
since it is necessarily based upon the literal sense. 
The reasons of this false exposition are the corruption 
of the sacred text and ignorance of the Biblical lan- 
guages. For how can they get the real meaning of 
Holy Writ without this knowledge, as the Latin ver- 
sions are full of Greek and Hebrew idioms? 

The seventh sin is the radically false method of 
preaching: instead of breaking to the faithful the 
Bread of Life by expounding the commandments of 
God and inculcating their duties, the preachers con- 
tent themselves with divisions of the arbor Por- 
phyriana, with the jingle of words and quibbles. 
They are even ignorant of the rules of eloquence, and 
often prelates who during their course of study were 
not instructed in preaching, when obliged to speak 
in church, beg the copy-books of the younger men, 
which are full of bomb.ast and ridiculous divisions, 
serving only to "stimulate the hearers to all curiosity 
of mind, but do not elevate the affection towards 
good" ("Opus Tertium", Brewer, 309 sq.). Ex- 
ceptions are very few, as for instance Friar Bertholdus 
Alemannus (Ratisbon) who alone has more effect 
than all the friars of both orders combined (Friars 
Minor and Preachers). Eloquence ought to be ac- 
companied by science, and science by eloquence; 
for "science without eloquence is like a sharp sword in 
the hands of a paralytic, whilst eloquence without 
science is a sharp sword in the hands of a furious 
man" ("Sapientia sine eloquentia est quasi gladius 
acutus in manu paralytici, sicut eloquentia expers 
sapientiae est quasi gladius acutus in manu furiosi"; 
"Opus Tertium", I, Brewer, 4). But far from being 
an idle fault-finder who only demolished without 
being able to build up, Bacon makes proposals ex- 
tremely fit and efficacious, the only failure of which 
was that they never were put into general practice, 
by reason of the premature death of the pope. Bacon 
himself and his pupils, such as .John of Paris, whom he 
praises highly, William of Mara, Gerard Huy, and 
others are a striking argument that his proposals 
were no Utopian fancies; they showed m their own 
persons what in their idea a theologian should be. 
First of all, if one wishes to get wisdom, he must take 
care not to fall into the four errors which usually pre- 
vent even learned men from attaining the summit of 
wisdom, viz. "the example of weak and unreliable 
authority, continuance of custom, regard to the 
opinion of the unlearned, and concealing one's own 
ignorance, together with the exhibition of apparent 
wisdom" ("Fragilis et indignai autoritatis exemplum. 
consuetudinis diuturnitas. vulgi sensus imperiti, et 
propria} ignorantiaj occultatio cum ostentatione sap- 
penti;B apparentis"; "Opus Majus", L Bridges, 1,2). 

Thus having eliminated "the four general causes of 
all human ignorance", one must be convinced that 
all science h.as its source in revelation both oral and 
written. Holy Scripture espr-cially is .•in inexhaiist- 
ible fountain of truth from which all human phi- 
losophers, even the heathen, drew their knowledge, 
immediately or mediately; therefore no science, 
whether profane or sacred, can be true if contrary to 
Holy Writ (see "English Hist. Rev.", 1897, 508 'sq.; 
"Opus Tertium", XXIV, Brewer, 87 sq.). This con- 
viction having taken root , we must consider the means 
of attaining to wisdom. Among those which lead 
to the summit are to be mentioned in the first place 
the languages, Latin, Greek, Hebrew, and Arabic. 
Latin does not suffice;, as there are many useful works 
written in other langu.agcH and not yet tran.slat(Hi, 
or badly translated, into Latin. Even in the best 
versions of scientific works, as for instance of Greek 
and Arabic philosophers, or of the Scrii)tures, as also 
in the Liturgy, there .are still some foreign expressions 
retained purposely or by necessity, it being impossible 
to express in Latin all nuances of foreign texts. It 



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115 



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would be very interesting to review all the other rea- 
sons adduced by Bacon proving the advantage or 
even necessity of foreign languages for ecclesiastical, 
social, and political purposes, or to follow his in- 
vestigations into the physiological conditions of 
language or into what might have been the original 
one spoken by man. He distinguishes three degrees 
of linguistic knowledge; theologians are not obliged to 
reach the second degree, which would enable them to 
translate a foreign text into their own language, or 
the third one which is still more difficult of attain- 
ment and which would enable them to speak this 
language as their own. Nevertheless the difficulties 
of reaching even the highest degree are not as in- 
surmountable as is commonly supposed; it depends 
only on the method followed by the master, and 
as there are very few scholars who follow a sound 
method, it is not to be wondered at that perfect knowl- 
edge of foreign languages is so rarely found among 
theologians (see "Opus Tertium", XX, Brewer, 64 
eq.; "Compendium Studii phil.", VI, Brewer, 433 
sq.). On this point, and in general of Roger's atti- 
tude towards Biblical studies, see the present author's 
article "De Fr. Roger Bacon ejusque sententia de 
rebus biblicis" in "Archivum Franciscanum His- 
toricum". III, Quaracchi, 1910, 3-22; 185-213. 

Besides the languages there are other means, e. g. 
mathematics, optics, the experimental sciences, and 
moral philosophy, the study of which is absolutely 
necessary for every priest, as Bacon shows at length. 
He takes spe(;ial pains in applying these sciences to 
Holy Scripture and the dogmas of faith. These are 
pages so wonderful and evincing by their train of 
thought and the drawings inserted here and there such 
a knowledge of the subject matter, that we can easily 
understand modern scholars saj'ing that Bacon was 
born out of due time, or, with regard to the asserted 
imprisonment, that he belonged to that class of men 
who were crushed by the wheel of their time as they 
endeavoured to set it going more quickly. It is in 
these treatises (and other works of the same kind) that 
Bacon speaks of the reflection of hght, mirages, and 
burning-mirrors, of the diameters of the celestial 
bodies and their distances from one another, of their 
conjunction and eclipses; that he explains the laws of 
ebb and flow, proves the Julian Calendar to be wrong; 
he explains the composition and effects of gunpowder, 
discusses and affirms the po.ssibility of steam-vessels 
and aerostats, of microscopes and telescopes, and some 
other inventions made many centuries later. Subse- 
quent ages have done him more justice in recognizing 
his merits in the field of natural science. John Dee, 
for instance, who addressed (1.582) a memorial on the 
reformation of the calendar to Queen Elizabeth, speak- 
ing of those who had advocated this change, says: 
"None hath done it more earnestly, neither with bet- 
ter reason and skill, than hath a subject of this British 
Sceptre Royal done, named as some think David Dee 
of Radik, but otherwise and most commonly (upon 
his name altered at the alteration of state into friarly 
profession) called Roger Bacon: who at large wrote 
thereof divers treatises and discourses to Pope Clem- 
ent the Fifth [sic] about the year of our Lord, 1267. 
To whom he wrote and sent also great volumes ex- 
quisitely compiled of all sciences and singularities, 
philosophical and mathematical, as they might be 
available to the state of Christ his Catholic Church". 
Dee then remarks that Paul of Middleburg, in " Pauhna 
de recta Paschae celebratione", had made great use 
of Bacon's work: "His great volume is more than half 
thereof written (though not acknowledged) by such 
order and method generally and particularly as our 
Roger Bacon laid out for the handUng of the matter" 
(cited by Bridges, "Opus Majus", I, p. xxxiv). 

Longer time was needed before Bacon's merits in 
the field of theological and philosophical sciences were 
acknowledged. Nowadays it is impossible to speak 



or write about the methods and course of lectures in 
ecclesiastical schools of the Middle Ages, or on the 
efforts of revision and correction of the Latin Bible 
made before the Council of Trent, or on the study of 
Oriental languages urged by some scholars before the 
Council of Vienne, without referring to the efforts 
made by Bacon. In our own day, more thoroughly 
than at the Council of Trent, measures are taken in 
accordance with Bacon's demand that the further cor- 
ruption of the Latin text of Holy Scripture .should be 
prevented by the pope's authority, and that the most 
scientific method should be applied to the restoration 
of St. Jerome's version of the Vulgate. Much may 
be accomplished even now by applying Bacon's prin- 
ciples, viz.: (1) unity of action under authority; (2) a 
thorough consultation of the most ancient manu- 
scripts; (3) the study of Hebrew and Greek to help 
where the best Latin manuscripts left room for doubt; 
(4) a thorough knowledge of Latin grammar and con- 
struction; (5) great care in distinguishing between St. 
Jerome's readings and those of the more ancient ver- 
sion (see "Opus Tertium", XXV, Brewer, 93 sq.; 
Gasquet, "English Biblical Criticism in the Thirteenth 
Century" in "The Dublin Review", CXX, 1898, 15). 
But there are still some prejudices among learned men, 
especially with regard to Bacon's orthodoxy and his 
attitude towards Scholastic philosophy. It is true 
that he speaks in terms not very flattering of the 
Scholastics, and even of their leaders. His style is 
not the ordinary Scholastic style proceeding by in- 
ductions and syllogisms in the strictest form; he 
speaks and writes fluently, clearly expressing his 
thoughts as a modern scholar treating the same sub- 
jects might write. But no one who studies his works 
can deny that Bacon was thoroughly trained in Scho- 
lastic philosophy. Like the other Scholastics, he 
esteems Aristotle highlj^ while blaming the defective 
Latin versions of his works and some of his views on 
natural philosophy. Bacon is famihar with the sub- 
jects under discussion, and it may be of interest to 
note that in many cases he agrees with Duns Scotus 
against other Scholastics, particularly regarding matter 
and form and the intcllectus agens which he proves not 
to be distinct substantially from the inleUectus possibilis 
("Opus Majus", II, V; "Opus Tertium", XXIII). 

It would be difficult to find any other scholar who 
shows such a profound knowledge of the Arabic phi- 
losophers as Bacon does. Here appears the aim of 
his philosophical works, to make Christian philosophy 
acquainted with the Arabic philosophers. He is an 
enemy only of the extravagances of Scholasticism, the 
subtleties and fruitless quarrels, to the neglect of 
matters much more useful or necessary and the exalta- 
tion of philosophy over theology. Far from being 
hostile to true philosophy, he bestows a lavish praise 
on it. None could delineate more clearly and con- 
vincingly than he, what ought to be the relation be- 
tween theology and philosophy, what profit they 
yield and what services they render to each other, 
how true philosophy is the best apology of Christian 
faith (see especially "Opus Majus", II and VII; 
"Compend. studii philos."). Bacon is sometimes 
not very correct in his expressions; there may even 
be some ideas that are dangerous or open to suspicion 
(e. g. his conviction that a real influence upon the 
human mind and liberty and on human fate is exerted 
by the celestial bodies etc.). But there is no real 
error in matters of faith, and Bacon repeatedly asks 
the reader not to confound his physics with divina- 
tion, his chemistry with alchemy, his astronomy with 
astrology; and certainly he submitted with all wilUng- 
ness his writings to the judgment of the Church. It 
is mo\'ing to note the reverence he displayed for the 
pope. Likewise he shows always the highest venera- 
tion towards the Fathers of the Church; and whilst 
his criticism often becomes violent when he blames 
the most eminent of his contemporaries, he never 



ROGER 



IIG 



ROGER 



speaks or writes any word of disregard of the Fathers 
or ancient Doctors of the Church, even when not ap- 

E roving their opinion; he esteemed them highly and 
ad acquired such a knowledge of their writings that 
he was no wav surpassed by any of his great rivals. 
Bacon was a faithful scholar of open character who 
frankly uttered what he thought, who was not afraid 
to blame what6oe\er and whomsoever he believed to 
deserve censure, a scholar who was in advance of 
his age by centuries. His iron will surmounted all 
difficulties and enabled him to acquire a knowledge 
so far surpassing the average science of his age, that 
he must be reckoned among the most eminent scholars 
of all times. 

Of the vast Baconian bibliography we can mention only the 
most important books and articles in so far as we h.ave made use 
of them. Besides those already cited we must mention: Bal.eus, 
Script, illustr. maioris Brytann. Catalogus (Basle, 1577); Anecdota 
Oion. Index BriUinnicce SS. quos . . . collegtt Joan. Balctus, 
ed. Poole and Batesox (Oxford, 1902—); Wood, Hist, et antiq. 
Unirers. Oxon., I (Oxford, 1674); Idem, Athena: Oxon. (London, 
1721), new ed. bv Buss (4 vols., London, 1813-20); Wharton, 
Anglia sacra (London, 1691); Hody, De Bibliorum text, original., 
versionibus grac. et latina Vulgata, III (Oxford, 1705) ; Lelandus, 
Comment, de Scriptor. Britannicis, ed. Hall (Oxford, 1709); 
Ocdin, Comment, de Script. Ecclesirs antiq., 1 (Frankfort, 1722), 
II-III (Leipzig, 1722); Wadding-Fgnseca, Aniiales Ord. Mm., 
IV-V; Wadding, Scriptores 0. M. (Rome, 1650, 1806, 1906); 
Tanner, Bibl. Britann.-Hibem. (London, 1748); Sbaralea, 
Supplement, ad SS. O. M. (Rome, 1806) ; Berger, De Vhist. de 
la Vulgate en France (Paris, 1887); Idem, Quam notitiam lingua 
hebr. habuerunt christiani med. wvi (Paris, 1893); cf. the criticism 
of this book by Soury in Bibl. de I'Ecole des Charles, LIV (1893), 
733-38; Denifle, Die Handschr. der Bibel-Corrcctor. des 13. 
Jahrh. in Archiv f. Lit.- u. Kirchengesch. des Mittelalters, IV, 
263 sqq., 471 sqq.; Doring, Die hciden Bacon in Archiv f. Gesch. 
d. Philos., XVII (1904), 3 sqq.; Feret, Les emprisonnements de 
R. Bacon in Revue des quest, histor., L (1891), 119-42; Idem, La 
facuUe de theol. de Paris (4 vols., Paris, 1894-96); Flugel, ft. 
Bacons Stellung in d. Gesch. d. Philologie in Philos. Studien, XIX 
(1902), 164 sqq.; Heitz, Essai histor. sur les rapports entre la 
philos. et la foi, de Berenger de Tours d St. Thomas (Paris, 1909), 
117 sqq.; HiRscn, Early English Hebraists: ft. Bacon and his Pre- 
decessors in The Jewish Quarterly Review (Oct., 1890), reprinted 
in Idem, A Book of Essays (London, 1905), 1-72; Hist, de la 
France, XX (Paris, 1842), 227 sqq.; Hoffmans, La synthcse 
doctrinale de ft. B. in Archiv f. Gesch. d. Philos. (Berne, 1907) ; 
Idem, L'intuition mystique de la science in Revue Nio-Scholastique 
(1909), 370 sqq. (cf. 1906, 371 sqq.; 1908, 474 sqq.; 1909, 33 sqq.) ; 
Jarrett, a Thirteenth-Century Revision Committee of the Bible in 
Irish Theological Quarterly, IV (Maynooth, 1910), 56 sqq.; 
Jourdain, Discussion de quelques points de la biogr. de ft. B. in 
Comptes rendus Acad. Inscr. el BeUes-Lettres, I (1873), 309 sqq.; 
Krembs, ft. B.'s Optik in Natur u. Offenbarung (1900); Langen, 
R. Bacon in Histor. ZeUschr., LI (1883), 434-50; Martin, La 
Vulgate laline au XIII' siecle d'apres ft. B. (Paris, 1888) ; Mon. 
Germ. Hist.: SS., XXVIII, 569 sqq.; Narbey, Le moine R. B. el 
le mouvement scienlifique au XIII' siecle in Revue des quest, histor., 
XXXV (1894), 115 sqq.; Parrot, ft. B., sa personne, son genie, 
etc. (Paris, 1894); Pesch, De inspiratione S. Scripturoe (Freiburg, 
1906), 163 sq.; Picavet, Les Editions de ft. B. in Journal des 
SavarUH (1905), .362-69; Idem, Deux directions de la thiol, et de 
Vezeykse au X III' tiicle. Thomas et Bacon in Revue de I'hist. des 
religions (1905), 172, or printed separately (Paris, 1905); Pohl, 
Das VerhtiUnis der Philos. zur Theql. hei ft. B. (Neustrelitz, 1893) ; 
Saibset, ft. B., sa rie et eon aeuvre in Revue des deux mondes, XXXIV 
(1861), .361-9i; Idem, Pricurseurs el disciples de Descartes (Paris, 
1862) ; Salembier, Une page inedite de I'hist. de la Vulgate (Amiens, 
1890); BcHNEiDEK, ft. B., eine Monographie als Beitrag zur Gesch. 
der Philos. des 13. Jahrh. aus den Quellen (Augsburg, 1873); 
SlEBERT, ft. B., sein Leben u. seine Philos. (Marburg, 1861); 
Stahhahn, Das opus maius des ft. B. nach seinem Inhalt u. seiner 
Bedeutung f. d. WiHScnschtift betrachlel in Kirchl. MoruUsschr., 
XII (1H93J, 276-86; Strunz, Gesch. der Naturwissenschaften im 
MiUelaUer fStutt(jart, 1910), 9.3-99; Ubald, Franciscan England 
in the Past in Franciscan Annals, XXXIII (1908), 369-71; 
XXXIV fMKW), 11-14; Valdarnini, Esperienza e ragionamento 
in ft. B. (Rome, 1896); Vercello.ne, Disserlazioni accademiche 
di vario argumrrUo (Rome, 1864); VooL, Die Physik ft. B.'s 
(Erlangen, 1906;; Werner, Kosmologie u. allgem. Naturlehre 
ft. B.'s Psychol., Erkenntniss- u. Wissenschaftslehre des ft. B. in 
SUzungnber. der k. k. Aka>l. d. W.. XCIII (Vienna), 467-576; 
XCIV. 489-fJ12; Witheford. Bacon as an Interpreter of Holy 
ScrifAure in Expositor (1897), .349-fiO; Wulf (de). Hist, de la 
philoi. miditvale (2nd ed., \A>\xvB.\n, 1905), 419-27. 

Theophilds Witzel. 

Roger Cadwallador, Ve.nerable, English mar- 
tyr, b. at Stretton lSugwa.s, near Ilerefonl, in 1508; 
executed at Iy<'orriiri.ster, 27 Aug., 1010. He was or- 
dained Kubdea<;on at lleirn.s, 21 Sept., 1591, and 
deacfjn the following February, and in Aug., 1.502, was 
wrnt to the P^nglish 0)llege at Valladolid, where he 
waa ordained priest. Returning to England in 1594, 
he laboured in HercfordHhire with good success espe- 



cially among the poor for about sixteen years. Search 
was made for him in June, 1605, but it was not till 
Easter, 1610, that he was arrested at the house of 
Mrs. Winefride Scroope, widow, within eight miles of 
Hereford. He was then brought before the Bishop, 
Dr. Robert Bennet, who committed him to Hereford 
gaol where he was loaded with irons night and day. 
On being transferred to Leominster gaol he was obliged 
to walk all the way in shackles, though a boy was per- 
mitted to go by his side and bear up by a string the 
weight of some iron links which were wired to the 
shackles. On his arrival he was treated with the 
greatest inhumanity by his gaoler. He was con- 
demned, merely for being a priest, some months before 
he suffered. A very full account of his sufferings in 
prison and of his martyrdom is given by Challoner. 
He hung very long, suffering great pain, owing to the 
unskilfulness of the hangman, and was eventually 
cut down and butchered alive. Pits praises his great 
knowledge of Greek, from which he translated Theo- 
doret's "Philotheus, or the lives of the Fathers of the 
Syrian deserts"; but it does not appear when or where 
this translation was published. 

Challoner, Missionary Priests, II, no. 147; Bibl. Diet. Eng. 
Cath., I, 369; Cooper in Diet. Nat. Biogr., s. v. Cadwalladob, 
Roger; Calendar State Papers, Dom., 1G03~10 (London, 1857), 
224, 225, 601. JqhN B. WaINEWRIGHT. 

Roger James, Blessed. See Richard Whiting, 
Blessed. 

Roger of Hoveden, chronicler, was probably a 
native of Hoveden, or, as it is now called, Howden, in 
Yorkshire. From the fact that his chronicle ends 
rather abruptly in 1201 it is inferred that he must 
have died or been stricken with some mortal disease 
in that year. He was certainly a man of importance 
in his day. He was a king's clerk {clericus regis) 
in the time of Henry H, and seems to have been at- 
tached to the court as early as 1173, while he was also 
despatched on confidential missions, as for example 
to the chiefs of Galloway in 1174. In 1189 he served 
as an itinerant justice in the north, but he probably 
retired from public life after the death of Henry 11, 
and it has been suggested that he became parish 
priest of his native village, Howden, devoting the 
rest of his life to the compilation of his chronicle. 
Like most other historical writings of that date the 
earlier portion of his work is little more than a tran- 
script of some one narrative to which he had more 
convenient access or which he considered specially 
worthy of (lonfidence. His authority from 732 down 
to 1154 was an abstract, still extant in manuscript, 
"Historia Saxonum vel Anglorum post obitum 
Beda)". From 1154 to 1192 he uses his authorities 
much more freely, basing his narrative upon the well- 
known "Gesta llcnrici", commonly attributed to 
Benedict of Peterborough. But from 1192 to 1201 
his work is all his own, and of th(i highc^st value. 
Hoveden had a great appreciation of the importance 
of documentary evidence, and we should be very ill 
informed regarding the political history of the last 
quarter of the twelfth century if it were not for the 
state papers, etc., which Hov(;(l(!n inserts and of which, 
no doubt, his earlier connexion with the chancery 
and its officials enabled him to obtain copies. 

As a (chronicler, he was impartial and accurate. 
His profoundly religious character made him some- 
what cre<lulous, but there is no reason, as even his 
editor, Bishop Stwbbs, admits, to regard him on that 
account as an untrustworthy authority. 

The one reliable edition of ifoveden is that prepared by 
Htitiius for the Rolls Siries in four vols., 186H-71. A full account 
of Hoveden and his works is given in the preface to these vols. 

Hekbekt Thurston. 

Roger of Wendover, a Benedictine monk, date of 
birth unknown; d. 12:50, the first of the great chron- 
iclers of St. Albans Abbey. He sciems to have been a 
native of Wendover in Buckinghamshire and must 



ROH 



117 



ROHRBACHER 



have enjoyed some little consideration among his 
brethren as he was appointed prior of the cell of Bel- 
voir, but from this ofhce he was deposed and retired 
to St. Albans, where he probably wrote his chronicle, 
known as the "Flores Historiarum", extending from 
the Creation to 1235. From the year 1202 it is an 
original and valuable authority, but the whole mate- 
rial has been worked over and in a sense re-edited 
with editions by Matthew Paris (q. v.) in his "Chro- 
nica Majora". Wendover is less prejudiced than 
Paris, but he is also less picturesque, and whereas 
Paris in his generalizations and inferences as to the 
causes of events anticipates the scope of the modern 
historian, Wendover is content to discharge the func- 
tions of a simple chronicler. The "Flores Histori- 
arum" was edited for the English Historical Society 
in 1841 by H. O. Coxe in five volumes, beginning with 
the year 447, when Wendover for the first time turns 
directly to the history of Britain. But in 1886-1889 
the more valuable part of the work (from 1154 to 
1235) was re-edited by H. G. Hewlett as part of the 
Rolls Series in three volumes. 

Hunt in Dirt. Nat. Biog., s. v. Wendover; Lu.a.rd, prefaces to 
the earlier volumes of M.\tthew Paris, Chronica Majora in the 
Rolls Series: Hardy, Catalogue of Materials of Brit. Ilist., Ill 
(London, 1871), and the prefaces to the editions of Flores His- 
toriarum. 

Herbert Thurston. 

Roh, Peter, b. at Conthey (Gunthis) in the canton 
of Valais (French Switzerland), 14 August, 1811; d. 
at Bonn, 17 May, 1872. Up to his thirteenth year 
he spoke only French, so that he had to learn German 
from a German i)riest in the vicinity before he was 
able to begin his gymnasial stutlies in the boarding- 
school kept by the Jesuits at Brig in Switzerland. 
Later he became a day-pupil at the gymnasium kept 
by the Jesuits at Sittin. While here he resolved to 
enter the Society of Jesus (1829); strange to say the 
external means of bringing him to this decision was 
the reading of Pascal's pamphlet "Monita Secreta". 
He taught the lower gymnasial classes at the lyceum 
at Fribourg. During these years of study Roh 
showed two characteristic qualities: the talent of 
imparting knowledge in a clear and convincing man- 
ner, and an unusual gift for oratory. These abilities 
determined his future work to be that of a teacher 
and a preacher. He was first (1842-5) professor of 
dogmatics at Fribourg, then at the academy at 
Lucerne which had just been given to the Jesuits. 
At the same time he preached and aided as oppor- 
tunity occurred in missions. These labours were in- 
terrupted by the breaking out of the war of the Swiss 
Sonderbund, during which he was military chaplain; 
but after its unfortunate end he was obliged to flee 
into Piedmont, from there to Linz and Gries, finally 
finding a safe refuge at Rappoltsweiler in Alsace as 
tutor in the family of his countryman and friend 
Siegwart-Mviller, also expatriated. Here he stayed 
until 1849. A professorship of dogmatics at Lou vain 
only lasted a year. When the missions for the com- 
mon people were opened in Germany in 1850 his 
real labours began; as he said himself, "Praise God, 
I now come into my element. " Both friend and foe 
acknowledge that the success of these missions was 
largely due to Roh, and his powerful and homely 
eloquence received the highest praise. He was an 
extemporaneous speaker; the writing of sermons and 
addresses was, as he himself confessed, "simply im- 
possible" to him; yet, thoroughly trained in philoso- 
phy and theology, he could also write when neces- 
sary, as several articles from him in the "Stimmen 
aus Maria-Laach" prove. His pamphlet "Dasalte 
Lied: der Zweck heiligt die Mittel, im Texte ver- 
bes.sert und auf neue Melodie gesetzt" has preserved 
a certain reputation until the present day, as Father 
Roh declared he would give a thousand gulden to the 
person who could show to the faculty of law of Bonn 



or Heidelberg a book written by a Jesuit which taught 
the principle that the end justihes the means. The 
prize is still unclaimed. Some of his sermons have 
also been preserved; they were printed against his 
will from stenographic notes. Father Roh's greatest 
strength lay in his power of speech and "he was the 
most powerful and effective preacher of the German 
tongue that the Jesuits have had in this century". 

Knabe.nbauer, Erinnerungen an P. Peter Roh S. J., reprint of 
the biography in Stimmen aus Maria-Laach (1872). 

N. SCHEID. 

Rohault de Fleury, a family of French archi- 
tects and archaeologists of the nineteenth century, of 
which the most distinguished member was Charles 
Rohault de Fleury, b. in Paris 23 July, 1801; d. there 
11 August, 1875. After a scientific course pursued 
at the Ecole Polytechnique at Paris, he studied 
sculpture, but abandoned this study for architecture 
in 1825. He designed several public and private 
buildings which adorn one of the most artistic sec- 
tions of the present Paris and was the author of the 
first edition of the "Manuel des lois du batiment" 
published by the Central Society of Architects 
(Paris, 1862). The last years of his life he devoted 
to religious archaeology and published the important 
results of his studies in the following magnificently 
illustrated works: "Les instruments de la Passion", 
Paris, 1870 (see Cross, IV, 531); "L'evangile, etudes 
iconographiques et archeologiques". Tours, 1874; 
"La Sainte Vierge", Paris, 1878; "Un Tabernacle 
Chretien du V^ siecle". Arras, 1880; "La Messe, 
6tudes archeologiques sur ses monuments", Paris, 
1883-98. Some of these works were published after 
his death by his son George (1835-1905) who was 
himself a prominent archaeological writer. The 
latter's works treat of Italian art-monuments: 
"Monuments de Pise au moyen age", Paris, 1866; 
"La Toscane au moyen &ge, lettres sur 1 'architecture 
civile et mihtaire en 1400", Paris 1874; "Le Latran 
au moyen age", Paris, 1877. 

(Euvres de Charles Rohault de Fleury, architecte (Paris, 1884). 

N. A. Weber. 

Rohrbacher, R6n£ Francois, ecclesiastical his- 
torian, b. at Langatte (Langd) in the present Diocese 
of Metz, 27 September, 1789; d. in Paris, 17 January, 
1856. He studied for several months at Sarrebourg 
and Phalsebourg (Pfalzburg) and at the age of seven- 
teen had compl(>ted his Cla.ssical studies. He taught 
for three years at the college of Phalsebourg; entered 
in 1810 the ecclesiastical seminary at Nancy, and was 
ordained priest in 1812. Appointed assistant priest 
at Insming, he was transferred after six months to 
Lun^ville. A mission which he preached in 1821 at 
Flavigny led to the organization of a diocesan mission 
band. Several years later he became a member of the 
Congregation of St. Peter founded by Felicite and Jean 
de La ^lennais, and from 1827 to 1835 directed the 
philosophical and theological studies of young eccle- 
siastics who wished to become the assistants of the 
two brothers in their religious undertakings. When 
Felicite de La Mennais refused to submit to the con- 
demnation pronounced against him by Rome, Rohr- 
bacher separated from him and became professor of 
Church history at the ecclesiastical seminary of 
Nancy. Later he retired to Paris where he spent the 
last years of his life. His principal, work is his monu- 
mental "Histoire Universelle de I'Eglise Catholique" 
(Nancy, 1842-49; 2nd ed., Paris, 1849-53). Several 
other editions were subsequently published and con- 
tinuations added by Chantrel and Guillaume. Writ- 
ten from an apologetic point of view, the work con- 
tributed enormously to the extirpation of Gallicanism 
in the Church of France. Though at times uncritical 
and devoid of literary grace, it is of considerable use- 
fulness to the student of history. It was translated 
into German and partially recast by Hiilskamp, 



ROJAS 



118 



ROLFUS 



Rump, and numerous other writers. (For the other 
works of Rohrbacher, see Hurter, "Nomenclator 
Lit.", Ill [Innsbruck, 1895], 1069-71.) 

RoHKB\CHER, Hist. L'nxT. de rSglise Cath., ed. by Guillaume, 
XII (Paris, 1S85). 122-33; McCaffhcv, Hixt. of the Cath. Ch. in 
the XIX Century. II (Dublin, 1909;, I, 60, II, 448, 475. 

N. A. Weber. 

Rojas yZorrilla, Francisco de, Spanish dramatic 
poet, b. at Toledo, 4 Oct., 1607; d. 1680. Authentic 
information regarding the events of his Hfe is 
rather fragmentary, but he probably studied at the 
Universities of Toledo and Salamanca, and for a time 
followed a mihtary career. When only twenty-five 
he was well known as a poet, for he is highly spoken of 
in Montalbdn's "Para todos" (1632), a fact which 
shows that he enjoyed popularity, when Lope de 
Vega, Tirso de Molina, and Calderon were in the 
height of their fame. The announcement published 
in 1638 of the assassination of Francisco de Rojas did 
not refer to the poet, for the first and second parts of 
his comedies, published by himself at Madrid, bear 
the dates of 1640 and 164.5 respectively. A third part 
was promised but it never appeared. He was given 
the mantle of the Order of Santiago in 1644. The 
writings of Rojas consist of plays and autos sacramen- 
taks written alone and in collaboration with Calderon, 
Coello, Vclez, Montalbdn, and others. No complete 
edition of his plays is available, but Mesonero gives a 
verj" good selection with biographical notes. Among 
the best of them are "Del Rey abajo ninguno", 
"Entre bobos anda el juego", "Donde hay agravio no 
hay celos", and "Casarse por vengarse", the last of 
which is claimed to have been the basis of Le Sage's 
novel, "Gil Bias de Santillane". 

TicKNOB, History of Spanish Literature (Boston, 1866); 
Mebonero, Biblioteca de AxUores Espafioles, LIV (Madrid, 1866). 

Ventura Fuentes. 

Rokewode, John Gage, b. 13 Sept., 1786; died at 
Claughton Hall, Lancashire, 14 Oct., 1842. He was 
the fourth son of Sir Thomas Gage of Hengrave, and 
took the name Rokewode in 1838 when he succeeded 
to the Rokewode estates. He was educated at Stony- 
hurst, and having studied law under Charles Butler he 
was called to the bar, but never practised, preferring 
to devote himself to antiquarian pursuits. He was 
elected a fellow of the Society of Antiquaries in 1818, 
and was director from 1829 till 1842. He also became 
a fellow of the Royal Society. In 1822 he published 
"The Hi.storj- and Ant iquit ies of Hengrave in Suffolk " 
and in 1838 "The History and Antiquities of Suffolk". 
His e<Jition of Jocelin de Brakelond's chronicle pub- 
lished by the Camden Society in 1840 fumi.shed Car- 
lyle with much of his materials for "Past and Present" 
(1843). Many papers by him appeared in "Archa;- 
ologia", many of these being republished as separate 
pamphlets, including the description of the Bene- 
dictionals of St. >Ethelwold and of Robert of Jumieges; 
he also printed the genealogy of the. Rokewode family 
with charters relating thereto in "Collectanea Topo- 
gra7)hica et Gcnealogica", II. He contributed to the 
"Orthodox Journal'* and the "Catholic Gentleman's 
Magazine". Many of his MSS. were Hold after his 
death with his valuable library. The Society of An- 
tiquaries rKjKWiKH a bust of him by R. C. Lucaa. He 
died suddenly while out shooting. 

Orthodox Journal. XV, 276; Cooper in Diet. Nat. Bioo.: 
GiLUJW, Bihl Diet. Eng. Catht. 

Edwin Burton. 

Roland, Chanson de. See Legends, Literary 
or Profa.ve. 

Roland de Lattre. S<;e Lassus, Orlandus de. 

Rolduc n<oi>A DrriK, aW) Roda, Closferroda or 
Hertogenra'le;, in S. K. Limburg, Nefherlands. It 
became an Augusfinian abbey in 1104 unrler Ven. 
AilbertUH, a pricHt, wjn of AmmoricuH, a nobleman of 



Antoing, Flanders. Ailbertus is said to have been 
guided by a vision towards this chosen spot, which was 
in the domain of Count Adelbert of Saffenberch, who, 
before Bishop Othert of Liege, turned over the property 
destined for abbey and church in 1108. Ailbertus 
was the first abbot (1104-11). Later he went to 
France where he founded the Abbey of Clairfontaine. 
Desiring once more to see Rolduc, he died on the way, 
at Sechtem, near Bonn, 19 Sep., 1122 (Acta SS.). 
Thirty-eight abbots succeeded Ailbertus, the last one 
being Peter Joseph Chaineux (1779-1800). The 
abbey acquired many possessions in the Netherlands, 
and became the last resting-place of the Dukes of 
Limburg. It possesses the famous "Catalogus Li- 
brorum", made a. d. 1230, containing one hundred 





-^ 



The Crypt, Rolduc Abbey 

and forty theological and eighty-six philosophical and 
classical works. The beautiful crypt, built by Ail- 
bertus, was blessed 13 Dec, 1106, and in 1108 the 
church was dedicated to the Blessed Virgin and St. 
Gabriel. In 1122 Pope Calixtus II confirmed by a 
Bull, preserved in the archives of Rolduc, the dona- 
tion of the property. The church, completed in 1209, 
was then solemnly dedicated by Philip, Bishop of 
Ratzeburg. Dr. R. Cortcn completed the restoration 
of the church in 1893, and transferred the relics of 
Ven. Ailbertus into a richly sculptured sarcophagus 
in the crypt, 1897. The church possesses a particle 
of the Holy Cro.ss, five inches long, reputed to be 
authentic and miraculous (Archives of Rolduc, by 
Abbot Mathias Amezaga); al.so the body of St. 
Daphne, virgin and martyr, brought over from the 
Catacombs of Pra'textatus in 1847. Rolduc became 
the seminary of Li^ge in 1831, under Right Rev. Cor- 
nelius Van Bommel, and the little seminary of Roer- 
mond, and academy in 1841 . The present institution 
has an attendance of 420 pupils. 

Heyendal, Annales liodenses usque ad annum 1700; Diarium 
rerum memorabilium abbaiia Rodensis in tlie archives of Aix-la- 
Chapelle; Acta SS.; Habets, (leschiedenis van het Hisdom Roer- 
mowi. III (187.5-92); Ernst, Hisloire du Limbourg, (I.i^ge, 1837- 
.52) ; DaRis, Notice Historique sur Ies if/liscs du diodse de Liige, XV 
(I.i^Ke, 1894); Neujean, Notice historique sur Vabbayr de Rolduc 
(Aix-la-Chapelle, 1868); Helyot, Histoire des ordres monasliques, 
relif/ieux et milUaires, II (Paris, 1714-19); CuYPERS, Revue de I'art 
chrHien (1892); Lennartz, Die Auqustiner Abtri Klosterrath.; 
Kerhten, Journal Historique rt I Altirairr, XIV (Lidge) ; COBTEN, 
RoUuc in Woord en Beeld (Utrecht, 1902). 

Theophile Stenmans. 

Rolfus, Hermann, Catholic educationist, b. at 
Freiburg, 24 May, 1821; d. at Biihl, near Offenburg, 
27 October, 1896. After attending the gymnasium at 
Freiburg, he studicnl theology and philology at the 
university th(!re from 1840 to 1843, and was ordained 

f)rie8t on 31 August, 1844. After he had served for 
)rief periods at various places, he was appointed 
curate at Thiengen in 1851, curat e-in-charge at Reisel- 
fingr-n in 1855, jiarish ])rie8t at the last named place 
in 1861, j)!irish jjriest at Reutlir- ne.'ir Freil)urg in 1867, 
at Sasbadi in 1875, and .-it liiihl in 1892. In 1867 the 
theological faculty at Freiburg gave him the degree of 



ROLLS 



119 



ROLLIN 



Doctor of Theology. Rolf us did much for practical 
Catholic pedagogics, especially in southern Germany, 
by the work which he edited in conjunction with 
Adolf Pfister, " Real-Encyclopadie des Erziehungs- 
und Unterrichtswesens nach katholischen Principien" 
(4 vols., Mainz, 1863-66; 2nd ed., 1872-74). A fifth 
volume ("Erganzungsband", 1884) was issued by 
Rolfus alone; a new edition is in course of prepara- 
tion. Another influential publication was the "Siid- 
deutsches katholisches Schulwochenblatt", which he 
edited, also jointly with Pfister, from 1861 to 1867. 
Of his other literary works, the following may be 
mentioned: "Der Grund des katholischen Glaubens" 
(Mainz, 1862); "Leitfaden der allgemeinen Welt- 
geschichte" (Freiburg, 1870; 4th ed., 1896); "Die 
Glaubens- und Sittenlehre der katholischen Kirche" 
(Einsiedeln, 1875; frequently re-edited), jointly with 
F. J. Brandle; "Kirchengeschichtliches in chrono- 
logischer Reihenfolge von der Zeit des letzten Vatican- 
ischen Concils bis auf unsere Tage" (2 vols., Mainz, 
1877-82; 3rd vol. by Sickinger, 1882); "Geschichte 
des Reiches Gottes auf Erden" (Freiburg, 1878-80; 
3rd ed., 1894-95j; " Katholischer Hau.skatechismus " 
(Einsiedeln, 1891-92). In addition to the works men- 
tioned, he also wrote a large number of pedagogic, 
political, apologetic, and polemical brochures, ascetic 
treatises, and works for the young. 

Keller, Festschrift zum fiinfzigjahrigen Priesterjubilaum des 
hochw. Herrn Pfarrers u. Geistl. Rats Dr. Hermann Rolfus (Frei- 
burg im Br., 1894), with portrait; Knecht in Badische Bio- 
graphien, V (Heidelberg, 1906), 670 sq. 

Friedrich Lauchert. 

Rolle de Hampole, Richard, .solitary and writer, 
b. at Thornton, Yorksliire, about 1300; d. at Ham- 
pole, 29 Sept., 1349. The date 1290, sometimes as- 
signed for his birth-year, is too early, as in a work 
written after 1326 he alludes to himself as "juven- 
culus" and "puer", words applicable to a man of 
under thirty, but not to one over that age. He 
showed such promise as a school-boy, while living 
with his father William Rolle, that Thomas de 
Neville, Archdeacon of Durham, undertook to de- 
fray the cost of his education at Oxford. At the age 
of nineteen he left the university to devote himself 
to a hfe of perfection, not desiring to enter any reli- 
gious order, but with the intention of becoming a 
hermit. At first he dwelt in a wood near his home, 
but fearing his family would put him under restraint, 
he fled from Thornton and wandered about till he 
was recognized by John de Dalton, who had been his 
fellow student at Oxford, and who now provided him 
with a cell and the necessaries for a hermit's life. 
At Dalton he made great progress in the spiritual life 
as described by himself in his treati.se "De incendio 
amoris". He spent from three to four years in the 
purgative and illuminative way and then attained 
contemplation, pa.ssing through three phases which 
he describes as color, canor, dulcor. Tlaey appeared 
successively, but once attained they remained with 
him continually, though he did not feel them all 
alike or all at the same time. Sometimes the color 
prevailed; sometimes the canor, but the dulcor ac- 
companied both. The condition was such, he says, 
"that I did not think anything like it or anything 
so holy could be received in this life". After this he 
wandered from place to place, at one time visiting the 
anchoress. Dame Margaret Kyrkby, at Anderby, 
and obtaining from God her cure. Finally he settled 
at Hampole near the Cistercian nunnery, and there 
he spent the rest of his life. After his death his tomb 
was celebrated for miracles, and preparations for his 
canonization, including the composition of a mass and 
office in his honour, were made; but the cause was 
never prosecuted. His writings were extremely 
popular throughout the fourteenth and fifteenth 
centuries, and very many MSS. copies of his works 
are still extant in English libraries. His writings 



show he was much influenced by the teaching of St. 
Edmund of Canterbury in the "Speculum Ecclesiae". 
The Lollards, realizing the power of his influence, 
tampered with his writings, interpolating passages 
favouring their errors. To defeat this trickery, the 
nuns at Hampole kept genuine copies of his works 
at their house. His chief works are "De emenda- 
tionevitae" and "De incendio amoris", both written 
in Latin, of which English versions by Richard Misyn 
(1434-,5) have been published by the Early English 
Text Society, 1896; "Contemplacj'ons of the drede 
and love of God" and "Remedy against Temp- 
tacyons", both printed by Wynkyn de Worde in 
1 506 ; and " The Pricke of Conscience " , a poem printed 
for the philological Society in 1863. This was his 
most popular work and MSS. of it are very common. 
They have been collated by Andrese (Berlin, 1888) 
and Bulbring (Transactions of Philological Society, 
1889-1890). Ten prose treatises found in the 
Thornton MS. in Lincoln Cathedral Library were 
pubhshed by the Early English Texi, Society, 1866. 
"The Form of Perfect Living", "Meditations on the 
Passion", and many shorter pieces were edited by 
Horstman (London, 1896). Rolle translated many 
parts of Scripture into English but only his version 
of the Psalms has been printed. His English para- 
phra.se of the Psalms and Canticles was published 
in 1884 (Clarendon Press, Oxford). This work of 
translation is noteworthy in face of the persistent 
though discredited Protestant tradition ascribing all 
the credit of translating the Scriptures into English 
to Wyclif. Latin versions of Rolle's works are very 
numerous. They were collected into one edition 
(Paris, 1618) and again reprinted in the "Bibliotheca 
Patrum Maxima " (Lyons, 1677). Modernized Eng- 
lish versions of the Meditations on the Passion have 
been published by Mgr. Benson in "A Book of the 
Love of Jesus" (London, 1905) and by the present 
writer (C. T. S. London, 1906). 

Breriarium Eccl. Eboracensis. The lessons in the Officium de 
S. Ricardo, II, are the chief authority for the events of his life. 
Perry, Introduction to Rolle's English Prose Treatises (London, 
1866); VON Ullm.^n, Sludien zu Richard Rolle de Hampole in 
englische Studien (Heilbronn, 1877), VII; von Kribel, Hampole- 
Studien, ibidem, VIII ; Adler, Ueber die Richard Rolle de Hampole 
zugeschriebene Paraphrase der sieben Busspsalmen (1885) ; Midden- 
DORFF, Studien Uber Richard Rolle (Magdeburg, 1888) ; Horstman, 
Richard Rolle of Hampole and his followers (London, 1896) ; Har- 
vey, Introduction to the Fire of Love, E. E. T. S. (London, 1896); 
Benson, Short Life of Richard Rolle in A Book of the Love of Jesus 
(London, 1905); Inge, Studies of English Mystics (London, 1906); 
Hodgson, The Form of Perfect Living (London, 1910). 

Edwin Burton. 

RoUin, Charles, b. in Paris, 1661; d. there, 1741. 
The son of a cutler, intended to follow his father's 
trade, he was remarkable for the piety with which he 
served Mass and which secured for him a collegiate 
scholarship. He studied theology and received the 
tonsure, but not Holy Orders. He was assistant 
professor, and then profes.sor of rhetoric at the College 
de Plessis; of Latin eloquence at the College Royal 
(1688), and at the age of thirty-three was appointed 
rector of the university. In 1696 he became principal 
of the College Beauvais, from which post he was dis- 
missed in 1722 because of his opposition to the Bull 
"Unigenitus". He was a member of the Academy 
of Inscriptions from 1701. His works were written 
during his retirement. He was nearlj- sixty when he 
began the "Traite des Etudes", sixty-seven when he 
undertook his "Histoire Ancienne", seventy-seven 
when he became engaged on his "Histoire Romaine", 
which death prevented him from finishing. The 
"Traite des Etudes" (in 12°, 1726-31) exiilains the 
method of teaching and studying belles-lettres; it 
contains ideas which seem hackneyed, but which then 
were fairly new, e. g. the necessity of studying national 
history and of making use of school-books wTitten in 
the vernacular. The "Histoire Ancienne" (1730-38) 
consists of twelve volumes jo 12°. The "Histoire Ro- 



ROLLS 



120 



ROMAN 




maine", of which he was able to finish only five vol- 
umes out of the nine composing the work, displays 
facility, interest, enthusiasm, but lack of a critical 
spirit." Rollin was a talented writer, though accord- 
ing to his own statement he was sixty years old when 
he decided to 

1 



^\Tite in French. 
Jlc was upright 
:ind serene, a pious 
and sincere Chris- 
tian, whom it is 
deplorable to find 
concerned in the 
ridiculous scenes 
at the cemetery 
of St. M6dar;d 
near the tomb of 
the deacon Paris. 
Without the an- 
noyances due to 
his Jansenism, his 
])ure conscience, 
sweet gaiety, 
\igorous health, 
and the esteem 
he enjoyed should 
liive made him 

lie of the most 
Mirtunate men of 
his times. 

T R o G N o N, Eloge 
(Paris. 1818); Gui- 
nea u D E M D 8 8 Y, 

TraiU des Etudes de Rollin (Paris, 1805) ; Sainte-Beuve. Causeries 
du lundi, VI (Paris, 1851-62) GeORGES BeRTRIN. 

Rolls Series, a collection of historical materials 
of which tlie general scope is indicated by its official 
title, "The Chronicles and Memorials of Great 
Britain and Ireland during the Middle Ages". The 
publication of the series was undertaken by the 
British Government in accordance with a scheme 
submitted in 18.57 by the Master of the Rolls (the 
official Cu.stodian of the Records of the Court of 
Chancerj' and of the other Courts), then Sir John 
Romilly. A previous undertaking of the same kind, 
the "Monumenta Historica Britannica", had come 
to grief after the publication of the first volume 
(1036 folio pages, London, 1S48) owing partly to the 
death of the principal editor, Henry Petrie, partly 
to its cumbrous form and other causes. Strong rep- 
resentations were, however, made by a very earnest 
worker in the field of historical research. Rev. Joseph 
Stevensf^n (q. v.), and the scheme of 1857 was the 
direct outcome of this appeal. In the new Series 
"preference was to be given in the first instance to 
such materials an were most scarce and valuable", 
ea<'h chronicle was to be edited as if the editor were 
engagrnl upon an eflitio princeps, a brief account was 
to be provided in a suitable preface of the life and 
timfss of the author as well as a description of the 
manuwripts employed, and the volumes were to be 
issued in a convenient octavo form. In accordance 
with this scheme 25o volumes, representing 99 
separate works, have now hotm published. With the 
exception of the sf;rira of h-gal records known as the 
"Year BfK>ks" of ?>]ward I and Edward III, the 
further issue of thf^K<; materials has for some time 
pa«t IxMrn suspr-ndf^l. Almost all the great medieval 
English chronicles have in turn been included, for 
it was found that most of the existing editions pub- 
lisher! by the scholars of the sf!vente<;nth and eigh- 
t(«nth centuri<« were unBatisfa<;tory. It would be 
impf>«Hible here U) give a catalogue of the materials 
edite<l in the c/)urs«! of this great undertaking. It 
must he sufficient t-o mention thr; magnificent edition 
of the "Chronica Majora" of Matthew Paris by 
Luard; the Hoveden, Benedict of Peterborough, 



Ralph de Diceto, Walter of Coventry, and others, all 
edited by Bishop Stubbs; the works of Giraldus 
Cambrensis by Brewer, and the "Materials for the 
History of St. Thomas Becket" by Canon Robert- 
son. But the scope of the Series is by no means 
limited to the ordinary English Chroniclers. Legal 
records and tractates, such as the "Year Books", the 
"Black Book of the Admiralty", and Bracton's great 
work "De Legibus et Consuetudinibus Anglia^"; 
materials of a more or less legendary character relat- 
ing to Ireland and Scotland, such as Whitley Stokes's 
edition of "the Tripartite Life of St. Patrick", or the 
Icelandic Sagas edited bj- Vigfusson and Dasent; 
rhymed chronicles like those of Robert of Gloucester 
and Robert of Brunne in English, and that of Pierre 
de Langtoft in French; even quasi-philo.sophical 
works like those of Friar Roger Bacon and Alexander 
Neckam, together with folklore materials like the 
three volumes of "Leechdoms, Worteunning and Star- 
craft" of Anglo-Saxon times, have all been included 
in the Series. It need hardly be said that hagiograph- 
ical documents, dealing for example with the lives 
of St. Dunstan, St. Edward the Confessor, St. Hugh 
of Lincoln, St. Thomas, as well as St. Wilfrid and other 
northern saints, occupy a prominent place in the 
collection. The vast bulk of the texts thus edited 
are in Latin, and these are printed without transla- 
tion. Those in old P'rench, Anglo-Saxon, Irish, 
Gaelic, Welsh, old Norse, etc. always have a trans- 
lation annexed. 

The progress of the Rolls Series may best be traced in the 
Annual Reports of the Deputy Keeper of the Public Records, but 
a general account is also given in Gross, The Sources and Litera- 
ture of English History (New York, 1900) ; Potthast, Bibliotheca 
Historica (Berlin, 1896). 

Herbert Thurston. 

Rolph, Thomas, surgeon, b. 1800; d. at Ports- 
mouth, 17 Feb., 1858. He was a younger son of Dr. 
Thomas Rolph and Frances his wife, and brother of 
John Rolph, the Canadian insurgent . Having quali- 
fied as a surgeon, he began to practice in Crutched- 
friars, where he came into conflict with the Anglican 
rector of St. Olave, Hart Street, on the subject of 
tithes, a dispute which led him to petition the House 
of Commons on the subject and to publish two pam- 
phlets: "Address to the Citizens of London" and 
"Letter addressed to the Rev. H. B. Owen, D.D." 
(1827). He also took a prominent part in Catholic 
affairs. In 1832 he went to the West Indies, the 
United States, and Canada, where his brother John 
had become chairman of committee in the Upper 
Canada House of Assembly. For a time Thomas 
Rolph settled in Canada, acting as Govcrnmeiif emi- 
gration agent, hut he returned to England in 1S3!) and 
published a series of works on emigration: "Compara- 
tive advantages between tlie United States and Can- 
ada for Britisli Settlers" (1<S42); "Emigrants' 
Manual" (1843); "Emigration and Colonization" 
(1844). In his earlier life he had published two 
pamphlets on the proceedings of the Religious Tract 
Society, and one against phrenology. He was also a 
constant contributor to the "Truthteller", a Catholic 
magazine published by William Eu.sebius Andrews. 
He spent his last years at Portsmouth where he died 
of apoplexy. 

AbLiBONE, Critical Did. of Eng. Lit. (Philadelphia, 1869-71); 
Gil.ixiw, fiihl. Did. Eng. f'nih., s. v. 

Edwin Burton 

Roman Catechism.— This catechism differs from 
o( her summaries of C'hristian doctrine for the instruc- 
tioii of the people in two jwints: it is |)rimarily in- 
t(aided for pri(!sts having care of souls (ad parorhos), 
and it enjoys an authority ecjualied by no other 
catechism. The need of a popular authoritative 
manual arose from a lack of systematic knowledge 
among pre-Reformation clergy and the concomitant 
neglect of religious instruction among the faithful. 



ROMAN 



121 



ROMAN 



The Reformers had not been slow in taking advantage 
of the situation; their popular tracts and catechisms 
were flooding every country and leading thousands of 
souls away from the Church. The Fathers of Trent, 
therefore, "wishing to apply a salutary remedy to this 
great and pernicious evil, and thinking that the 
definition of the principal Catholic doctrines was not 
enough for the purpose, resolved also to publish a 
formulary and method for teaching the rudiments of 
the faith, to be used by all legitimate pastors and 
teachers" (Cat. pra;f., vii). This resolution was taken 
in the eighteenth session (26 February, 1562) on the 
suggestion of St. Charles Borromeo, who was then 
giving full scope to his zeal for the reformation of the 
clergy. Pius IV entrusted the composition of the 
Catechism to four distinguished theologians: Arch- 
bishops Leonardo Marino of Lanciano and Muzio 
Calini of Zara, Egidio Foscarini, Bishop of Modena, 
and Francisco Fureiro, a Portuguese Dominican. 
Three cardinals were appointed to supervise the work. 
St. Charles Borromeo superintended the redaction 
of the original Italian text, which, thanks to his 
exertions, was finished in 1564. Cardinal William 
Sirletus then gave it the final touches, and the famous 
Humanists, Julius Pogianus and Paulus Manutius, 
translated it into classical Latin. It was then pub- 
lished in Latin and Italian as "Catechismus ex decreto 
Concilii Tridentini ad parochos Pii V jussu editus, 
Romse, 1566" (in-folio). Translations into the ver- 
nacular of every nation were ordered by the Council 
(Sess. XXIV, "De Ref.", c. vii). 

The Council intended the projected Catechism to be 
the Church's official manual of popular instruction. 
The seventh canon, "De Reformatione", of Sess. 

XXIV, runs: "That the faithful may approach the 
Sacraments with greater reverence and devotion, the 
Holy Synod charges all the bishops about to admin- 
ister them to explain their operation and use in a way 
adapted to the understanding of the people; to see, 
moreover, that their parish priests observe the same 
rule piously and prudently, making use for their ex- 
planations, where necessary and convenient, of the 
vernacular tongue; and conforming to the form to be 
prescribed by the Holy Synod in its instructions 
(calechesis) for the several Sacraments: the bishops 
shall have these instructions carefully translated into 
the vulgar tongue and explained by all parish priests 
to their flocks . . .". In the mind of the Church 
the Catechism, though primarily written for the parish 
priests, was also intended to give a fixed and stable 
scheme of instruction to the faithful, especially with 
regard to the means of grace, so much neglected at the 
time. To attain this object the work closely follows 
the dogmatic definitions of the council. It is divided 
in four parts: I. The Apostles' Creed; II. The Sacra- 
ments; III. The Decalogue; IV. Prayer, especially 
The Lord's Prayer. It deals with the papal primacy 
and with Limbo (q. v.), points which were not dis- 
cussed or defined at Trent; on the other hand, it is 
silent on the doctrine of Indulgences (q. v.), which is 
set forth in the "Decretum de indulgentiis", Sess. 

XXV. The bishops urged in every way the use of 
the new Catechism; they enjoined its frequent read- 
ing, so that all its contents would be committed to 
memory; they exhorted the priests to discuss parts 
of it at their meetings, and insisted upon its being 
used for instructing the people. 

To some editions of the Roman Catechism is pre- 
fixed a "Praxis Catechismi", i. e. a division of its 
contents into sermons for every Sunday of the year 
adapted to the Gospel of the day. There is no better 
sermonarj\ The people like to hear the voice of the 
Church speaking with no uncertain sound; the many 
Biblical texts and illustrations go straight to their 
hearts, and, best of all, they remember these simple 
sermons better than they do the oratory of famous 
pulpit orators. The Catechism has not of course the 



authority of conciliary definitions or other primary 
symbols of faith ; for, although decreed by the Council, 
it was only published a year after the Fathers had dis- 
persed, and it consequently lacks a formal conciliary 
approbation. During the heated controversies de 
auxiliis graiioc between the Thomists and Molinists, 
the Jesuits refused to accept the authority of the 
Catechism as decisive. Yet it possesses high authority 
as an exposition of Catholic doctrine. It was com- 
posed by order of a council, issued and approved by 
the pope; its use has been prescribed by numerous 
synods throughout the whole Church; Leo XIII, in a 
letter to the French bishops (8 Sept., 1899), recom- 
mended the study of the Roman Catechism to all 
seminarians, and the reigning pontiff, Pius X, has 
signified his desire that preachers should expound it 
to the faithful. 

The earliest editions of the Roman Catechism are: 
"Roma; apud Paulum Manutium", 1566; "Venetiis, 
apud Dominicum de Farris", 1567; "Colonise", 1567 
(by Henricus Aquensis); "Parisiis, in adibus Jac. 
Kerver", 1568; "Venetiis, apud Aldum", 1575; 
Ingolstadt, 1577 (Sartorius). In 1596 appeared at 
Antwerp "Cat. Romanus . . . qua;st ionibus dis- 
tinctus, brevibusque exhortatiunculis studio Andrese 
Fabricii, Leodiensis". (This editor, A. Le Fevre, 
died in 1581. He probably made this division of the 
Roman Catechi,sm into qviestions and answers in 
1570). George Eder, in 1569, arranged the Catechism 
for the use of schools. He distributed the main doc- 
trines into sections and subsections, and added per- 
spicuous tables of contents. This useful work bears 
the title: "IMethodus Catechismi Catholici". The 
first known English translation is by Jeremy Donovan, 
a professor at Maynooth, published by Richard 
Coyne, Capel Street, Dublin, and by Keating & 
Brown, London, and printed for the translator by 
W. Folds & Son, Great Shand Street, 1829. An 
American edition appeared in the same year. Dono- 
van's translation was reprinted at Rome by the Prop- 
aganda Press, in two volumes (1839) ; it is dedicated to 
Cardinal Fransoni, and signed: "Jeremias Donovan, 
sacerdos hibernus, cubicularius Gregorii XVI, P. M." 
There is another Engli.sh translation by R. A. Buckley 
(London, 1852), which is more elegant than Donovan's 
and claims to be more correct but is spoiled by the 
doctrinal notes of the Anglican translator. The first 
German translation, by Paul Hoffaeus, is dated Dil- 
lingen, 1568. 

J. WiLHELM. 

Roman Catholic, a qualification of the name 
Catholic commonly used in English-speaking coun- 
tries by those unwilling to recognize the claims of the 
One True Church. Out of condescension for these 
dissidents, the members of that Church are wont in 
official documents to be styled "Roman Catholics" as 
if the term Catholic represented a genus of which 
those who owned allegiance to the pope formed a par- 
ticular species. It is in fact a prevalent conception 
among Anglicans to regard the whole Catholic Church 
as made up of three principal branches, the Roman 
Catholic, the Anglo-Catholic and the Greek Catholic. 
As the erroneousness of this point of view has been 
sufficiently explained in the articles Church and 
CATHOLIC, it is only needful here to consider the his- 
tory of the composite term with which we are now 
concerned. In the "Oxford English Dictionary", 
the highest existing authoritj^ upon questions of Eng- 
lish philology, the following ex-planation is given under 
the heading "Roman Catholic". "The use of this 
composite term in place of the simple Roman, Ro- 
manist, or Romish, which had acquired an invidious 
sense, appears to have arisen in the early years of the 
seventeenth century. For conciliatory reasons it was 
employed in the negotiations connected with the 
Spanish Match (1618-1624) and appears in formal 



ROMAN 



122 



ROMAN 



documents relating to this printed by Rushworth 
(I, 85-89). After that date it was generally adopted 
as a non-controversial term and has long been the 
recognised legal and official designation, though in 
ordinary use Catholic alone is very frequently em- 
ployed '- (New- Oxford Diet ., VIII, 766) . Of the illus- 
trative quotations which follow, the earliest in date is 
one of 1605 from the "Europa> Speculum" of Edwin 
Sandys: "Some Roman Catholiques will not say grace 
when a Protestant is present"; while a passage from 
Day's "Festivals" of 1615, contrasts "Roman Catho- 
liques" with "good, true Catholiques indeed". 

Although the account thus given in the Oxford 
Dictionary is in substance correct, it cannot be con- 
sidered satisfactory. To begin with the word is dis- 
tinctly older than is here suggested. When about the 
year 1580 certain English Catliolics, under stress of 
grievous persecution, defended the lawfulness of 
attending Protestant services to escape the fines im- 
posed on recusants, the Jesuit Father Persons pub- 
lished, under the pseudonym of Howiet, a clear expo- 
sit ion of the " Reasons why Catholiques refuse to goe to 
Church". This was answered in 1801 by a writer 
of Puritan sjin pat hies, Percival Wiburn, who in his 
"Checke or Reproofe of M. Howiet" uses the term 
"Roman Catholic" repeatedly. For example he 
speaks of "you Romane Catholickes that sue for 
tolleration" (p. 140) and of the "parlous dilemma or 
streight which you Romane Catholickes are brought 
into" (p. 44). Again Robert Crowley, another 
Anglican controversialist, in his book called "A 
Deliberat Answere", printed in 1588, though adopt- 
ing by preference the forms "Romi.sh Catholike" or 
"Popish Catholike", also writes of those "who 
wander with the Romane Catholiques in the uncer- 
taj'ne hypathes of Popish devises" (p. 86). A study 
of these and other early examples in their context 
shows plainly enough that the qualification "Romish 
Catholic" or "Roman Catholic" was introduced by 
Protestant divines who highly resented the Roman 
claim to any monopolj^ of the term Catholic. In 
Germany, Luther had omitted the word Catholic 
from the Creed, but this w'as not the case in England. 
Even men of such Calvinistic leanings as Philpot (he 
was burned under Mary in 1555), and John Foxe the 
martyrologist, not to speak of churchmen like Newel 
and Fulke, insisted on the right of the Reformers to 
call them.selves Catholics and professed to regard 
their own as the only true Catholic Church. Thus 
Philpot repre.sents himself as answering his Catholic 
examiner: "I am, master doctor, of the unfeigned 
Catholic Church and w-ill live and die therein, 
and if you can prove your Church to be the True 
Catholic Church, I will be one of the same" (Philpot, 
"Works", Parker Soc, p. 1.32). It would be easy to 
quote many similar passages. The term "Romish 
Catholic" or "Roman Cathohc" undoubtedly orig- 
inatwJ with the Protestant divines who shared this 
fef'Iing and who were unwilling to concede the name 
Catholic to their opponents without qualification. 
Indw^l the writer Crowley, just mentioned, does not 
hesitate throughout a long tract to use the term 
"Prot^jstant Catholics" the name which he applies 
to his antagoniKts. Thurs he says "We Protestant 
Catholiqu<!s are not departed from the true Catho- 
lique religion" (p. '.Hi) and he refers more than once 
to "Our Protf^tant Catholique Church," (p. 74) 

On the; other hand the evidence seems to show that 
the Catholics of the reign of Elizabeth and James I 
were by no means willing to admit any other desig- 
nation for them8f;lvf58 than the unqualified name 
Catholic, father SouthweH's "Humble Supplica- 
tion to her Majesty" (1.591), though criticized by 
fifjmeasover-a/lulatory in tone, always uses the simple 
word. \Nhat is more surijrising, the same may be 
said of various a/ldreswis Uj the Crown draft (h1 under 
the iriapiration of the "Appellant" clergy, who were 



suspected by their opponents of subservience to the 
government and of minimizing in matters of dogma. 
This feature is very conspicuous, to take a single 
example, in "the Protestation of allegiance" drawn 
up by thirteen missioners, 31 Jan., 1603, in which 
they renounce all thought of "restoring the Catholic 
religion by the sword", profess their willingness "to 
persuade all CathoUcs to do the same" and conclude 
by declaring themselves ready on the one hand "to 
spend their blood in the defence of her Majesty" but 
on tlie other "rather to lose their lives than infringe 
the lawful autliority of Christ's Catholic Church" 
(Tierney-Dodd, III, p. cxc). We find similar 
language used in Ireland in the negotiations carried 
on by Tyrone in behalf of his Catholic countrymen. 
Certain apparent exceptions to this uniformity of 
practice can be readily explained. To begin with we 
do find that Catholics not unfrequently use the 
inverted form of the name "Roman Catholic" and 
speak of the "Catholic Roman faith" or religion. 
An early example is to be found in a little controver- 
sial tract of 1575 called "a Notable Discom'se" where 
we read for example that the heretics of old "preached 
that the Pope w^as Antichriste, shewing themselves 
verye eloquent in detracting and rayling against the 
Catholique Romane Church" (p. 64). But this was 
simply a translation of the phraseology common both 
in Latin and in the Romance languages "Ecclesia 
Catholica Romana," or in French "I'Eglise catho- 
lique romaine". It was felt that this inverted form 
contained no hint of the Protestant contention that 
the old religion was a spurious variety of true Cathol- 
icism or at best the Roman species of a wider genus. 
Again, when we find Father Persons (e. g. in his 
"Three Conversions," III, 408) using the term 
"Roman Catholic", the context shows that he is 
only adopting the name for the moment as con- 
veniently embodying the contention of his adver- 
saries. 

Once more in a very striking passage in the exam- 
ination of one James Clayton in 1591 (see Cal. State 
Papers, Dom. Ehz., add., vol. XXXII, p. 322) we 
read that the deponent "was persuaded to conforme 
himself to the Romaine Catholique faith." But 
there is nothing to show^ that these were the actual 
words of the recusant himself, or that, if they were, 
they were not simply dictated by a desire to concil- 
iate his examiners. The "Oxford Dictionary" is 
probably right in assigning the recognition of "Roman 
Catholic" as the official style of the adherents of the 
Papacy in England to the negotiations for the 
Spanish Match (1618-24). In the various treaties 
etc., drafted in connexion with this proposal, the 
religion of the Spanish princess is almost always 
spoken of as "Roman Catholic". Indetnl in some 
few instances the word Catholic alone is used. This 
feature does not seem to o(;cur in any of the nego- 
tiations of earlier date which touched U])()n religion, 
e. g. those connected with the jjioposed (rAlen9on 
marriage in Elizabeth's reign, wliile in A<'ts of Par- 
liament, proclamations, etc., before the Spanish 
match. Catholics are simply described as Papists or 
Recusants^ and their religion as poi)ish, Romanish, 
or Romanist. Indeed long after this jwiriod, the use 
of the term Roman Catholic; continued to be a mark 
of condescension, and language of much more un- 
complimentary character was usually pref(;rred. 
It was perhaps to encourage a friendlier attitude in 
the authorities that Catholics themselves hence- 
forth began to adopt the qualified term in all official 
relations with the governinc^nt. Thus the "Humble 
Remonstrance, Acknowledgnu^nt, Protestation and 
Petition of the Roman Catholic Clergy of Ireland" 
in 1661, began "We, your Majesty's faithful subjects 
tli<; Roman Catholick clergy of Irelanfl". The same 
practice s(!em8 to have; obtained in Maryland; see 
for example the Consultation entitled "Objections 



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123 



ROMAN 



answered touching Maryland", drafted by Father 
R. Blount, S.J., in 1632 (B. Johnston, "Foundation 
of Maryland", etc., 1883, 29), and wills proved 22 
Sep., 1630, and 19 Dec, 1659, etc., (in Baldwin, 
"Maryland Cat. of Wills", 19 vols., vol. i. Naturally 
the wish to conciliate hostile opinion only grew 
greater as Catholic Emancipation became a question 
of practical politics, and by that time it would appear 
that many Catholics themselves used the qualified 
form not only when addressing the outside public 
but in their domestic discussions. A short-lived 
association, organized in 1794 with the fullest ap- 
proval of the vicars Apostolic, to counteract the 
unorthodox tendencies of the Cisalpine Club, was 
officially known as the "Roman Catholic Meeting" 
(Ward, "Dawn of Cath. Revival in England", 
II, 65). So, too, a meeting of the Irish bishops 
under the presidency of Dr. Troy at Dublin in 1821 
passed resolutions approving of an Emancipation 
Bill then before a Parliament, in which they uni- 
formly referred to members of their own communion 
as "Roman Catholics". Further, such a represen- 
tative Catholic as Charles Butler in his "Historical 
Memoirs" (see e. g. vol. IV, 1821, pp. 185, 199, 225, 
etc.,) frequently uses the term "roman-catholic" [sic] 
and seems to find this expression as natural as the un- 
qualified form. 

With the strong Catholic revival in the middle 
of the nineteenth century and the support derived 
from the uncompromising zeal of many earnest 
converts, such for exami)le as Faber and Manning, 
an inflexible adherence to the name Catholic with- 
out qualification once more became the order of the 
day. The government, however, would not modify 
the official designation or suffer it to be set aside in 
addresses presented to the Sovereign on public 
occasions. In two particular instances during the 
archiepiscopate of Cardinal Vaughan this point 
was raised and became the subject of correspondence 
between the cardinal and the Home Secretary. In 
1897 at the Diamond Jubilee of the accession of 
Queen Victoria, and again in 1901 when Edward VII 
succeeded to the throne, the Catholic episcopate 
desired to present addresses, but on each occasion 
it was intimated to the cardinal that the only per- 
missible style would be "the Roman Catholic Arch- 
bishop and Bishops in England". Even the form 
"the Cardinal Archbishop and Bishops of the 
Catholic and Roman Church in England" was not 
approved. On the first occasion no address was 
presented, but in 1901 the requirements of the 
Home Secretary as to the use of the name "Roman 
Catholics" were (lomplied with, though the cardinal 
reserved to himself the right of explaining subse- 
quently on some public occasion the sense in which 
he used the words (see Snead-Cox, "Life of Car- 
dinal Vaughan", II, 231-41). Accordingly, at the 
Newcastle Conference of the Catholic Truth Society 
(Aug., 1901) the cardinal explained clearly to his 
audience that "the term Roman Catholic has two 
meanings; a meaning that we repudiate and a mean- 
ing that we accept." The repudiated sense wag 
that dear to many Protestants, according to which 
the term Catholic was a genus which resolved itself 
into the species Roman Catholic, Anglo-Catholic, 
Greek Catholic, etc. But, as the cardinal insisted, 
"with us the prefix Roman is not restrictive to a 
species, or a section, but simply declaratory of 
Catholic." The prefix in this sense draws attention 
to the unity of the Church, and "insists that the 
central point of Catholicity is Roman, the Roman 
See of St. Peter." 

_ It is noteworthy that the representative Anglican 
divine. Bishop Andrewes, in his "Tortura Torti" 
(1609) ridicules the phrase Ecdesia CathoUca Romana 
as a contradiction in terms. "What," he asks, "is 
the object of adding 'Roman'? The only purpose 



that such an adjunct can serve is to distinguish 
your Catholic Church from another Catholic Church 
which is not Roman" (p. 368). It is this very com- 
mon line of argument which imposes upon Cath- 
olics the necessity of making no compromise in the 
matter of their own name. The loyal adherents 
of the Holy See did not begin in the sixteenth century 
to call themselves "Catholics" for controversial 
purposes. It is the traditional name handed down 
to us continuously from the time of St. Augustine. 
We use this name ourselves and ask those outside 
the Church to use it, without reference to its sig- 
nification simply because it is our customary name, 
just as we talk of the Russian Church as "the 
Orthodox Church", not because we recognize its 
orthodoxy but because its members so style them- 
selves, or again just as we speak of "the Reforma- 
tion" because it is the term established by custom, 
though we are far from owning that it was a refor- 
mation in either faith or morals. The dog-in-the- 
manger policy of so many Anglicans who cannot 
take the name of Catholics for themselves, because 
popular usage has never sanctioned it as such, but 
who on the other hand will not concede it to the mem- 
bers of the Church of Rome, was conspicuously 
brought out in the course of a correspondence on 
this subject in the London "Saturday Review" 
(Dec, 1908 to March, 1909) arising out of a review 
of some of the earlier volumes of The Catholic 
Encyclopedia. 

The historical facts summarized in this article are given in an 
extended form in a paper contributed by the present writer to 
The Month (Sept. 1911). See also "The Tablet" (14 Sept., 1901), 
402, and Snead-Cox, Life of Cardinal Vaughan, cited above. 

Herbert Thurston. 

Roman Catholic Relief Bill.— In England. — 
With the accei-.sion of (^ueen Ehzabeth (1558) com- 
menced the series of legislative enactments, commonly 
known as the Penal Laws, under which the profession 
and practice of the Catholic religion were subjected to 
severe penalties and disabilities. By laws passed 
in the reign of Elizabeth herself, any English sub- 
ject receiving Holy Orders of the Church of Rome 
and coming to England was guilty of high treason, 
and any one who aided or sheltered him was guilty 
of capital felony. It was likewise made treason to 
be reconciled to the Church of Rome, and to procure 
others to be reconciled. Papists were totally dis- 
abled from giving their children any education in 
their own religion. Should they educate them at 
horne under a schoolmaster who did not attend the 
parish church, and was not licenced by the bishop of 
the diocese, the parents were liable to forfeit ten 
pounds a month, and the schoolmaster himself 
forty shillings a day. Should the children be sent 
to Catholic seminaries beyond the seas, their parents 
were liable to forfeit one hundred pounds, and the 
children themselves were disabled from inheriting, 
purchasing, or enjoying any species of property. 
Saying Mass was punished by a forfeiture of 200 
marks; hearing it by one of 100 marks. The statutes 
of recusancy punished nonconformity with the Es- 
tablished Church by a fine of twenty pounds per 
lunar month during which the parish church was not 
attended, there being thirteen of such months in the 
year. Such non-attendances constituted recusancy 
in the proper sense of the term, and originally af- 
fected all, whether Catholics, or others, who did not 
conform. In 1593 by 35 Eliz. c. 2, the consequences 
of such non-conformity were limited to Popish re- 
cusants. A Papist, convicted of absenting himself 
from church, became a Popish recusant convict, 
and besides the monthly fine of twenty pounds, was 
disabled from holding any oflfice or employment, 
from keeping arms in his house, from maintaining 
actions or suits at law or in equity, from being an 
executor or a guardian, from presenting to an advow- 



ROMAN 



124 



ROMAN 



son, from practising the law or physic, and from 
holding office civil or military. He was likewise 
subject to the penalties attaching to excommunication, 
was not permitted to travel five miles from his house 
without licence, under pain of forfeiting all his goods, 
and might not come to Court under a penalty of 
one hundred pounds. Other provisions extended 
similar penalties to married women. Popish re- 
cusants con^•ict were, within three months of con- 
viction, either to submit and renounce their papistry, 
or, if required by four justices, to abjure the realm. 
If they did not "depart, or returned without licence, 
thev were guilty of a capital felony. At the outset 
of Elizabeth's reign, an oath of supremacy containing 
a denial of the pope's spiritual jurisdiction, which 
therefore could not be taken by Catholics, was im- 
posed on all officials, civil and ecclesiastical. The 
"Oath of allegiance and obedience" enacted under 
James I, in 1605, in consequence of the excitement 
of the Gunpowder Plot, confirmed the same. By the 
Corporation Act of 16G1, no one could legally be 
elected to any municipal office unless he had within 
the vear received the Sacrament according to the 
rite of the Church of England, and likewise, taken the 
Oath of Supremacy. The first provision excluded all 
non-conformists; the second Catholics only. The 
Test Act (1672) imposed on all officers, civil and 
mihtarj', a "Declaration against Transubstantia- 
tion", whereby Catholics were debarred from such 
emploj-ment. "in 1677 it was enacted that all mem- 
bers of either House of Parliament should, before 
taking their seats, make a "Declaration against 
Popery", denouncing Transubstantiation, the Mass 
and the invocation of saints, as idolatrous. 

With the Resolution of 1688 came a new crop of 
penal laws, less atrocious in character than those of 
previous times, but on that very account more likely 
to be enforced, and so to become effective, the 
sanguinary' penalties of the sixteenth century, having 
in great measure defeated their own end, and being 
now generally left on the statute book in terrorem. 
In 1689 (1 William and Mary, i, c. 9) a shorter form 
of the Oath of Allegiance and Supremacy was sub- 
stituted, the clause aimed against Catholics being 
carefully r